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Htttofmtg of Nortlj (Eatolttia 

(Eollsrtt0« of Nortfy (EarolUtUma 



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Old Series Vo!. XVII. 
New Series V>1. V. 

OCTOBER, 1885. 

No. 1 



Our Saxton ancestors belonged to 
the Teutonic branch of the Aryan 
family of nations. Two thousand 
years ago they wandered naked but 
unconquered amid the wilds of Ger- 
many. They never yielded to the 
power of imperious Rome. Other 
lands had felt the power of the 
" Eternal City." They had had their 
Generals dragged in triumph at the 
chariot wheels of victorious Roman 
commanders. The wish of Casar 
was the law of a hundred conquered 
provinces. Roman officers tramped 
the streets of subjugated cities from 
the Lybian desert on the South to 
the frozen coasts of Samatia and 
Caledonia on the North. But the 
Teuton was free, emphatically free. 
The eagles of Rome quailed and 
fled before the arms of Arminius 
when Varus was slain, and never 
since that memorable day has a Latin 
race been victorious in arms over 
the Teuton. 

Tacitus, in writing of the Ger- 
mans, speaks in the highest terms of 
their love of courage, liberty and 

virtue. To be a. great warrior and 
die in the front of battle was the 
noblest end granted by the gods to 
man. Cowards were thrown into a 
marsh and covered with hurdles. 
Thus they hid from mortal eyes such 
men as were too base to live and too 
ignoble to meet a soldier's fate. 

Woman occupied a higher position 
among them than among the Greeks 
and Romans. It is here worthy of 
note that while Southern nations 
have always tended to disregard the 
rights of woman and make her a 
slave, the Northern ones have ele- 
vated her and have made her an 
equal and in many respects a super- 
ior to man. There seems to be a 
kind of inherent respect for her. 
She is beloved for her better quali- 
ties, for her influence on man, her 
power to soften his harshness, to 
polish his rudeness, to refine, to ele- 
vate him. Among the Germans a 
man was contented with a single 
wife. This was something rare 
among savage tribes. The chiefs 
had the liberty of taking more than 


one wife. This was for the sake of 
policy ; but the privilege was sel- 
dom used. History gives not a single 
example where a polygamous people 
became great and ranked high in 
the list of nations. As a general 
rule the woman possessed the same 
fiery spirit as her husband and on 
some occasions renewed broken lines 
of battle by exposing her bosom to 
the darts of the enemy, thus arous- 
ing and reanimating the sinking 
spirits of her countrymen. 

Climate influences religion. Be- 
sides this, .Roman civilization tended 
to corrupt the simple German wor- 
ship, and to find it in its pure, un- 
sullied state, wrapt in a halo of an- 
tiquity, we must turn to the Norse 
cultus of the Scandinavian peninsu- 
la and of Iceland. 

The sacred books of the Norse 
religion were the Eddas, two in num- 
ber. The elder Edda is written in 
poetry and dates back to the close of 
the eleventh century. This book is 
the source of all the mythological 
stories of the North. We find in it 
characters bearing striking resem- 
blances to the Fates of Greece. Here 
we find, as in the Iliad and Odyssey 
fabulous tales of the prowess of he- 
roes. The existence of women who 
had power to raise and quell the 
elements at pleasure is admitted and 
Sir Walter Scott brings out the idea 
beautifully in the character of Noma 
of the Fitful Head in the Pirate. 
The religious rites of the Germans 

bore some resemblance to those of 
Koine. " They worshipped Tuisto 
and his son Manus," says Tacitus, 
" and thought them the founders of 
their race." "Some tribes worship- 
ped Isis, a goddess brought from be- 
yond the sea." Mars and Mercury 
were also objects of their adoration 
and to the latter human beings were 
sometimes offered in sacrifice. They 
built no costly temples and carved 
no images of their gods, " believing 
in and worshipping a being whom 
they see only with the eye of rever- 
ence," says Tacitus. Thus, there is 
exhibited even at this early period, 
the doctrine acknowledged by their 
descendants of the nineteenth cen- 
tury — that God is a spirit and those 
who worship him, must worship him 
in spirit and in truth. 

The great central idea of the 
Scandinavian belief was " The free 
struggle of soul against material ob- 
stacles, the freedom of the Divine 
will in its conflicts with the opposing 
forces of Nature." Their religion, 
like that of the Zend Aoesta was a 
system of dualism, an almost perpet- 
ual warfare between opposing forces 
of nature personified in the forms 
of men and women. The good on 
one side, the evil on the other. 

Their gods were not as numerous 
as those of the Greeks and Romans. 
Like theirs they were human and 
had the attributes of man, love, hate 
and lust, three of the most powerful 
agents on the world's stage of action . 


The gods were often waging war 
against evil spirits and genii. The 
giants fought against Thorand Odin 
as against Jupiter and Apollo. They 
did not, as we see, rest quietly in 
Asgard, the Scandinavian Olympus, 
and when not warring with the giants, 
they engaged in many adventures of 
fun and frolic. " They seem to be, 
says James Freeman Clarke, " the 
idealization of human will set ovor 
against the powers of nature." 

As the gods, so were the worship- 
pers. The Northmen were a nation 
of warriors. Preserving all the har- 
dihood of their Germanic forefath- 
ers who slew Varus and his Eoman 
legions, they launched forth and 
conquered as they advanced. The 
man's chief virtue was courage and 
the woman's greatest praise was chas- 
tity. To die in one's bed was a poor 
end for a warrior's life. Those who 
died thus tamely like a brute, were 
sent to a special region of torment. 
To escape this fate they would jump 
from a high cliff into the sea or 
plunge a sword into their bosom. 
The brave warrior who fell fighting 
for his country's cause and for her 
gods was received into Valhalla. 
Here he quaffed great draughts of 
wine from drinking horns and not, 
as is commonly claimed, from the 
dried skulls of enemies. In this we 
see the same revelry after death re- 
served for the finally faithful as is 
promised in such strong terms by 
the Koran to the believing followers 

of Mohammet. There is nothing 
spiritual in either. Both represent 
only the grossest sensuality. The 
Northmen had become Christians 
before they reached Soathern Eu- 
rope. What would have been the 
result if they had retained their or- 
iginal belief? 

Like the Jews, the Scandinavians 
had three principal feasts during the 
year. There was one on the longest 
night. It was called Yule and from 
it came the Saxon custom of cele- 
brating the Yule. They sacrificed 
fruits and animals at these feasts and 
we read that in later times human 
beings were offered in solemn sacri- 
fice to the gods of their race. This 
feast at Yule time was in honor of 
the sun, the god of day. It was 
celebrated with feasting and mirth. 
It was superceded under the Chris- 
tian regime by Christmas. This we 
celebrate with feasting and mirth in 
honor of the Son who died for the 

Odin, or Woden, is the chief god 
of the Norse cultus. He is called 
Choosing Father, because he takes 
for his sons those who fall in battle. 
They dwell with him in Valhalla, 
the warrior's heaven ; mead is their 
drink and boar's flesh is their food. 
Odin governs all things and is obeyed 
by all the other deuies, even Loki, 
the god of cunningand perfidity and 
the husband of a giantess from the 
region of darkness was subject to his 
will. The mighty Thor is his eldest 


son. Frigga,who foresess but never 
reveals the destiny of man, is his 
spouse. By his commands the gates 
of the infernal regions are guarded 
by a dog that never sleeps, the cous- 
in, perhaps, of the Grecian Cerberus. 
Odin is also called "Alfadir," All 
Father, as he is the creator of gods 
and men. He found Ask and Em- 
bla, the first man and woman, and 
from them sprung all the human 
race. This bears much resemblance 
to the Mosaic account of the crea- 
tion. In other places we find the 
Greek idea of the gods being the 
parents of the forces of nature fully 
bought out. 

At the end of time there was to 
be a great conflict between the gods 
and the giants. The whole universe 
was to be cousumed with fire. Then 
there was to spring up a new heaven 

and a new earth, and the daughter 
of the sun more beautiful than her 
mother was to occupy her place in 
the heavens. 

In their system we find but little 
that is spiritual, much that is fanci- 
ful, much that is sensual. This re- 
ligion rosa, flourished and fell. It, 
like its devotees, has gone to " that 
bourne from whence no traveler re- 
turns." Its mission has been ac- 
complished and that mission was to 
prepare the land of the Teuton for 
the Protestant Reformation which 
has taken for its guide the revealed 
word of Jehovah, has shaken the 
yoke of Roman Catholicism from 
the necks of trembling millions, and 
has raised its followers to a higher 
and nobler sphere of action, thus 
bringing them nearer and nearer to 
the perfection of God. 



BY M. M'G. SHIELDS, DI. REP., 1 885. 

Nineteen centuries ago, the great 
triumvir had carried the Roman 
eagle from the summit of the Cau- 
casus to the hills of Caledonia; 
over the Bosphorus and the Rhine, 
the Alps and the Pyrenees. But his 
ambitious schemes urged him on- 
ward until he had re-crossed the 
beautiful plains of Gallia, and halted 
on the bank of the rushing Rubicon. 
This streamlet was the boundary of 
his province. To cross would be a 
declaration of civil war. His pause 
was short, but decisive. He plunged 
into the foaming waters, and the 
whole course of Roman history was 

These turning points attract the 
attention of the students of history. 
How they signalize the Rubicons, 
the Senlacs, the Moscpws and the 
Gettysburgs ! How conspicuously 
they stand upon the page, marking 
the changes in the course of events ! 
Between this step of Caesar and 
one taken by our own country twen- 
ty years ago, there is a striking an- 
alogy. 'Twas not the civil strife 
that ran the Mason and Dixon's 
line. For many years the North 
and South had been two distinct 
peoples. Even before the thresholds 
of our land were darkened by the 
omens of civil war, before the grim 
demon of Discord reared its horrid 

head, gnashed loudly its iron fangs, 
and shook its crest of bristling bay- 
onets : 

" Before the cannon's awful breath 
Screamed the loud halloo' of death;" 

before the Bonnie Blue Flag con- 
fronted the Stars and Stripes; the 
war had long been raging. 

A deep and impassable gulf di- 
vided the North from the South, 
which the war did not create, but 
only emphasized. The different 
opinions respecting slavery and 
States' Rights in general had es- 
tranged their minds, and they watch- 
ed each other with the vigilance of 
hatred. Nothing but bones of the 
noble slain could bridge the awful 

The Rubicon of Sectionalism was 
crossed. But what was the cost of 
the passage ? Answer, Cold Harbor, 
Malvern Hill, Chancellorsville and 
Gettysburg! Answer, ye maimed 
and gallant heroes who marked the 
lowlands and mountains of Virginia 
with the blood of chivalry, and who 
bore aloft the Southern Bars with 
unquailing hearts to the baptism of 
blood that awaited it ! Answer, ye 
blackened ruins which mark the trail, 
of the " army that went down to the 
sea !" They changed the South into 
a Golgotha, strewn with skulls 
grinning at their own hideous plight. 


The gloomy days of reconstruction 
followed. While many of her noblest 
sons were denied the right of the 
ballot, this sacred privilege was be- 
stowed upon .the liberated African. 
Thus, a whole race was called at 
once without preparation to the full 
dignity of citizenship, made the dupe 
of designing politicians, and worked 
like parts of a passive political ma- 
chine. They were led to the polls 
like sheep to the shambles, ignor- 
antly and heedlessly hurling the 
thunderbolt of political power. This 
blind instrument, led on by rapa- 
cious carpet-baggers, like the deadly 
Upas stretched its poisonous arms 
from the Carolinas to Texas, and 
from Virginia to the Gulf, threaten- 
ening to blight and destroy our 
Southern land. Beneath its deadly 
shade civil liberty sickened, drooped 
and nearly died. 

There was at first a disposition to 
leave the hills and valleys where 
fratricidal strife had wrought its 
desolation, but a wiser, nobler pur- 
pose prevailed. The Southerner 
sprang from war to work,and bravely 
bent to toil, and has to-day become 
the granite pillar that supports the 
massive structure of Southern ad- 
vancement. She looks across un- 
trodden fields of industry, and wealth 
enormous greets her eye. Submitting 
to the inevitable decree of arms the 
old soldiers now live for their coun- 
try, and the wilderness blossoms as 
the rose. 

They have turned their attention 
to the development of our boundless 
resources, and the result has dis- 
tanced the wildest calculations. Go 
gaze at the Cotton Exposition at At- 
lanta, Louisville and New Orleans, 
and behold the Stars and Stripes 
waving in grandeur over the unex- 
ampled display of the' Old North 
State, and tell me what it means! 
When the nations of the world gather 
themselves in our Southern cities 
and view with wonder our varied 
products, it is not without a mean- 
ing. Truly have the fires of a North- 
ern Vandal swept o'er our land, but 
they have opened the fissures in the 
earth, and have shown us the valu- 
able metal embedded there. They 
have rent the veil that shrouds fu- 
turity, and brushed the mists from 
our clouded eyes. 

To-day the South is weaving her 
own cotton in sight of her own white 
fields, and slowly, but surely is she 
wooing the birds of the sea to her 
own harbors. The busy hum of re- 
volving wheels is never hushed, and 
ten thousand fabrics of industry and 
skill are daily issued from the many 
factories which hum and rattle in the 
crowded lanes of her populous cities. 
Ruffled mountains are tunneled and 
passed by enormous engines, dashing 
with the lightning's speed, their 
shrill echos heralding the triumphant 
progress of the Southern States ! 

War has not wholly wrecked us. 
No. The New South has arisen 


from the slumbering couch of inac 
tion, has shaken off the dreamy leth- 
argy cast upon her eyelids by the 
baneful hand of slavery, and catches 
with eager eyes the first glimpses of 
the dawn of that day whose meridian 
splendor is to eclipse the fondest 
dream of the patriot's fancy. 

She taxes her muscle, and the hum 
and clatter of a thousand engines 
greet the ear on every plain. She 
touches the talisman of the mind, 
and the grandest theories for pros- 
perity and happiness rush iuto exis- 
tence ! Behold, oh ye nations, while 
the land of Dixie unshackles the 
wheel of Progress, plumes the wing 
of Prosperity, and trims the lamp of 
Knowledge ! 

The old Confederates catch up 
the wild enthusiasm and from the 
smouldering ruins of Sherman's 
path, there spring homes where kings 
might love to dwell. The widow 
has dried her tears and the orphan 
ceased his moan. With the stalking 
and leering giant of Ignorance shorn 
of his locks, the guardian angel of 
Culture flaps her snowy pinions in 
exultation, and gladly guards the 
peaceful homes ot a happy people. 

We view with swelling hearts the 
march of Southern literature. Among 
the luminaries of the literary sky 
there shine with winning brilliancy 
the beloved names of Cooke, Cable, 
Augusta, Evans, Timrod, Fuller and 
Ryan. Their labors have woven a 
halo around their names which the 

storms of time will never darken, and 
whose brilliancy half reveals what 
is yet to come from Southern genius. 
The South, to-day, has ample 
cause for rejoicing. Southern prin- 
ciples, advocated by true, devoted, 
Southern hearts, have at last obtained 
a hearing. The Chief Magistrate, 
the Southern choice, has exploded 
the political maxim that "to the 
victors, belong the spoils." We look 
at the new-made Cabinet, and the 
familiar Southern faces of a Lamar 
and a Garland greet us with a hearty 
welcome ! We glance at the foreign 
ministers, and Jo! a Jarvis sails to 
the Brazillian Court ! How can we 
as Southern people fail to rejoice at 
the course events have taken? 

We hail the new era, as the first 
sweet smiles of the dawn whose glim- . 
mering fingers point to a destiuy un- 
paralleled in the history of nations. 
The tyranny of ignorance at the 
South is no longer feared. With all 
these advantages, where will South- 
ern progress pause ? The wings of 
imagination grow tired in their flight 
and fold themselves to rest. Well 
may her bards tune their lyres, and 
with quickened fancy strive to paint 
her destiny. 

All hail to the South, as in her 
majestic progress she holds the storm 
in straightened reins, and bids the 
whirlwinds wheel her rapid car ! On 
let her speed, till every hope is re- 
alized, and she becomes the match- 
less queen of the Western world ! 


The Rubicon is indeed crossed, 
and the Southern sky is cloudless. 
Sectional hatred is forever buried,, 
and over its grave waves the weep- 
ing willow, under whose shade 
Northern and Southern sons mingle 
tears of a common sorrow, and smoke 
the calumet of peace. 

Then onward, beloved land of our 
hearts and homes, thou Canaan gf 

America I What seer can prophesy 
thy future? Thy car is adorned 
with the immortelles of the victor- 
ies of peace. The shades of Southern) 
dead, bending froni above, hover 
with joy over the progress of their 
native Southern land. Then on- 
ward press, while wondering nations 
gaze, and men and angels bid thee 

{From the Guardsman.}) 


Reviewing marble's serried sank , 
I ponder most th' unlettered blanks, 
01 this meek lottery of feme-. 
Lost ! Battle-lost both life and name !• 
Fate's pen-Mots, veiled oblivion's sonsy 
Oh, how I love you, nameless ones I 
Te dead' enshrined in mystery, 
How sweet the &harm ye hold for n*e E 

I love you for the parents dear, 
The brothers, sisters> friends, who hear 
So more from treasured, sacred names, 
By battle-thunders, battle flames 
Erased. Saught read they when they stood 
Beside these stones, or where your blood 
Dyed yon tall grass. Yet in those hearts- 
Sour record Jives, nor e'er departs. 

While many sought and gained renown, 
Ye few fought but to be unknown. 
Some of you wore the blue, some gray ; 
But death's obliterating ray 
Hath bleached both blue and gray in whit© 
Moon-beamed eternity's cold light. 
But, o'er life's world-wide battle-gruimdt 
A million names are lost, offle found. 

And he who pens these humble limes 
Will nameless be, while glorious shines- 
Condensed, fame's diamond galaxy 
Of barda who were not born to die. 
Perhaps, in some small corner crammed., 
To fill some column tightly jammed 
By big bugs-, some stray waif of mine 
In books anonymous may shine. 

Edward Payson Ham* 
Mt. Teraon, Oct. 8th, 1885, 





It is said that history repeats it- 
self. Then, if we would learn les- 
sons of wisdom from the dead past, 
we must search true history, the 
mirror which reflects around us the 
light of experience of other days. 
That general history is a surpassing- 
ly important branch of study, is 
commonly admitted. No study 
tends more to develop a refined and 
cultured taste. 

While this may be said of history 
in general, it may be justly affirmed 
of national history that it has a pe- 
culiar effect upon the life and char- 
acter of a people. Yet is it not true 
that the history of our country, tho' 
*o worthy to be studied and cherish- 
ed, is sadly neglected? It does seem 
that the pride that we ought to have 
in the greatness of our country's past 
would inculcate a more lively inter- 
est in our national history. Why 
does it not ? It is because so many 
teachers are never tired of prating 
about the history of Greece and 
Rome and England, but foil to in- 
spire us with a love for the history 
of the Union of our fathers. 

Another reason why national his- 
tory is slighted, is because historians 
fail to write impartial national his- 
tories. Mr. Blaine wrote a book en- 
titled " Twenty Years of Congress," 
and the newspapers at once began 

to state that Mr. " Sunset " Cox, of 
New York, would soon have out a 
book upon the same subject, showing 
the other side. Has it come to this, 
that we must have a history of each 
side, two histories entirely different, 
when there is but one side to true 
history? Mr. Blaine's book and 
Mr. Cox's book ought to tell the 
story of our whole people with im- 
partial fidelity and not delude their 
readers by partisan records and com- 

Another difficulty is suggested by 
the questions : Should a teacher pre- 
sent and inculcate his own ideas 
only? And is he apt to be truly 
fair and faithful in his views? The 
answer is simply this: There is 
ground enough on which all reason- 
able minds can agree, and therefore 
we should not fight on the little 
disputed territory in the field of 
American history. In examining 
our national history why not ex- 
claim : " JSTo matter whether we are 
Democrats or Republicans ; for it is 
enough that we all are Americans." 
Party organization prevents a broad 
and liberal view of our nation's his- 
tory. This is seen when the reader 
of history assumes that the Demo- 
cratic party of to-day corresponds to 
the Democratic party of before- the- 
war, and to the Republican party of 



Jefferson's time ; and that the Re- 
publican party of to-day corresponds 
to the Whig party of before-the-war 
and to the Federalist party of Ham- 
ilton's time. Why not be content 
to draw our politics from our na- 
tional history instead of mutilating 
the truth by infusing our politics 
into our national history. 

There is nothing that tends mote 
to awaken and keep up a love for 
one's own country than a knowledge 
of its history. Can we blame the 
Irish for loving with heroic devotion 
their half-barren isle, when we know 
that they have not yet forgotten that 
Grattan andO'Connell loved it too? 
Before the people of Poland shall 
cease to love the dismembered land 
of their nativity, they must forget 
how Kosciusko fell. The English 
nation will be powerful as long as it 
remembers those British heroes that 
have so long been the pride of Eng- 
land and the admiration of the 
world. The sons of the American 
Union can never grow degenerate 
and sink into servility and disgrace, 
until the war of the Revolution shall 
become a half-forgotten dream. Our 
law-makers in Congress can never 
become indifferent to the interests oi 
the people while they listen to the 
distinct voice that history sends back 
from the past to the Nation's Capi- 
tol, that those very halls were once 
the seat of purity, of learning, and 
of greatness. If a true man knows 
the history of his State and country, 

it will produce warm emotions of 
love and pride that will cause him 
to pledge that for his part, his coun - 
try shall never decline in power and 
virtue. He will vow that the nation- 
al honor bequeathed by the father, 
shall only grow brighter while in the 
keeping of the son. 

The untutored may love a land 
on account of its rugged mountains, 
its placid lakes and its spreading 
vales and forests. Educated men 
love a country because of its grand 
past ; because it has produced true 
manhood, and from association they 
love the natural scenery. Why is it 
that the learned of America love the 
blue waters of the Potomac ? Does 
its current sweep on with more maj- 
esty than that of other rivers ? No, 
but the home of Washington is on 
its banks ! That shows the need to 
know the nation's history. When 
the knowledge of our glorious past 
is disseminated among our people, it 
will stop the need for the continued 
cry that patriotism is on the decline. 

Why is it that some of our people 
think that North Carolina is behind 
all the other States ? Simply be- 
cause they are ignorant of North 
Carolina's past ; they really do not 
know the history of their homes ;. they 
do not know that their own State 
has ever been the birth-place of gen- 
ius, talent and culture. They show 
their need of a better knowledge ef 
our State history, which is only a 
part of our national history. It is 


argued that too much atteution to 
state and national history makes one 
narrow-minded. You may call the 
feeling thereby engendered national 
prejudice, sectionalism or state pride, 
or whatever else you will, but it is 
the same spirit that made Webster 
love the hill-tops of Massachusetts, 
that made Clay love the blue-grass 
of Kentucky and Calhoun the rice 
fields of South Carolina. 

It is natural for men to pay hom- 
age to the noble dead. Hero wor- 
ship is common with all nations. As 
there is a tendency to admiie those 
we know most about, we pay our 
tributes of honor to the dead heroes 
of other lauds. Why is that we 
never weary of admiring Miltiades, 
Hannibal, Caesar, Alfred the Great, 
Demosthenes and Napoleon ? It is 
because we do not know the history 
of America's great and good sons; 
else we should lavish some of our 
devotion upon them. 

Of late years history has begun to 
take on a new and delightful form. 
It now begins to tell of the real acts 
and characteristics of the people. It 
ceases to deal so much with great 
men and rulers; it ceases to keep 
step with the tramp of armies, and 
strives to give the true story of the 
worthy sons and daughters of the 
land in common experience. It be- 
gins now to show what woman's 
hand has done in all that has ele- 

vated the nation in its upward and 
onward march. 

Strange to say historians are gross- 
ly neglected, when no men more de- 
serve the encouragement and support 
of the public. They generally have 
to combat poverty and neglect, while 
nearly all other classes of citizens 
receive honor and praise. The true 
historian is as much entitled to honor 
and praise as the Statesman who se- 
cures the reduction of the tariff, or 
the Soldier who resists the enemies 
of his country. 

Gleanings from the past show us 
that the nations that fail to record 
their history have steadily declined 
in national greatness. England is 
one that has recorded her past, and 
has studied it ; and she has steadily 
risen in national glory. Without a 
knowledge of national history a 
country loses its nationality, loses its 
pride and finally loses its power. 
Then if national history helps to 
mould the character, the feelings, 
the honor and the nationality of a 
country; if it awakens . patriotism 
and sejf-sacrifiee, making us love our 
country, our State and our homes 
better, then let it henceforth be more 
taught and more studied. Surely 
we ought to love our own land, for, 
" No other clime has skies so blue, 

Or streams so broad and clear ; 
Nor are there hearts more warm 'and true 

Than those that meet us here." 

U. N. C, June 4th, 1885. 





Instituted and established for ben- 
eficial purposes, the law has fallen 
far short of its glorious destiny. In 
its ways and actions it is slow and 
tedious. Its delay is not only prover- 
bial, but, at times, unbearable. In its j 
right and true sense, the law is the great 
defender of liberties and protector 
of interests. Among lawyers have 
always been found high-minded men, 
who have been the first to stay the 
hand of wrong and contend with 
tyranny and despotism. But it is of 
the administering of the law, its 
workings, so to speak, that we com- 
plain. As to theory, the law is per- 
fection ; as to practice, far other- 
wise. Like all things of this mun- 
dane sphere, it is imperfect, defect- 
ive and partakes of the faults and 
frailties of the human. It does not 
succor the needy, help the weak, 
shield the innocent and raise up the 
poor, down-trodden and oppressed; 
but it often blinds its eyes to justice, 
imposes upon and oppresses the un- 
guarded and ignorant, aids the weal- 
thy and haughty and conspires and 
connives at guilt and crime. In some 
cases instead of being a blessing, a 
white-winged messenger of love and 
and truth that deals out justice, sim- 
ple justice, with an equal hand to all 
alike, it is a bane and a curse to so- 
ciety, becomes corrupted by evil in- 

fluences and leans to the side of op- 
pulence and station, at the expense 
of the weak and defenseless. 

" Plate sin in gold, 
And the strong lance of Justice hurtlesss 

breaks ; 
Arm it in rags, a pigmy's straw doth pierce 


The main object of the law is to 
prevent injury from being done, 
crime from being committed. To do 
this, punishment was instituted 
whereby the offender should be 
amended, others be deterred by his 
example and the offender be deprived 
of the power to do further mischief. 
The law pretends to do all this, but 
too often fails. It cannot reach all 
offenses in time enough to keep like 
crimes from being perpetrated. The 
villian has many outlets and means 
by which he can evade or put off 
the law's punishment. Perhaps he 
escapes it entirely j but if not, the 
! infliction of the penalty comes so far 
from the perpetration of the crime 
I that the moral effect is nearly all lost 
and the lesson by example does not 
near as much good as it would have 
done had justice been meted out im- 
partially when the crime was com- 
mitted. To keep dreadful crimes 
from being repeated, a prompt and 
immediate penalty should be in- 
flicted. Society and every good and 
just instinct call for a speedy pun- 

ishment, " short, sharp and decisive 
for such deeds, so that those who 
have the intention of committing 
such crimes may tremble in their 
shoes and turn to better paths, paths 
that lead away from cruelty and sin 
up to mercy and God. The law sel- 
dom brings this necessary punish- 
ment in its proper time. 

To what does the law's delay lead? 
To the numerous cases of lynching 
that we read of so often in the daily 
papers. Generally the law with ail 
its intricies and incumbrances is fol- 
lowed, though in a grumbling man- 
ner. No outrage on it, no taking of 
it into private hands, is countenanced 
except under peculiarly exasperating 
circumstances. On such occasions 
particularly terrible, citizens violate 
the law of the land and palliate, ex- 
cuse, yea, justify their action because 
of the law's delay. In order, then, 
for society to be maintained and per- 
son and property better secured, the 
citizens are driven by necessity, on 
account of the law's delay, to meet 
in a bodv and execute a criminal at 
once, without the much boasted of 
"due process of law." In this way 
would-be criminals are deterred from 
the most heinous crimes. This is 
what the slow and rickety machinery 
of the law rarely accomplishes. There 
have been many mean men who 
would have committed certain crimes 
if they had not feared the speedy 
vengeance of some enraged brother, 
outraged husband or excited com- 

munity. This summary action has 
checked many who would otherwise 
have been perpetrators of hideous 
crimes. To them the punishment of 
the law has no terrors. It is in an 
easy matter comparatively for them 
to get out of the meshes of the law, 
which they laughingly and truly say 
catches only poor men and fools. 
They know well that there is great 
probability of their escaping the just 
punishment for their offences if tried 
by the slow, Jarndyce-and-Jarndyce 
process of a judge and an ignorant 
jury, with wool-pulling lawyers chat- 
tering around, but that old Judge 
Lynch's penalty for such crimes is 
immediately given and promptly 
executed. We do not contend that 
Lynch law is justifiable under all 
circumstances ; neither do we ap- 
prove of every case of lynching that 
we read or hear of. But we do as- 
sert that these unlawful proceed ino-s 
and this unhealthy state of public 
sentiment are due in a great measure 
to the way iu Avhich the law is ad- 

It is contended that an innocent 
man often suffers by Lynch law. This 
can also be said concerning 1 the reo-u- 
Jar courts ; and fewer men in pro- 
portion among those who have been 
lynched were innocent than among 
those who were tried by the " due 
process of law." 

The law's delay is well enough in 
some instances, in order to cool over- 
heated natures and give time for rea- 



son and reflection to gain sway. But 
immediate punishment is demanded 
for some crimes, if wives, daughters 
and children are to live securely and 
contentedly at home, free from all 
fear and alarm. Driven by the de- 
sire to keep their families from dan- 
ger and calamity, citizens bring swift 
retribution upon villians. A certain, 
a prompt remedy, the law does not 
give.- Lynch law is the only avail- 
able corrective agency, and it warns 
and urges the courts, in no unsolemn 
tones, to do their duties more faith- 
fully. Society requires this. Upon 
this depends its preservation. If the 
courts do not grant it, the people as- 

sembled must do the work and — 
they will ! Nothing but can Heaven 
can prevent them. These dangerous 
elements slumber in every person's 
bosom. They should by all means 
be checked and restrained. But suf- 
fering and wrong for which there is 
no prompt remedy, lashes the easiest 
nature into fury, and by being con- 
tinually injured or insulted, it is 
driven to deeds of violence and 
blood. There is this wild sense of 
justice even in all breasts which often 
carries retribution to vengeance — a 
sense of justice implanted from on 




Philanthropic and Dialectic Literary Societies 


Di. Phi. 

J. F. Shence:. James Thomas. 

G. B. Patterson. V. W. Long. 
W. A. Self. St. Clair Hester. 


Oue copy one year $1.00 

Onecopy six months 75 

Five copies one year 4.00 

Business men will find the columns of the 
Magazine a good advertising medium, as 
it circulates widely and effectively. Apply 
for rates. 

Address, W. A. SELF, 

Business Manager, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Chapel Hill, N . C, Oct., 1885. 


and subscriptions) of every alumnus 
of the University and every North 
Carolinian who is interested in the 
success of literary journalism. 


With this issue we start upon Vol. 
V of the new series and Vol. XVIII 
©f the old. 

The new corps of editors in the 
initial number desire to assure all 
readers that earnest effort and de- 
termined perseverance will not be 
'wanting to make this Magazine 
a success. 

Several new features will be in- 
troduced during the year that will 
add much to its attractiveness and 

We ask the hearty co-operation 
and support (in both contributions 

We are very sorry The Maga- 
zine has been so tardy iu appearing. 
The reason is this: — after we had 
sent off all the copy we decided to 
change our printers and hence were 
compelled to recall the copy and 
send it elsewhere. 

Of course the new printers were 
under the necessity ©f setting up the 
whole Magazine, advertisements 
included, and could not issue it as 
quickly as those who had been ac- 
customed to print it. 

Hereafter we intend, above all 
things, to be prompt. 


Now that the Gymnasium is al- 
most ready for use we would like to 
call the attention of the faculty and 
the trustees to the want of proper 
direction in our exercise. 

AH gymnasiums in institutions 
similar to ours, have teachers of 
gymnastics who understand just the 
kind of exercise each man needs. 

We have all the apparatus neces- 
sary for fine physical training and 
we now need a competent director. 

Consider the matter, gentlemen, 
and provide us with such a person . 



Our boys seem to be using the 
Gymnasium too much in the start. 
Every evening, the hall is crowded. 
Some are swinging, some practicing 
with Indian clubs and all displaying 
powers of physical endurance that 
would, if applied in another direc- 
tion, make wonderful changes in 
cord wood or alter the whole aspect 
of the family potato patch. But, 
seriously, the enthusiasm in exercise 
seems too good too last. We are 
afraid that after a few evenings hard 
and violent work, a few sore muscles 
and possibly a bruise or two that the 
enthusiasm will wane and only a 
few will take advantage of the bene- 
fits to be derived from moderate ex- 

Too violent or too prolonged ex- 
ercise at first is not only disadvan- 
tageous but is a positive injury. 

What we want to see is a regular, 
systematic pursuance of exercise and 
not the excessive labor which our 
boys are at present performing. 

ham, of The Western Sentinel. By 
the way, it is a matter of interest to 
note that the Sentinel Engraving 
Bureau is the only enterprise of the 
kind in the State. Mr. Oldham has 
on hand engravings of nearly all 
prominent Carolinians and can fur- 
nish any kind of an engraving at a 
more moderate price than many of 
similar establishments at the North. 


We publish this month an en- 
graving of Hon. Jas. W. Reid, our 
orator of the Commencement of 
1885. It would have been our pleas- 
ure to publish his address also, but 
the article is too lengthy for our 

The use of the engraving was 
kindly loaned us by Mr. E. A. Old- 


We heard last year that the ladies 
of some of our professors were going 
to institute a new feature in our vil- 
lage society in the way of monthly 
receptions, where the young men of 
the University could meet the ladies 
of the village and add the polish of 
society to the erudition gotten by an 
unsparing consumption of the " mid- 
night oil." Was it all a dream, or 
was there something of truth about 

This lack of social culture is one 
of the serious drawbacks to our stud- 
ent life and something of the kind 
proposed would be of great benefit. 

Will not some of our ladies start 
the ffood work ? 

Messrs. F. D. Johnson & Son, 
whose new advertisement appears in 
this issue, deserve our patronage. 
They are the leading jewelers of the 
South, unsurpassed in workmanship 
and then they are patronizing our 
Magazine. Send for a catalogue. 


E 9 


We wish to speak just one word 
to you, whether you are an alumnus 
of fifty years standing or are at the 
age of cigarettes and sophraoric 

We wish you to aid this Maga- 
zine. If you are an alumnus, then 
write us up a few of your college 
reminiscences, telling how the boys 
lived, laughed and studied in ante- 
bellum times. It will be interesting. 

If you are younger and have some 
subject in which you are interested, 
some legend of interest or even a 
college joke, put it on paper and 
hand it to our Business Manager. 

Now, don't think we mean some- 
body else, because we are talking to 

you, individually, and we wish you 
to pause, think and then sharpen 
your pencil and write ! 

Some of our subscribers complain 
that they do not get their Magazine 

We get out nine issues per year 
(there being nine months in the col- 
legiate year) and all subscribers ought 
to get The Magazine from Octo- 
ber (we never get out a September 
number) to June, inclusive. 

If all subscribers will promptly 
notify us of any failure to get these 
copies we will try to rectify the mis - 
take. The June number was mailed 
to every subscriber. 



College Record. 

Students came in alarmingly slow 
at the first of the term, but they have 
continued to come until one hundred 
and eighty-eight are enrolled. This 
is by no means a discouraging num- 
ber, when we consider the fact that 
there is no preparatory department 
connected with the University as 
there are at other institutions in the 

This year is the beginning of a 
grand boom for the University in 
the- future. 

After a few very unjust and petty 
prejudices, springing from jealously 
and born of ignorance or malice, 
have of their own flimsiness died 
out, the public will be unanimous in 
proclaiming this a University in 
truth as well as in name. 

Six new professors have been 
added to the Faculty. Each has 
thus far proven himself proficient 
in his department. 

Various attacks have been made 
upon the University by men who 
pretended to be its friends. We hope 
the public Avill recognize the nature 
of their friendship as well as we do. 
We take pleasure in stating that 
the University, in spite of all oppo- 
sition, has her average number of 
students ; is in a thriving condition, 
and what is most gratifying is pre- 
pared for a grander work in the fu- 

ture. We who are here under its 
influences and subject to its work- 
ings and observant of the various 
changes that are taking place, claim 
that we are more capable of judging 
than those who stand aloof and scan 
the University with a malicious and 
critical eye, judge of things they do 
not understand and make statements 
about things coneerning which they 
know comparatively nothing. We 
assure the readers of the Magazine 
and the public in general that noth- 
ing extraordinary has been done at 
the University except that those, 
under whose control she is, have de- 
termined to lift her to a higher level, 
a station to which she should have 
been elevated years ago. If this kind 
of step is worthy of your condemna- 
tion, then your condemnation is un- 
worthy of notice. 

* * 

The first fun of the season was a 
stag dance given by the Freshmen, 
the second Saturday night after the 
session opened. Sophs, Juniors and 
Seniors attended and participated. 

The Merritt and Weaver colored 
string band furnished us with splen- 
did music. The ball room was well 
lighted and the floor was unusually 

It was an ordinary occurrence of 
the night to see some awkward 
couple in the German measure their 
full length on the floor. This ren- 
dered the dance moie amusing than 
pleasant. The place recalled to our 



memories a few nights of last June 
when all the beauties of nature were 
combined to make the hours pleas- 
ant ; and this remembrance rendered 
the stag comparatively insignificant 
We find that young men of refined 
taste and lively dispositions enjoy 
dancing even with a crowd of rude 
boys and to ordinary music. 

How can we expect any one to 
refrain when the fair daughters of 
our State make glad our ball room 
with their smiles and purify its as- 
sociations with their presence and 
when the harmony of the music 
from Kessuick's band fills the air 
and puts our very soul in mption ? 
How can you expect his feet not to 
respond to his feelings ? 

campus — once a portion of a strip of 
land almost destitute of a soil — has 
been converted into the shadiest and 
most charming spot in North Car- 


The barren places in the campus 
have been plowed and sowed in 
grass. By next Commencement the 
campus will be completely covered 
with a thick carpet of blue grass 
and red top. 

Every exertion has been and is 
now being made to render this al- 
ready charming spot more attractive. 
The buildings have been re-colored 
on the outside and white-washed in- 
side. The roofs harve been painted 
and repaired, new walks have been 
laid off and old ones have been 
cleaned up. The base-ball ground 
has been plowed, scraped and lev- 
eled. It is a most extraordinary ex- 
ample of the great success and im- 
portance of cultivation, that this 

The students of both societies held 
a joint meeting in the Chapel and 
elected Mr. L. B. Grancly, of Ox- 
ford, N. C, from the Phi. Society, 
as Washiugton Birth-day orator. 


That man was in a peculiar state 
of mind who came home late at 
night, climbed half over the gate 
and fell the other half for fear, of 
making a noise opening it, and when 
he undressed covered his pants and 
coat snugly in the bed and hung 
himself over the back of the chair 
and there snoozed serenely till 

What spell was it that caused a 
certain young man (apply to personal 
Ed. for names) to attempt to wind 
his watch through its face, and in 
the effort, break off the hour hand 
and twist the minute hand around 
the pivot three times and so scratch 
up its beautiful gold face that he 
could not swear to its being his next 
morning ? 

It seems to be a law of human na- 
ture that the fruits of labor or ad- 
venture are sweeter in proportion to 
the degree of labor expended or risk 

Stimulated by this thought sever- 



al of our "cheeky" Freshmen, who 
had been just pining away to do 
something wicked, concluded that 
instead of buying peaches and apples 
they would add to the enjoyment of 
eating them the exquisite fun of 
stealing them from a neighboring 
orchard. Several hours after the 
wings of darkness had hovered over 
these little hills and most citizens lay 
wrapped in the arms of deep sleep, 
unsuspicious of orchard fiends, the 
Freshmen came and with noiseless 
tread passed into the orchard. Each 
had chosen for himself a tree. The 
devastation had fairly commenced, 
when — bang! bang! bang! went one 
j)istol report after another. 

Each spectator and participant 
had his own peculiar description of 
the scene. None of the Fresh had 
time to observe critically the situa- 
tion, but a kind of intuitive feeling 
suggested that it was critical and 
brought them tumbling simultan- 
eously from the trees like ripe fruit 
shaken oif by a severe wind. Each 
one, as Sam Jones says, " struck the 
ground a runnin'." Every coat-tail 
straightened parallel with the hori- 
zon. Some were so frantic in their 
scare that they lost their hats. Fright- 
ened and almost exhausted some 
rushed into their rooms declaring 
that they were all that were left to 
tell the tale. Now, what were these 
Freshmen frightened over? Why 
this falling over fences, running 
through brush heaps and tumbling 

in gulleys and losing of hats and 
tearing of apparel? They were mak- 
ing fools of themselves for the en- 
tertainment oi two or three Sopho- 
mores who had anticipated their ex- 
cursion, had secreted themselves in 
the orchard before they came and 
had only given them a welcoming 
salute by discharging their weapons 
straight up into" the air. 

Too often boys make one great 
mistake when they enter college. 
They believe if they can lead in 
some daring adventure and be con- 
sidered the most outrageous in the 
whole crowd, they have gained a 
stronghold in the admiration and 
respect of old students. They are 
generally badly mistaken, for just 
such "cheeky" characters as these 
are the ones that get blacked, and 
are " sat down upon " in various 
and sundry ways. 

The fact that a Freshman is oc- 
casionally blacked at the University 
has been made a great bugaboo by 
some people and we believe that the 
dread of passing through this ordeal 
of hazing has prevented many timid 
young men from coming here. 

The practice of hazing has for 
the last two years been greatly sup- 
pressed by severity on the part of 
the Faculty and by the co-operation 
of the Literary Societies. It was 
impossible to crush the practice en- 
tirely * in one or even two years. 
Everyone knows it is impossible to 



completely remove a practice which 
has flourished so long and furnished 
so much amusement to the students 
of the past. 

The public mind can now rest 
easy on the question of having at the 
University. It is a thing of the past 
Not only have the Faculty openly 
declared their intention to break it 
up, but have openly expressed their 
determination by expelling two 
young gentlemen for engaging in it. 
We would say in honor of these two 
gentlemen that they were two of the 
most promising and brilliant mem- 
bers of the Soph class. 

The public opinion of the students 
is stongly in sympathy with the Fac- 
ulty movement. 

Hazing has for the last two years 
been confined to a portion of the 
members of the Soph class ; now it 
finds a home in no organized body 
of boys and the closing remarks of a 
lecture from Dr. Battle a few morn- 
ings since on the practice of hazing 
will be an effectual check on any in- 
dividuals whose propensities lie in 
this direction. They were in sub- 
stance as follows : " The Faculty 
will hereafter have up before it and 
deal severely with a"ny student who 
shall treat a Freshman with less re- 
spect than he would like to be treated 
with." An enforcement of this 
" Golden Rule " on the part of the 
Faculty and its adoption by the 
students as a body will put an ever- 
lasting end to hazing. 

A long felt necessity to the Uni- 
versity has been supplied by the ad- 
dition of a reading room. It is 
situated in the west end of the Uni- 
versity Library building. It is 
opened every evening, except on 
Sunday. We owe to Professor 
Winston many thanks for his efforts 
and management in getting up this 
valuable department. 

The apparatus for the gymnasium 
have arrived and been put up iu the 
gymnasium building. 

A moveable floor has been laid over 
the ball floor to protect it from abuse. 

We need not longer be dyspeptics 
and nurse head-aches on account of 
our lack of exercise. 

A race course has been laid off 
between the gymnasium building 
and the memorial hall. The course 
describes an Ellipse, and its distance 
around is one-tenth of a mile. Everv 
inducement is now offered to stud- 
ents to cultivate their body as well 
as their mind. 

A meeting was held in the chapel 
and a gymnasium association was 
organized with Ernest P. Mangum 
as President. The association elec- 
ted ten wardens, whose office it is to 
have general supervision over the 
gymnasium. The following were 
elected :— S. B. Weeks, J. M. More- 
head, Robert G. Grissom, H. W. 
Jackson, J. W. Atkinson, L. M. 
Bourne, J. L. Patrick, P. B. Mann- 
ing, Hayne Davis and H. W. Rice. 



On Saturday night the 12th we 
were highly entertained by a lecture 
kindly delivered for our instruction 
and enjoyment by Dr. Shepherd, the 
President of Charleston College, S. 
C. He lectured on the comparative 
and united progress of English Lit- 
erature and History. It need not 
be asserted of a man, who is widely 
known, as Dr. Shepherd, that he 
both taught us and delighted us. 

* * 

The Senior Class of '86 has organ- 
ized. Mr. Frank Dixon of Shelby 
was elected President. Mr. W. H. 
Carroll of Magnolia was elected 
Vice President. Mr. H. W. Rice, 
Richmond, Va., was elected Treas- 

The following officers were elected 
to perform on Senior Class day : — 
Orator, S. S. Jackson, Pittsboro; 
Poet, W. A. Self, Newton j Histor- 
ian, S. B. Weeks, Elizabeth City ; 
Prophet, J. F. Schenck, Cleveland 
Mills ; Marshal, L. J. Battle, Raleigh. 

The following resolution was un- 
animously adopted by the Senior 
Class : — 

Whereas, The custom of hazing has be- 
come detrimental to the University ; there- 
fore, he it 

Resolved, That we the Senior Class use 
our influence against said practice. 

A feeble attempt was made to 
adopt a class hat, but as there was 
such a diversity of opinion as to the 
style it should be, they concluded to 
rely upon their dignified bearing to 
distinguish them from other classes. 

The last meeting of the Mitchell 
Scientific Society was one of great 
interest to those who attended. 
Three honorary members were elec- 
ted : — Dr. Chapman, who is a great 
Southern Botanist. 

Dr. Mallet, Professor of Chemis- 
try at the University of Virginia. 

Dr. Boltan, who is a nephew of 
Dr. Mitchell, and is now Professor 
of Chemistry at Hartford, Conn. 

Resolutions, in regard to the death 
of Dr. Kerr were read, and the 
Society rose in respect to him. 

Dr. Battle related some very in- 
teresting incidents of Dr. Kerr's 
life, and spoke of him as a man and 
scholar in the very high terms 
which he so richly deserves. He 
stated that the Dialectic Society 
adopted Dr. Kerr before the war, 
when he was unable to bear his own 
expenses, and the Society gave him 
free tuition ; and after the war, Dr. 
Kerr not unmindful of the kindness 
of the University, when she was in 
need of means for repairing her 
buildings contributed $500, although 
he was at that time drawing a very 
small salary. Thus he gave more in 
proportion to his means than any who 
came to the aid of their Alma Mater. 

In the next issue of the Scientific 
Journal will appear a biographical 
sketch of Dr. Kerr and Dr. Van 

Papers containing notes of Scien- 
tific interest and value were read by 



Professor Gore submitted a report 
In regard to the exact latitude of 
this place. Also some interesting 
facts about Electric railroads. 

Professor Venable gave the results 
of an analysis of the water from the 
Artesian well in Durham, and made 
a report on new explosions, and new 
facts about old ones. 

Professor Holmes gave us a com- 
piled and abreviated report of the 
results of his and Dr. Kerr's inves- 
tigations of the recent changes of the 
physical condition of Eastern North 
Carolina; and gave us some very 
curious incidents and theories about 
the longevity of frogs. 

* * 


But yesterday I surveyed him well, 
A meekness in his deep gray eyes did dwell; 
A gentle iunocence did round him play, 
His cheeks did yield to modest blushes sway. 

His walk was graceful and his movement fast, 

He let no hour unemployed go past ; 

His moral bearing too calls forth praise from 

Obedient ever to the prayer bell's call. 

One day ago his round cherubic face 

Gave token that he'd never known disgrace, 

Or if he had that rule is insecure, 

Which by looks judges if the heart be pure. 

Thought I, sooner would the rose be foul, 
The nightingale sing like the owl, 
The swan adorn his wings with mud, 
The fig-tree full with thistles bud, 
Than that this model man would do 
A thing 'twould prove his looks untrue. 

This morning, vacant was his seat, 
" Not in chapel nor on the street ? 
Where is W — ? where can he be?" 
Was asked by many curiously. 

They found him sitting in his room, 

Bearing manfully his doom. 

I saw his noble brow cast down, 

On that bright face I saw a frown, 

A frown of agony was there- 

From feeling of remorse, despair, 

A conscience hurt, an ankle sprained, 

A good ''Rep" last a bad "Rep" gained. 

" What ctuel fate, if fates there be 
Hath heaped this injury on thee?" 
" I blush to tell the tale," quoth he, 
"For all the blame doth lie in me." 
Ask of that little imp of evil, 
That little grand-son of the devil, 
That whispered in my ear the thought, 
" Peaches stolen, are better than bought..' 
Ask of the tree, the high peach tree, 
Whose luscious fruit so tempted me. 
Ask of the pistol glittering bright, 
And silvery hi the clear star light ; 
That changed my joy into fright, 
And made me leap from that great height. 
Ask of the boy, the wicked boy, 
Who o'er my fright received much joy. 
And will, no doubt, this joke employ, 
My reputation to destroy. 
Ask of the ground — hard stony ground, 
Where my impression can be found. 
Various marks do there abound, 
Where I scrambled round and round. 
These will tell you better than I, 
How, and when, and where and why, 
I was so afflicted by 
This terrible calamity." 

Hall, of Philanthropic Society, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, 

Sept. 15, 1885. 

Whereas, Our Heavenly Father, who is 
too wise to err, has seenfii to cail to another 
world the lastsurviying member of the class 
of 1820, in the person of Mr. William Hill 
Hardin, of Fayetteville, N. C. ; therefore, 
the Philanthropic Society, deeply deploring 
his loss, but bowing in humble submission 
to the hand that sends the blow : — 

Resolved, That in his death we have lost 
one of our oldest and most respected mem- 
bers; one who always had the geodoftlie 



Society at heart and who ever worked earn- 
estly for its best interests. 

Resolved, That the church of which he 
was a devoted and consistent member has 
experienced a severe blow in the loss of one 
who, by his yeais> was so well fitted to lead 
the young in upright paths, which are the 
ways of pleasantness and peace. 

Resolved, That his- own city and county 

have lost a valuable citizen who sought only 
after the good, noble and true. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions 
be sent to the family of the deceased and a 
copy each to the Fayetteville Sum, Raleigh 
Neim and Observer, and University Maga- 
zine, with a request to publish. 

S. B. Weeks, 

N. S. Wilkinson, \- Com. 

E. S. White. 

« ». « ■» ♦ 

(From The Winston Sentinel.) 



When weary with a weight of woe, 
We sadly sigh and seek for rest ; 

Some comfort cometh if we know, 
To bear our load alone is best. 

0' heart, be brave, and bleed and break. 
But give the world no sign- of paimj 

Wo aidirjg angel would it wake, 
To tell the world would be in vain. 
Whiteville, M. €. 




— Fresh! Fresh! Fresh! 

— The old Ante-bellum sway-back 

— " Brother Wade what's the mat- 
ter with your foot ?' 

Bro. W., meekly : " I stepped on 
a rock last night." 

— " Bullet's " caliber is too small 
for the Freshmen this year. He 
was shot off during the summer. 

— To stay or not to stay is the 
question the Soph asked himself 
when the bell rang for chemistry 
and Prof. Winston still " Horair- 

— We acknowledge the receipt of 
an invitation to attend the Railroad 
Celebration at Louisburg, Oct. 1st. 

— "'Tis a pity that recitations 
should be interrupted by hogs in the 
campus." Beware " Slok," beware. 

— Fresh to a Senior. — " Mr., I'm 
feeling sentimental and want to read 
some poetry. Will you please loan 
me Gray's Elegy with Curfew must 
not ring to-night in it ?" 

— Pitt Tyron says book selling is 
a very expensive business. As it 
cost him twice as much as he made, 
he has a very good reason to think so. 

— H. G. Osborne has been pro- 
moted from a $900 to a $1,200 
clerkship in one of the Departments 
at Washington. 

will rise. 

A University boy 

— "Boni" don't like the new 
Postoffice building because he gets 
fewer letters than he did before. The 
authorities ought to have consulted 
" Boni " on this matter. 

— The present editorial staff boasts 
of three guitar players and one poet. 
What great probabilities are before 
us. Not the most daring venture in 
journalistic experience can intimi- 
date us. We even hope to catch an 
occasional glimpse of the University 
Standard as it nears with electric 
swiftness the zenith of the collegiate 

— At the last meeting of the Trus- 
tees it was decided to place tablets in 
memory of Col. W. H. Wheeler and 
Hon. Jacob Thompson, in Memorial 

— Professional, Progression. 
Sept. 1st.— Mr. William McDade. 
Sept 2d.— William McDade. Sept. 
3d.— Bill McDade. Sept. 4th.— Bill, 
you black rascal. 

— A Soph wishes to know who 
was the wife of George Elliot ? 

— Johnny Leigh returns no more. 
He will in the future devote himself 
to the management of balls. As evi- 
dence of his proficiency in this art he 
lead the German at Nags Head this 
summer and became the most popu- 
lar beau of the season. 

— Dolly Wilson and the editor 
represented Chapel Hill in a Ger- 
man at Pound Knob a few weeks 
ago. Dolly purposes opening a 



dancing school in Cherokee county. 
A noble effort to refine the Reel man. 
Hereafter we expect to find Dudes 
among the Indians and predict an 
universal conversion to the doctrine 
of Aesthetics. 

— The gymnast and foot-ballistare 
now in their glory. A well-equipped 
gymnasium, a good ground, tree 
from grass and ditches and hearty 
encouragement from the Faculty. 

— We regret to hear that Hal 
London's eye-sight has nearly failed 
him and that a visit to an oculist in 
New York gave him little relief. 

— The last heard from Dave Rin- 
tels was that he had hazed two rats 
unmercifully at Binghams. 

— The Bugological Nightingale is 
often heard warbling his sweetest 
notes to the delighted (?) inmates of 
the New East. 

— Mr. Carroll, for my sake, for 
your sake and for the sake of our 
dear country so lately deluged with 
fraternal blood, don't tar-and-feather 
anybody. Who could resist such an 
appeal ? Carroll couldn't and now 
" all is quiet along the Potomac." 

— Sore eyes have become a popu- 
lar ailment since Hughes and Smith 
have had such a good time over 
theirs. They bought two pairs of 
eye-glasses each, got a trip to Ral- 
eigh, were excused from all recita- 
tations and received lots of sympa- 
thy from home. They have called 
on every lady in the village and 

have begun a second round. Unless 
they become totally blind or the 
Faculty interferes, there seems to be 
no prospect of stopping them. 

— When is a fish a box of black- 
ing ? Why, when Herring gets as 
black as he did the other night. 

— English literature is a popular 
and interesting department in the 
University. The study of it has 
brought about some wonderful re- 
sults already. The Seniors have 
come to the conclusion that they 
know absolutely nothing about it; 
the Juniors deplore the fact that a 
soul must be created within their 
ribs of literary death; the Sophs are 
to be reported to the Faculty for not 
being able to fully appreciate the 
unrivaled beauties of Tennyson and 
the Fresh, well, they haven't enough 
sense to comprehend the extent of 
their ignorance. A deplorable dtate 
of affairs, indeed. 

— The Sophs have adopted a class 
hat. A high crown plug of brown 
color, with too ventilating apertures 
on each side. They can be seen at 
every corner, practicing the Parisian 
bow, so recently introduced here. 

— The Salvation Army, under the 
command of Parson Hackett, drills 
every night. This takes the place 
of the " Old boy " tantrum, once so 
terrible to the Fresh ! The Army 
is preparing for an attack on the 
sinners' of college. Profit by the 



— The class of '85 have gone from 
us and all of its members have taken 
their parts in the drama of life. In 
the early part of last June, bouyant 
with hope and confident of success, 
they bid farewell to the U. N. C. 
Feeling that an interest is still felt 
in them and believing news from 
them will be read with pleasure, we 
have collected the following infor- 
mation : 

Ben Butler is teaching in the 
Bethel Academy. 

Jim Bryan got a $1,000 salary as 
Principal o^ the Gastonia High 

Eller is reading law at Lilley, 
N. C. 

Faust is reported to have joined 
Haskins in Indian Territory. 

Alex. Field accepts a position in 
the Horner School, at Oxford. 

Goodman is teaching in Johnston 

Barnes Hill has decided to do as 
little as possible. 

Geo. Howard reads law with his 
father at Tarboro. 

Max. Jackson has gone to New 
York to study medicine. 

Latham is at the head of a Book 
Agency business in .Raleigh. 

Gus Long has been elected to the 
chair of English Literature in Trin- 
ity College. 

Earnest Mangum will take the A. 
M. course at the University. 

Jule Mann will not tell anyone 

what he's going to do ; so the con- 
clusion is that he has'nt decided yet, 
Berrie Mclver is one of the assis- 
tants in the Goldsboro Graded School. 
Daniel Hector McNiel has gone 
to Texas and refuses to tell what he's 
doing. To keep us from being un- 
easy he writes ; " I have a mare and 

J. R, Monroe is teaching elocution 
in S. C. 

Dick Neal has charge of the fa- 
mous Bertie Union Academy. He 
thrashed an innocent little boy the 
first day for blatiug like a calf. 

J. U. JN'ewman has accepted a 
Professorship in a college in Ohio. 
W. L. Norris is farming near 

Pollock intends to introduce the 
Great Pollock Remedy throughout 
the State. 

St. Leon Scull has charge of a 
flourishing school in Hertford Co. 

Word expects to take a law course 
at the University. 

Sol. Weil is A.cting-Professor of 
Greek in the University and reading 
law under Dr. Manning. 

Jesse Felix Wert goes to the Uni- 
versity of Va. to take law. 

— The New Sophomores. — The 
Soph class of this year is an excep- 
tional one. The spirit of improve- 
ment, which seems to have awakened 
new life in the venerable University, 
is possessed in a large degree by the 
present Sophomores. After slightly 
deviating from the paths of rectitude 



and indulging in a few nocturnal 
cavortings, they were called to the 
bar of the President's office"to make 
a full and sufficient sacrifice for their 
misdoings. Instead of persisting in 
their Sophomoric tortures, as former 
generations of them have done, they 
met in solemn conclave and adopted 
the following resolutions : 


Whereas, Our Fraternal Fac- 
ility, who are too wise to err, have 
seen fit to call before them the sev- 
eral classes of College and did elo- 
quently appeal to us by our hope of 
becoming Seniors and our preference 
of remaining at the University to 
abstain from treating the new arriv- 
als according to the code of our pre- 
decessors ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, X. That we as individu- 
als and as a class, do complv with 
their request. 

2. That we blot from our minds, 
our speech, and the book of our re- 
membrance, all preconceived ideas 
of blacking, trotting, bull-riding and 
speaking, and that we submit our- 
selves wholly to their fatherly guid- 

3. That we exert ourselves to 
create sentiments of pity and affec- 
tion for all youths who come among 
us, and that we sympathize at all 
times for rule over us. 

4. That we wear a badge of 
mourning for thirty days out of re- 
spect to the memory of our ostracised 

5. That we expel from our class, 
and treat with every indignity known 
to us any one who shall hereafter 
use the word,- the odious word, 
" Fresh." 

6. That we address new students 
as the "gentlemen who recently ar- 
rived on the Hill," that we treat 
them as friends and brothers, that 
we solve their problems, write their 
essays, loan them our text-books, 
and endeavor in every way to make 
their stay in college one of continual 
happiness and uninterrupted bliss. 

7. That a copy of these resolu- 
tions be sent to our beloved Faculty 
and to the parents of each of these 
first year gentlemen. 

— She was plump and beautiful, 
and he was wildly fond of her; she 
hated him, but, womanlike, she 
strove to catch him. He was a fly. 

— The Mulability of the 
University Suckling. — " The 
wise man knoweth his place and 
changeth not; but the fool rageth 
and is confident," are the words of 
Solomon. This ancient sage evident- 
ly intended the latter part of this 
passage for Freshmen. Even if he 
did not, this interpretation has an 
incontrovertible appropriation at the 
present time. Two weeks ago the 
Fresh was puling by day and blub- 
bering at night. Fresh from mama's 
apron strings or papa's knee, petted, 
praised, and made to believe himself 
a future President, or a modern 



Demosthenes, he was little prepared 
for the buffet of the world. One 
visit from the " Sopho " sufficed to 
lower his exalted idea of himself, 
and to plunge him into the deepest 
depths of despair. His worth not 
appreciated, his fair face denigrated 
from a sun-beam of lucidity to a 
fuliginous charcoal of night. " A 
Faculty to the rescue," was the cry, 
and soon he rested serenely under 
the shadow of wings too formidable 
for Sophomoric adventure. This 
protection brought peace to the 
Fresh and punishment to the Soph. 
In a fraternal meeting, embraces of 
forgiveness and mutual vows of fu- 
ture friendship were exchanged and 
now the Freshman is himself again. 
He wandered around gushing and 
communicative, ever ready to tell of 
his varied experience and delighted 
if you manifest any interest in him. 
How many teachers he got away 
with, what a big dog he was in the 
school he formerly attended, the dif- 
ferent girls who've gone wild over 
him, all form parts of his heroic 
narrative. He is the most credul- 
ous person on the face of the earth, 
tell him he's fine looking and he 
considers you a man of good judg- 
ment, explain to him that a head 
like his is bound to win praise, and 
he adores you. Easily persuaded, 
slightly hint to him the possibility 
of his winning honor, and you have 
him a blind slave to your dictation. 
He throws aside text books and de- 

votes his time to politics, " booting " 
and abusing those whose opinions 
differ from his masters, he becomes 
a nuisance. He wears his best suit 
altogether, and puts on much style, 
hoping thus to draw attention to his 
graceful figure or good clothes, and 
to show what a suitable candidate 
he'd make. Sometimes too to give 
evidence of his daring and versatile 
talents, he hazes another Freshman. 
His ambition has no bounds and his 
expectations are simply prodigeous. 
College medals, society medals, and 
commencement honors he is confi- 
dent of deserving and is sure of 
winning. His principal amusement 
when not on class is scribbling the 
name of his " boss " on the door and 
floor of the buildings. He is the 
personification of vanity. That 
every fraternity here is anxious to 
get him, that the society is much 
honored by his membership, and 
that his arrival makes an important 
event in the history of the Univers- 
ity, are firmly believed by him. 

We cannot, at this time, give more 
of his characteristics, but hope to 
give in the future an account of the 
interesting metamorphoses continu- 
ally going on in him. 

— Does the human race degenerate? 
Are we becoming smaller and weak- 
er ? These are questions which have 
perplexed the minds of the philoso- 
phers and scientists of every age. 
The size of the average Freshman is 



certainly decreasing. They are now 
so small that they are invited "to 
come down and play ,y with the pro- 
fessors' babies, although they aspire 
to visit the professors' daughters. 

— J. Clifford Perry, who was a 
member of the medical class during 
1882-83 and received the prize on 
Materia Medica for that year, grad- 
uated with high honors at the Uni- 
versity of Md. last March. He 
showed himself to be one of the best 
when before the State Medical Board 
at Durham last May. He is now 
practicing at Woodville, Perquimans 
County. He is a boy of very stud- 
ious habits and bids fair to make a 
success in his chosen profession. 

— Perfection in methods of torture 
has been reached at last. Beside this 
refinement of the nineteenth century 
Spanish inquisitors of the sixteenth 
would hide their heads in shame and 
bid the happy inventor go and weep, 
because like Alexander he had no 
more worlds to conquor. The Am- 
ericans claim every invention and 
North Carolina is of the opinion 

that every man of genius was born 
within her borders. The State may 
not be able to claim this inventor, 
but her University has the inven- 
tion. We refer, of course, to the 
benches in the recitation room of 
Prols. Atkinson and Toy. 

— C. W. Sawyer, another mem- 
ber of the medical class of 1882-83, 
who was known in College as "Dr. 
Tommie," has received his diploma 
from the University of Md. and is 
giving pills and powders down east 
with a vengeance. 

— C. L. Riddle, class '83, famil- 
iarly known in College as "Tubby 
Mahone," has returned to the Uni- 
versity to take a course in law. The 
first year after graduation he taught 
in Camden County and the second 
at Hertford, Perquimans County. 
He studied law first at Norfolk, Ya., 
but was compelled for the sake of 
his health to seek a higher latitude. 
Sam Gattes, '84, goes to his school 
in Perquimans. Sam is rather fat 
and perhaps going east will take him 


<J Series Vm VT r TTT =====:::: =====^ A X 1 Xj v 

Old Series Vol. XVITT 
New Series V V ,1.V 


Times have changed since Henry 
II,to^one fo n hemurderofTJiom O 

fr -«ecket, who walked bare W 

™ ughth treetsofCa ^ foot 

»<*•«. of the middle ages and A 

re teaches no p l ainer , 
!>e unfitness of the chuml, t„ 7 , 
*> c.v,l affairs of men. Even in 
| age of enlightenment there a* 
liable to these unnatuS^! 

■ons between church and State. 

|'gher education controlled by 
"f '° P" ] 'fe and Presbyterians 
•*g.on acceptable to George III 

the attempt was thwarted b y the 
j* of politica, despotism and 
^tolerance of religions bigotry 

NOVEMBER, l8 8 s . 

fi V A. H. ELI.EK, 

Jin's was a fitting pro j 

fa-ce which hasbeen madf of, gbt 
edncatmn from that age to this. gW 

nomest achievement of the 
Amencan Revolution, the pride of 
the IS ew World „„a^ , 
the IBti, r ! ' d tlie boast of 

, llas be ™ but a hundred years J 
this was hailed as thQapp^f 
come of many warring cental at 

™th the question, shall the State 
bo allowed to assist in the higher 
duca mn of its c i fens? ^ «£ 
has Ins questmn been staved off bv 
the obstructive tactics of £*£* 

and s7t , g ''° UUdS d ° the ^urch 
and State lay their claims ta t h 

P-ogative ? Goverum S acm, ,S 

tnvance of human wisdom to p^Wde 
for human want., The churfh; "n 

institution of divine wisdom to pro- 
vide for man's spiritual wants. 1* 
religion and education the same? 
The most reckless transcendentalist 
has not yet reached so dangerous a 
conclusion. No! religion is diVtne; 
education is human. Religions of 
the church ; education is of the State. 
With some show of reason, it is true, 
it has been said that the church » 
competent to promote all good and 
worthy objects. Yet the community 
would be thrown into universal con- 
fusion, if it were supposed to be the 
duty of every association formed for 

sprang up a prejudice against those 
institutions which appeared to ioster 
extravagance and court the favor oi 
the rich. It was during the preval- 
ence of this sentiment that the de- 
nominational colleges were founded. 
Their object was to aid poor young 
men in acquiring a religious and 
even a sectarian education. Few oi 
the leading colleges of North Caro- 
lina were founded on the " Manual 

Labor System /' They were the 
staunchest and truest friends of poor 
young men, and what is strange is, 
that in their more prosperous days 
• .J 4-t,^v vnirps aeainst 

duty of every association formed tor , ™ l . a their yoices aga inst 

one" good object to promote every | they have^r ^ ^ ^ ^ 

other good object. I championed so loud- 

The institutions of higher learning cause they ^ for ^ 

have not been self-supporting m any | Iy. « «* n J _ Jx! _ +n , w rlagg 

country. The maintenance of a sys- 
tem of colleges aud universities equal 
to the requirements of our modern 
civilization, is a strain upon the 
whole community. If a few chris- 
tian denominations take upon them- 
selves this entire burden of secular 
education, meager indeed will be 
the resources for religious purposes. 
I would not appear to disparage the 

State to give free tuition to thatclass 
who are unable to pay their expense. 
A non-sectarian State implies a non- 
political church. The State allows 
the churches to promote sectarian 
training, Will the churches allow the 

State to promote secular education . 
I am slow to believe that the chris 
tian denominations that cannot tol 
erate a State institution m whicl 

I would »ot appear to disparage the er»« es are repres eate 

n „ble efforts of the denomnaa tiooal they he ^ 

eoneges. In the persist^ rf gM g. ^ peouliar 8eotaria 

State aid they have borne this bur 
den to the limit of their power; but 
our record of Illiteracy proves that 
their efforts have been inadequate to 
the great task. 

In past years when a college edu 

WOllia lUlue m^. -y- . 

ity to attend their peculiar sectana 


That the highest wisdom deman< 
that all education should be condu 

ted under religious influences no 

in pa»t jcaio n*.y— - <-; 

cation was almost exclusively con- 
fined to the wealthy classes, there 

- will deny. 

This the State do 

Will ueuj • a -" i , . 

The intelligence of this age is cert* 
ly beyond that point which confou 

ded sectarianism and religion, TV 

State is of the religion and for the 
religion of all of its citizens in the 
broad and catholic sense, without 
the fanaticism of anj of them. 

longs the honor of restoring to the 
faith from which he had fallen that 
giant intellect, Richardson Davie 
and others of his great co 

J-ne impetuous, swelling wave rolled 

Cm mo/if,' „~ „ - i , ._ ' 

It was the abrupt social ehao^ „„ "°P^' Swellin « wa ™ rolled 
which mad e the old U„iv rsftv ™ Z ',"" *"* "" ° bstaC,e tU1 * ^ch- 
loager possible, that gave 1 T !? ^.Wfi bl " - * dashed its 

«>e de- j h,gh futy at his feet it b ro ke before 

the* c-fm»«~iL _ o i . . . 

nominational colleges a broader 
scope. They have advanced their 
interests by exciting the prejudices of 
the community against a state of 
morals and a system of instruction 
which no longer exist. It serves 
their purpose best to be ignorant of 

the new methods of instruction and 
the h lg h state of morality which pre- 
vail in the reorganized and modern- I 
«ed State institutions no less than 

to be insensible to the good influences 
of these institutions in the past. 
The splendid services which North 
Carolina's University has rendered 
to Christianity in by gone days makes 
«ich a spirit wanting in gratitude as 
t is destitute of liberality. 

^ring the last years of the 18th 
^ry and the early years of the 
ytii the christian world was startled 
I the W,ld Progress of infidelity 
t spread from France, the theatre 
* those boiling, tumultuous scenes 
hich shocked the conscience of all 
Pons Here in North Carolina, 

Pains Age offieason" was a fetich 
e -bible was a myth. The infec- 
>n attacked this institution; two 
ofessors lost their places in quick 
session. To Joseph Caldwell be- 

the strength of his faith and the 
firmness of his will. It was he, who 
tor forty years impersonated this 
institution, that stood up in this try- 
ing ] hour for the true religion, bat- 
tled down the strongholds of infidel- 
ity, and made it possible for the 
christian denominations to enter up- 
on that proud career which has cul- 
niinated in our noble colleges- 
I W ^ e *W, Davidson and Trinity 

, But the needs of the present and 
he hopes of the future no less than 

call ff mem ° rieS ° f the W 
call for a harmonious action between 

the institutions of Church and State 
-ignorance is a danger that lurks and 
hides m the sources and fountains of 
powers ich sustains our national 

te. All the constitutional power of 
the btate and all the volunteer forces 
o the people and of the churches 
should be summoned to meet this 
danger The opposition which has 
eome to State aid at this trying crisis 
- ; - itself the strongest\Ltion 
with wVh legislation has had to 
deal. Ihat the sense of duty and 
he spirit of benevolence has caused 
the churches to do much for higher 
education none will deny, and yef 

the spirit which nobly gives is not 
the spirit which would prevent others 
from noble giving. It is claimed 
that the State should begin at the 
bottom, of this evil, that all educa- 
tion should rise from below. It is 
true the plant grows up, but the 
sunshine and the rain which nourish 
it come from above. No power can 
raise itself above its own level. The 
common school system in North 
Carolina can never prosper till it re- 
ceives that stinralous and guidance 
which higher education alone can 


No ! here is the secret of this con- 
troversy. The church is struggling 
for the control of the great machin- 
ery of education. This is the lever 
by which in other lands the strong- 
est sect has lifted its institutions to 
the top and chained them there by 
the force of law. They may not 
know it ; they may not desire it ; 
their motives may be as pure as the 
religion they teach j but to this end 
all the denominations in America are 
striving. Last Fall— it was Thanks- 
giving-day—the nation was rejoicing 
over peace and plently— the Plenary 
Council in session at Baltimore made 
the extraordinary demand that there 
be such a division of the school tax 
as to enable the bishops to place their 
schools on a level with the public 
schools. The Protestant churches 
have not yet reached this point, but 
their course lies in the same direction. 
Have they finally embraced that 

quarrel which the Roman Catholic 
church has waged with the State 
from the earliest dawn of our modem 
civilization? If the State is to be 
thus contrabanded, if each seet is to 
have its own school, "if," in the 
language of James Anthony Froud, 
"this dissolving program is to be 
carried out, all organization, all unity 
will be destroyed, and society will be 
reduced to the congregation of self- 
seeking atoms." 

All institutions of a denomination- 
al or private nature are bound to 
guard their own interest and profit 
by thsir own success. They are not 
bound to provide for the general 
wants of the country. In fact it has 
been their boast that they alone, 
« without the shadow of embarrass- 
ment, can offer a practical solution 
to the delicate and difficult problem 
of civil rights"— that they can close 
their doors on the negro while the 
State must provide for all classes ,! 
The fact that none but the State is 
able or willing to provide for all 
classes is the chief of all reasons why 
our educational institutions should 
be under its control. 

The great institutions of the past 
had their origin in endowments, and 
the age of endowments is gone 
Beautiful and venerable as are manj 
of the aspects under which it present 
itself, this ancient custom failed t< 
keep'the onward step of civilizatior 
On the Continent of Europe a clea 
sweep has in general been made c 


this old form of public establishment, 
and new institutions have been 
founded upon the State. In Amer- 
ica we have kept our collegies and 
universities, assisting them meagerly 
at the public expense ; but no such 
assistance as was formerly rendered 
will ever make the institutions which 
sufficed for former ages suffice for 
this, or persuade the stream of en- 
dowments long since failing and 
scanty to flow again as it flowed in 
the past. Society in its collective, 
corporate character must betake itself 
to the State for the establishment of 
higher education to meet the modern 
wants. It is necessary to give it a 
wider, a truly public character, aud 
this only the State can give. 

In Germany where this system 
prevails we find the greatest institu- 
tions and the greatest scholars of the 
world. England that next most 
nearly approaches this example stands 
second in the order of intelligence. 
In America where the State has done 
least of all, intelligence is at its low- 
est ebb. The reasons are plain. 
The nervous, industrial rush in 
America has rendered a long and 
plodding course at college objection- 
able to our people, and the colleges 
forced to live on tuition lees — what 
no good college can live on — have 
adapted themselves to the exactions 
of business men, and sacrificed all 
true standards of scholarship in the 
struggle for existence. They have 
even entered into competition with 

the preparatory schools, and these in 
turn have been forced to call them- 
selves colleges and universities or lose 
all patronage which the prestige of 
these great names will give. In 
Ohio alone, it is said, there are more 
universities than on the continent of 
Europe, and who has heard of a single 
great scholar they have produced ? 
Intelligence conies from one of the 
newest Western States that they al- 
ready have two universities, and the 
logs cut for a third. The entire col- 
lege endowment of Massachusetts is 
ten times that of North Carolina. 
For higher education they pay three 
dollars and forty cents; we pay forty- 
five cents per capita. Despite all 
this, we have twice as many colleges 
as they have. Why, the census of 
1880 shows not less than twenty-five 
such institutions, and it is believed 
that, if a searching microscopic ex- 
amination could be made, as many 
more might yet be found. To de- 
termine whether a large number of 
small colleges or a small number of 
large ones is the wiser policy, we 
have only to compare Massachusetts 
with North Carolina, Germany with 
America. A little money may be 
saved in the first case, but it is pen- 
ny-wise and pound-foolish economy 
in the end. We have lived through 
the log-cabin college era; we have 
reached a stage wherein organization 
contemplating the permanent wants 
of a great and progressive people is 
required. North Carolina is ready 



for a great university. This much 
all concede. Shall it correspond to 
the German type, and devote itself 
exclusively to the very highest 
branches of learning? Every such 
institution in Germany is supported 
by more than 200 Gymnasiums. 
Need I ask if the denominational 
colleges of North Carolina are equal 
to this task ? No I such a university 
here in North Carolina, lifted high 
above the reach of our people, would 
for a while stand out a useless and 
expensive ornament, but sooner or 
later would fall to the ground crush- 
ing its feeble supports beneath it. 
The English and American type of 
university is the one for which our 
people are prepared. It in part 
supports itself. We do not want a 
compromise between the college and 
the university. This is an unhappy 
medium — too high fur the college, 
too low for the university — too 
special for the general student, too 
general for the special student. 
There must be facility for the high- 
est and most advanced instruction, 
at the same time, if it would do iU 
duty to the people of North Caro- 
lina, it must provide a college edu- 
cation. These too things are not 
inconsistent. Vanderbilt has its 
college curriculum, Johns Hopkins 
does under-graduate work — there is 
not a university in America that 
has not its college also, and the great 
universities of England are but con- 
federations of colleges. 

The demand made upon our uni- 
versity in the past was for great, 
public spirited men. How well she 
responded to this demand let the 
history of our country tell. Upon 
her memorial tablets are but few and 
dim traces of the names of her noble 
sons cut deep in our hearts by the 
chisel and mallet of truth. And the 
demand for such men as these is no 
less urgent to-day than in the days 
of our fathers. But the demand for 
higher, technical education must be 
heard as well. The old idea of a 
university — a mere college with the 
appendages of law, medicine, and 
theology, is fast passing away. 
Theology is resorting to the Semin- 
aries, medicine to the great cities, 
law to the capital. It is from the 
fields of science, philosophy, litera- 
ture, and history, that the university 
of the future must supply the world 
with fresh and living thought. 

We do not want the German uni- 
versity, in which no religion is taught, 
nor the English university, in which 
but one sect is countenanced; but the 
true American university is a happy 
compromise between the two — it is 
one in which all the chu robes are 
represented, all tolerated, and the 
truest and broadest religion upheld. 
The churches would do better to 
follow the youth to the university, 
surround them by pure and noble 
influences, and instead of laboring 
to destroy, strive to exalt and sanc- 
tify its influence. When this noble 



design shall be fully realized, we 
will then enjoy the largest freedom 
with only the strong compulsion of 
love, which shall make our. people 
one. The splendid memories that 
cling about those clustered edifices 
at Chapel Hill, telling as they do of 
the munificence of the past, and the 

recent favors of a generous public, 
have inspired us with the hope that 
we are fast approaching this ideal, 
God grant that these hopes may not 
prove mere visions, and that no new 
darkness may cloud the brightness 
of our future! 

Folk's Law School, Cilley, N. C 


TO G. W. C. 

Long, long ago, in the sweet Roman spring. 
Through the bright morning air, we slowly 
And in the blue heaven heard the skylark siag 
Above the ruins old — 

Beyond the Forum's crumbling grass-grown 
Through high-walled lanes o'erhung with 
blossoms white 
That opened on the far Campagna's miles 
Of verdure aud of light; 

Till by the grave of Keats we stood, and found 

A rose— a single rose left blooming there, 

Making more sacred still that hallowed ground 

And that enchanted air, 

A single rose, whose fading petals drooped, 
And seemed to wait for us to gather them. 
So, kneeling on the humble mound, we stooped 
And plucked it from its stem. 

One rose and nothing more. We shared its leaves 
Between as, as we shared the thoughts of one 
Called from the field before his unripe sheaves 
Could feel the harvest sun. 

That rose's fragrance is forever fled 

For us, dear friend— but not the Poet's lay. 
He is the rose, deathless among the dead, 
Whose perfume lives to-day. 
— '. P. Crunch, in Harper's Magazine. 





Of all the books printed in Eng- 
lish the Bible has come the nearest 
to crossing every threshold. Irre- 
spective of person and of opinion, it 
has knocked at the door, and, if re- 
fused, has continued to knock till 
admission was granted. For centur- 
ies it had to wage war, not only 
against the ignorance of the common 
people, but also against the King 
himself. But as has been true of it 
in every case where it has attained a 
foothold, it has grown in popularity 
and influence, surmounting obstacles 
and civilizing, till its enemies have 
lain prostrate at its feet. Nor has it 
stopped here — but having conquered 
and civilized the heathen Saxons on 
their own soil, it caused them to go 
out and plant new colonies and to 
send the gospel to other lands. 

When the Saxon was converted to 
Christianity he had no literature and 
no government. The gospel brought 
out his latent energies and put him 
on the road to the development of a 
literature that is the Aaron's rod of 
the literary world, and to the estab- 
lishment of a government on whose 
dominions the sun never sets, and 
another which promises to surpass 
that of Utopia itself. 

Many departments of literature 
may outrank the Bible as to quantity 
yet there is none which rivals it for 

influence. Its superiority lies to a 
great extent in the fact that it com- 
bines the good features of all the de- 
partments of literature and invariably 
leaves out the bad ones. Chaucer 
may enchant with his rythm, so 
could the Psalmist. The artful fig- 
ures of a Spenser tickle our fancy ; 
the life-like ones of a Shakespeare 
convey to us a correct idea of human 
nature in nearly all its phases; but 
in natural expressiveness and beauty 
these lag far behind the metaphors 
of Solomon. Shakespeare and his 
brother dramatists held an age spell- 
bound by their portrayal of human 
nature ; but Paul shows a deeper in- 
sight into the mysteries of the human 
mind and the influence of his Epis- 
tles grows with time. Scott and 
Dickens and Thackeray and George 
Elliot delight and instruct millions 
of anxious readers, yet they are no 
rivals to the Bible in this respect. In 
vain do we scan the pages of secular 
writers in search of the pathos found 
in Paul's writings. The Bible, writ- 
ten for every age and every clime, 
for all classes, is food to the hungry, 
raiment to the naked, to the weary 
rest, to the lonely comfort ; it ele- 
vates, refines and satisfies the long- 
ings of the inner man. Its principles 
gather influence as they pass down 
the colonnades of the ages. 

wycliffe's bible. 
The inhabitants of England were 
Christians Jong before there was such 
a language as English. They had 
Bibles or parts of the Bible; but the 
first translation of the Bible into 
English was by Wycliffe and was 
finished about 1382. The translator 
was the best scholar of his age; was 
pious, benevolent and extremely 
zealous, and is also said to have had 
great severity of manners, all of 
which characteristics are such as to 
qualify a man for becoming a pioneer 
in a great religious reformation. His 
life was marked by many viccissi- 
tudes. Now supported, now aban- 
doned, by the influential, he was no 
less famous in politics than in liter- 
ature. Driven from his chair at Ox- 
ford,!^ assisted by pupils and learned 
friends, began work on his famous 
translation. The translation was 
made not from the Greek and He- 
brew, but from the Latin Vulgate. 
Copies were multiplied by transcrib- 
ers. Notwithstanding the circula- 
tion was dependent on manuscript, 
it was large and had a great influ- 
ence. For a century and a half it 
had no competitor. His New Tes- 
tament was first printed in 1731; 
the whole Bible in 1850. 

The translation was literal and 
brought out faithfully the thought 
of the original. The phraseology 
was plain and handsome. 

Warring against the King of Eng- 
land, the Pope and the ignorance of 

the age, Wycliffe prepared the way 
for the only more prominent figure 
of the reformation than himself, Lu- 
ther, and has been justly called "the 
morning star of the reformation." 
As many of his successors in Bible 
translation were to do, he suffered 
[ prosecution for his work. 


In the early part of the 16th cen- 
tary, in connection with the general 
religious reformation, the subject of 
an English version of the Scriptures 
was revived. For nearly three-quar- 
ters of a century the work was car- 
ried on without cessation. The move- 
ment began in the reign of Henry 
VIII, continued through those of 
Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth 
and resulted in the Authorized Ver- 
sion under James I. The leading 
spirit in the agitation was William 

Finding the times unpropitio as in 
his own country, Tyndale, determined 
to carry out the enterprise to which 
he had consecrated his life, left Eng- 
land in 1523, and devoted his re- 
maining thirteen years to the noble 
work. He was a sympathizer with 
the reformation and began his trans- 
lation in London ; he next fled to 
Hamburg, where he worked a year ; 
thence to Cologne, where the first 
ten sheets were put to press ; thence 
to Worms, where two editions were 
published anonymously. 

The New Testament appeared in 
1525, the Pentaleuch in 1530. On 


his avowal of the authorship of the 
edition of 1534, the English Gov- 
ernment procured hi& arrest, had him 
imprisoned for some time, and finally 
strangled and burnt at the stake. 

His translation consisted of the 
New Testament, the Pentatentch and 
historical books of the Old Testa- 
ment and was made directly from the 
Greek and Hebrew. He adopted the 
language of the common people and 
strenuously avoided the expressions 
used only by the learned. This fea- 
ture has to a great extent been kept 
in our version, and is a leading ex- 
cellency. By him the so-called Ec- 
clesiastical words were translated; 
by him the Bible was put into such 
language as the age demanded. His 
version has been largely used by all 
later Protestant translators, and is 
the real basis of our present version. 
coverdale's version. 
Miles Coverdale was the first to 
give to his countrymen a printed copy 
of the Bible in English. It was 
made at the suggestion of Cromwell, 
who then had more than any other 
Englishman the confidence of Henry 
VIII, and who had persuaded him 
that the translation and circulation 
of the Bible, if done properly, would 
strengthen, rather than weaken, the 
King, Henry, who had lately had 
Tyndale put to death, now aided in 
the Very work for which Tyndale 
had given up his life. 

Coverdale went to the continent, 
completed the work, dedicated it to 

the King, and had it published in 
1535. Two years later it was re- 
printed in England without opposi- 
tion from the government, though 
without the express permission. 
The version is said to have bad con- 
siderable merit. Part of the eccle- 
siastical words were retained, part 
translated. The work was intended 
to propitiate the King and secure 
the royal license. The translation 
was made from the Dutch and the 

The parts of the Psalms used in 
the Book of Common Prayer were 
taken from this version. It is said 
also that much of the rhythm and 
| finely-balanced cadence oi the auth- 
orized version may be traced to 
Coverdale. Like his predecessors, 
Coverdale suffered exile. 

matthew's version. 
It is famous as being the first ver- 
sion regularly authorized by the 
King; it appeared in 1537, two 
years after Coverdale's. 

The real author was John Rogers, 
one of Tyndale's converts, who was 
associated with him at the time of 
his death, and had since finished the 
translation begun by both. 

The printing was begun on the 
continent, but was soon moved over 
and put into the bancU of the two 
famous printers, Grafton and White, 
to be completed. Through Crom- 
well ancTCranmer the printers ob- 
tained a monopoly of the right to 
print for five years, and a royal 


•order that a Bible be set up in every 
ehurch. The printers put in the 
name of Thomas Matthew, probably 
because they thought Rogers' former 
association with Tyndale might brine 1 
about prejudice against the work. 


It was printed from waste sheets 
of a revision of Coverdale's version, 
and first appeared in 1539 ; it had 
some features of its own, giving it 
an original character. 

In 1540, without material altera- 
tion, it was reprinted, with a pro- 
logue by Oranmer, and was called 
Cranmer's or the Great Bible. It 
was the authorized version of the 
English church from 1540 to 1568. 


This was brought out by the Eng- 
lish Protestants of Geneva in 1560. 
The Protestants were mainly Pres- 
byterians and didn't like the Great 
Bible because of its supposed leaning 
towards Episcopacy. The transla- 
tion was carried on as a private 
enterprise, William Whittington 
being the main translator. 

For the next sixty years it was 
altogether the most popular version 
in England. It kept its ground for 
years after the publication of the 
King James version. 

The translation was comparative 


This revision was projected by 
| Arch-bishop Parker and brought to 
completion in 1568. 

The work was apportioned out 
between fifteen men, eminent for 
their scholarship in Greek and He- 
brew. The majority of the trans- 
lators were bishops, hence the name 
of Bishops' Bible. The Arch-bishop 
himself revised all the work. The 
revision was made on the basis of 
Cranmer, and is said to contain some 
valuable improvements. Yet it 
made but little headway against the 
Geneva, and didn't entirely displace 


The version of the Bible used by 
the Catholics was made during the 
reign of Elizabeth by the Catholic 
refugees at Eheims. The New Tes- 
tament was printed at Rheirns in 
1582, the Old at Donay in 1609. 

William Allen (Cardinal Allen), 
was the leader of the expatriated 
Catholics. His main assistants in 
the translation were Gregory Martin, 
Richard Bristow, and. Thomas 
Worthington. Martin is thought 
to have been the principal translator. 
The translation was directly from 
the Vulgate, and was doubtless much 
influenced by Wycliff's version. It 

ly free from big phrases, and suited j bears the marks of scholarship, many 

to popular reading. It was the first 
English Bible that had the text di 
vided into verses. 

of the renderings being admirable. 
It is extremely literal, the Latin 
order being maintained. The eccle- 



siastical words were retained with 
scrupulous care. 


About the middle of the last cen 
tuiy Bishop Challoner revised this 
version. He abandoned the extreme 
literalness,and somewhat modernized 
the archaic diction. His first edition 
bears the date 1750. Challoner's is 
mainly used by the Catholics, it 
being optional with the bishops of 
each diocese as to whether he uses 
Challoner's or the Rheims-Donay 

king james's version. 
This most popular version of the 
Scripture had its birth in the Hamp- 
ton Court Conference, about the first 
of the year 1604. Soon after com- 
ing to the throne James invited 
several of the leading members of 
the Episcopal and Presbyterian par- 
ties to meet in the palace for the 
purpose of settling the difficulties 
between the parties. In obedience 
to the invitation there assembled 
Archbishop Whitgift of Canterbury, 
Bishop Bancroft of London, and 
seven other bishops and deans of the 
conservative conformists, and four 
leaders of the Puritans, including 
the learned Dr. John Reynolds. 
This was the Hampton Court Con- 
ference. Dr. Reynold's suggested a 
revision of the Scriptures. After a 
warm discussion participated in by 
Dr Reynolds, Bishop Bancroft, and 
the King himself, it was agreed that 
a revision should be made. 

The King proposed to appoint 
fifty-four translators, to be divided 
into six companies, of which two 
were to be stationed at Cambridge, 
Oxford, and Westminster, each, 
every company having a certain por- 
tion of the Scriptures to translate. 
In fact only forty-seven translators 
were chosen. They were the bast 
scholars of their time, and included 
archbishops, bishops, professors, &c; 
they represented both the religious 
parties. In allotting the work the 
taste and attainments of each were 

According to the rules, the Bishop's 
Bible was to be followed as closely 
as possible, the names of the prophets 
and the ecclesiastical words were to 
be retained, and no notes except to 
e xplain the original texts, were to be 

The actual translation began in 
1607. The revision was completed 
in three years. During the next 
thiee-quarters of a year, a committee 
composed of two delegates from 
each company revised the whole 

The new revision soon superseded 
all Protestant versions; and has 
since that time been the favorite 
among Protestants. It is a model of 
simplicity and clearness. Catholic 
and Protestant have alike acknowl- 
edged its superiority as a piece of 
English. In the language of Dr. 
Schaff, "it is an idiomatic English 
reproduction of the Hebrew and 



Greek Scriptures, and reads like, an 
original work." 


King James's version has many 
errors, inaccuracies, and inconsist- 
encies. Owing to the imperfect 
grammars and lexicons, the niceties 
and shades of the originals couldn't 
be brought out. Departures in the 
use of the articles and the tenses 
are frequent. Again, a good many 
of the words have become obsolete. 
Since the translation older manu- 
scripts have been found and philology 
has given rules by which they can 
be tested and corrected. These are 
some of the reasons that seemed to 
demand a revision. 

The idea of the revision originated 
in the heart of the Church of Eng- 
land; it was inaugurated by action 
taken by the Convocation of Canter- 
bury, in February, 1870, and was 
conducted upon rules drawn up by 
a joint committee of both houses. 
Under the rules there were to be 
only necessary changes of the langu- 
age, no change in style; the trans- 
lators were to be divided into two 
companies, one for the Old and the 
other for the New Testament, each 
company to go twice over its work 
and no change of the James' version 
to be adopted on the second round 
except by a two-thirds vote. 

The revision was carried on bv 

Biblical scholars independently of 
the State. Work began in June, 
1870. Soon steps were taken to se- 
cure the co-operation of American 
scholars ; and in October, 1872, two 
companies were formed here. Both 
committees contained, all told, one 
hundred and one members, which 
number had been reduced, by death 
and resignation, to seventy-nine ac- 
tive members in 1881. Of these 
fifty-two were Englishmen and 
twenty-seven Americans. They were 
taken from all the leading Protest- 
ant denominations. When a certain 
portion of the Bible was translated 
by an English committee, it was 
sent to the corresponding American 
committee for criticism. When re- 
turned, the suggestions were consid- 

The revised New Testament came 
out in 1881 ; the Old is soon to make 
its appearance. In the revision, the 
obsolete words have been removed; 
the number of italics and interpola- 
tions has been greatly diminished ; 
the paragraphs have been reduced 
to their normal form, although the 
old numbers of chapters and verses 
have been placed in the margin for 
convenience; the articles of the orig- 
inal have been better brought out. 
A. D. W. 
Chapel Hill, April, 1885. 





In the year 18—, I was complet- 
ing my Sophomore year at the Uni- 
versity. With the incoming throng 
of students, at the beginning of the 
session, there arrived a young man 
perhaps 25 years in age. He was of 
medium height, dark, almost fierce 
in looks, and always wore a suit of 
gray. A small, silken jet black 
moustache fringed his lip. His fore- 
head was high, massive and striking. 
Scarcely ever speaking, he remained 
in the college almost unknown — 
certainly with no intimates. There 
is in my nature a liking for the odd 
and unequal in all things. Excen- 
tricity has for me a peculiar charm. 
Similarity of tastes led us some- 
what together, and I was struck, al- 
most charmed by something about 
the man — not that I had the ordin- 
ary friendship for him, but I was 
held, overpowered by some subtle 
band which he seemed to weave 
around me. 

One evening he invited me to 
come around to his room (No. 12), 
saying we would have friends and 
refreshments. I went at the ap- 
pointed hour, 12 o'clock. No friends 
came, but soon my companion grew 
restless — closed the carefully folded 
door which I now first noticed to be 
held by three strong locks. Some- 
thing in his manner, I could not say 

what, caused me to grow restless. 
I looked around. The windows 
were heavily curtained — a thick 
carpet adorned the floor, and the 
fire light gleamed over it in mellow 
splendor. A curious bureau at one 
side of the room, richly inlaid with 
silver in antique figures, struck my 
attention. The strange fascination 
which imbued its owner seemed to 
be in a measure imparted to this 
bureau. It held my attention as if 
it had a mysterious secret to impart. 
"Come,", said my companion, 
" let's have a good smoke, and I wish 
to tell you a story — but first light 
your cigar and let's be comfortable." 
I looked at the clock. It was 20 
minutes to 1. I heard the receding 
footsteps of a skylarking party as- 
cending the steps. An indefinable 
dread seized me, and I could scarcely 
refrain from calling out, but, forcing 
myself to be quiet, I took the prof- 
fered cigar and leaned back, and my 
companion began. 

" I am the only survivor of a rich 
family. My home, an almost regal 
dwelling, is built in sight of the 
rolling Mississippi, a few miles 
above New Orleans. In my veins 
flow the mingled blood of the Indian, 
French and Spanish races. My 
family have all gone and left me 
the inheritor of a princely fortune — 



but stay ! I have or rather had a 
cousin — a beautiful girl, and there- 
on hangs my story. 

My family has always been sub- 
ject to periods of— I will not say 
insanity — but to a kind of toppling 
over of the best powers of the mind, 
and the surrender of the whole man 
to the darker passions of his being — 
it is even on record that my great- 
grand-father, being in one of these 
stages, slew his best friend— for 
what, he could not tell— but the 
foul fiends siezed his soul and con- 
trolled him as a puppet. Dark sus- 
picion, hideous malignity, demonia- 
cal, hatred and kindred evil spells 
shook his soul as the winds sway 
the reed. Such, I say, is the char- 
acteristic of my family — or at least 
part, for these strange influences 
held not my father nor his father, 
and it was thought I would escape, 
but Omnipotence ordained otherwise. 
When my father died my cousin 
was left alone with me as my only 
relation. She had always seemed a 
sister to me— but this was not to last 
long. The sudden death of my 
father had a strange effect on me — 
for some days I was the same — but 
then — O, then! I shudder as I 
think of it. Grief came and settled 
upon my soul like a black veil ; my 
mind seemed almost overthrown, and 
goaded to madness by new sensations. 
In my cousin I saw the would-be 
destroyer of my life. In every 
morsel of food placed before me I 

saw written in glowing letters — 
Poison!! eat not or thou shaltdie! 
I cursed my very soul, drove off the 
servants and ground my teeth for 
very rage! 

I was no longer myself. Even in 
my fair cousin's eyes I saw the flick- 
ering lights of the fiends. Death, 
death, death everywhere seemed ly- 
ing in wait for me, and I believed 
my cousin to be some strange mistress 
of hades who sent the dark minions 
of death at my heels. One day I 
was busy in my room — no one out- 
side knew what I was doing — but I 
knew — I was busy — busy taking 
brick from the side of the massive 
ancient chimney, till I had space 
enough for me to lie comfortably 
within its walls. I carefully hid the 
brick, covered the aperture with a 
curtain, mixed mortar in my chamber, 
set and waited night-fall. 

Soon the dusk of evening draped 
the hills. I was glad — light suited 
not my spirit. 

I rang a bell and requested my 
cousin to come and sit with me, say- 
ing that I was unwell. She entered 
my room. I stepped behind her, 
closed and locked the door, and then 
I said — ''sit down sweet mistress of 
hades and converse with your victim." 
She shuddered (I thought it was 
from guilt) and sat down. 

Then I suddenly seized her, gag- 
ged and tied her in the chair, and 
shouted for having triumphed. I 
took- this sharp glittering knife — 


opened an artery and let the blood 
flow into a large vessel that I had 
convenient — so that no blood spots 
would besprinkle the floor. 

Slowly the life current flowed 
away, and when I felt the heart no 
longer palpitate, I shouted and 
laughed, and answered back the 
mockeries of the demons in the air. 
I then cut off her right hand, placed 
her in the aperture in the chimney — 
walled it up— and my work was 
done. I took what money I had, 
placed it together with the hand and 
knife in my portmanteau, locked the 
door and came to Chapel Hill — no 
one knows where I am." 

" Here is the hand," he said, open- 
ing the curious bureau I had before 
noticed, " and here is the knife." 

He flung the girl's hand upon the 
floor, It seemed to my eyes to 

writhe and twist and clutch at the 
empty air; the firelight streamed 
over it in lurid horror. I tried to 
scream — my lips refused to move — 
my tongue was dry and seemed to 
cleave to my mouth. 

"See! see!! there's her hand, and 
here's the knife. Sit still, sit still ! 
you shall not betray me ! This knife 
is trusty — it shall drink deep of your 
life's blood," and his fiendish laugh- 
ter seemed to mock me in my agony. 

He approached me, with that long 
glittering, gleaming knife, and I saw 
his eves reflect the gleaming of the 
blade, as with a sudden bound he 
sprang towards me, uttering a fiend- 
ish shriek, and raised the knife above 
my head ! 

My cigar was gone out, and fancy 
had been weaving gossamer webs in 
the air. 



As one of our Southern writers, 
Miss M. is taking a high stand, and 
we think our readers will .be inter- 
ested in a personal description. A 
review of one of her latest works 
will be found in another column.. 

The following account of the au- 
thor of " In the Tennessee Moun- 
tains," " The Prophet of the Great 
Smokv Mountains," etc., is abridged 

from an article in the St. Louis Globe- 
Democrat : 

Miss Murfree is described by a 
friend as wonderfully attractive in 
conversation. Paralysis in child- 
hood caused lameness of such a 
character that she could not'partici- 
pate in any of the wild sports of 
children, while a reading habit was 
developed; and having all of a 

child's need of amusement, she in 
vented a kind of play all her own. 
Her fondness for works of fiction 
was marked; she read with much 
seriousness and afterward played out 
the story in her imagination, with 
mother, father, and all the house- 
hold invested with the characteristics 
of the personnel of the romance. 
This pastime strengthened an origin- 
ally vivid imagination, and her ob- 
servation grew wonderfully acute. 
There was much to see in the Ten- 
nessee country in which she spent a 
greater portion of her life, and all 
those quickly drawn suggestions that 
compose her early stories and later 
novels are from the }[fe. She was 
born near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 
but shortly afterward the family re- 
moved to Nashville. In 1873 they 
returned to Murfreesboro, where 
they lived until three or four years 
ago, when they came to St. Louis. 
William L. Murfree, father of the 
young author, was a successful law- 
yer prior to the war, and owned a 
large amount of property. His wife, 
Priscilla Dickinson, u as the daugh- 
ter of Colonel Dickinson, whose re- 
sidence near Murfreesboro was in its 
day one of the most notable of the 
region. It was from this locality 
that Miss Murfree drew the scenes 
of " Where the Battle was Fought." 
Miss Dickinson was an heiress to a 
considerable fortune, which, with 
that of Mr. Murfree, diminished 
terribly "after the war." It was on 

account of these misfortunes that the 
family went to live on the old Dick- 
inson plantation. They were to stay 
there only a short time, but did stay 
years. Life in such a place is very 
barren of amusement, and it was out 
of that barrenness that the first of 
the stories now known under the 
collective title of "In the Tennessee 
Mountains" was evolved: "The 
Dancin' Party at Harrison's Cove." 
It had been the custom during the 
summer months, when living on the 
lowlands of Tennessee is not especi- 
ally conducive to health, for the 
family to go into the mountains of 
East Tennessee ; and it was in some 
fifteen summers of such opportunity 
for the study of the peculiar types 
found there that the material after- 
ward utilized was unconsciously 
gathered. None of it was used, 
however, until about six years ago, 
when Miss Murfree undertook to 
write a story with the intention of 
offering it for publication. " The 
Dancin' Party" was the outcome of 
this endeavor, and was read to the 
family for criticism when completed. 
The praise they accorded determined 
her to offer it to "The Atlantic," in 
which magazine the story, or rather 
study, was published. "A-Playin' 
of Old Sledge at the Settlemint," 
"The Star in the Valley," "The 
Romance of Sunrise Rock," " Elec- 
tioneer^' on Big Injun Mounting,' 
" Over on the T'other Mounting," 
and "The 'Harnt' that walks Chil- 



howee," followed in the same maga- 
zine; the last, a ghost story of pecu- 
liar power, being possibly the most 
successful. The quaint titles of most 
of these stories aided not a little in 
the impression created. 

In addition to the work upon 
which Miss Murfree's reputation is 
based, she has contributed to " The 
Youth's Companion" a number of 
charming stories for boys, with whom 
she has a wonderful amount of sym- 
pathy. " The Prophet of The Great 
Smoky Mountains/' a serial, is now 
running in " The Atlantic." " Down 
the Ravine," a serial, is now an at- 
traction of " Wide Awake." 

Mr. William L. Murfree, Jr., 
brother of the lady, says of her work : 
"She has studiously avoided draw- 
ing portraits, though it has been said 
' Where the Battle was Fought ' con- 
tains several that have been recog- 
nized. So unwilling has she been 
to seem to have done this, that in 
her description of the old mansion 
much of the unreal has been infused. 
Her pictures of people are of types, 
not individuals; and where it is 
thought an individual has been 
drawn, it is because that person pos- 
sesses, in large degree, the peculiari- 
ties of his class. Mr. Aldrich and 
her publishers knew that ' Craddock ' 
was an assumed name, but never 
doubted that M. N. Murfree— thus 
she signed her letters — was a man. 

The nom de plume, her style of writ- 
ing and chirography, all contributed 
to this impression. The name was 
assumed for a cloak in case of fail- 
ure, and accident led to its choice. 
Those portions of* her writing which 
are called peculiarly masculine are 
not in any sense affectations. It was 
never doubted she was a man, and 
hence there was no reason for the 
adoption of disguise in writing. 
Each portion of her work was read 
to the family before being sent away, 
and, it may be, sometimes criticised 
as to some detail ; she is too positive 
and painstaking to need or allow 
interference in the plan or arrange- 
ment of her material." 

Miss Murfree is about five feet 
four inches in height, of slight form. 
Her conversation is animated. Her 
reading has not been confined to any 
especial fbld, though her penchant 
is for history and the most ambiti- 
ous of fiction. 

Miss Murfree's father, in addition 
to legal writing, has written articles 
published in " The Century" 
" Adrift in Pensacola Bay," a story, 
was printed recently in " Lippin- 
cottfs Magazine" and " How Uncle 
Gabe Saved the Levee," which ap- 
peared several years ago, will be 
remembered by readers of " Scrib- 
ner's Magazine" Her brother was 
for three years editor of " The Cen- 
tral Law Journal." 



Philanthropic and Dialectic Literary Societies 


Pi. *Phi. 

J. F. Schenck. James Thomas. 

G. B. Patterson. V. W. Long. 
W. A. Self. St. Clair Hester. 


One copy one year $1.00 

Onecopy six months 75 

Five copies one year 4_00 

Business men will find the columns of the 
Magazine a good advertising medium, as 
it circulates widely and effectively. Apph- 
for rates. 

Address, V. W. LONG, 

Business Manager, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Chapel Hill, N. C, Nov., 1885. 


We beg leave to inform our indif- 
ferent friends that we have failed 
hopelessly in securing the services of 
any publishing house in America 
that will do our work for us gratis. 
A sad thing it is ; but it must be so, 
and there is no appeal from the in- 
evitable ! 

We have inherited from our par- 
ents of the long ago a predilection 
for charitable institutions, and we 
have now, under serious and solemn 
deliberation, the best manner of 
coming to the rescue of all those 
magazines and journals whose sub- 

scribers have money for every other 
purpose than that of paying sub- 

The headquarters of this associa- 
tion for the relief of editors shall be 
known as the Journalist's Arcadia, 
a place where it will cost nothing to 
publish a Magazine — where printing 
is but play and pastime. 

Farewell, unhappy, troublesome 
times! Hail, thou blessed milieu 
ium! come thou glorious period of 
plenty— where subscription shall be 
bat a name and money shall be held 
only as a relic of the barbaric past! 
The writer has not unfrequently 
dreamed of fame, and now at last 
behold !— the pioneer of this grand 
movement which is destined to re- 
volutionize — the idea is overwhelm- 
ing — impossible dictur ! 

But, dear reader, be so kind as to 
remember that this thing is, as yet, 
in its incipiency, and just at present 
we are greatly in need of money ; 
and if you are in arrears you will 
make us happy, and doubtless ease 
your own conscience by " paying 

"Finally, we would extend our 
sympathy to the man who reads his 
neighbor's Magazine. 


There is, on the one hand, a sort 
of instinctive prejudice against all 
new movements, as well as, on the 
other, an anxiety for change for the 



mere sake of change. The simple 
fact of novelty should not be con- 
sidered in the council of reason, and 
the policy of u letting good enough 
alone" is always safe and never too 

The question of moving our libra- 
ries into the University library 
building has been agitated for some 
time, and, notwithstanding its recent 
defeat, its supporters are determined 
to continue agitating; it until the 
prejudices^) of the opposition are 
broken down. On the side favor- 
ing the movement are argued con- 
venience and economy (?) — to the 
latter of which the nature of the 
motion gives some apparent force. 
But economy and convenience are 
cold and. barren terms to the hearts 
of those who feel that by moving our 
libraries we sacrifice our interests as 
individual and separate organiza- 
tions — -that we surrender the legacy 
which has been handed down to us 
despite the ravages of a civil war — 
our legacy — ours, not to deliver up, 
but " ours to enjoy and ours to pro- 
tect"; that we show a lack of the 
respect and tender feeling due to 
those loyal men of days gone by who 
labored for the societies when they 
did not do so for the University, 
" not that they loved the University 
less, but the societies more " ! 

However, there are other consid- 
erations worthy of note. The Uni- 
versity library building is not as 
larsreas Memorial Hall, and we have 

no Vanderbilts backing our fin- 

Are the friends of the scheme dis- 
satisfied with the existing relations' 
between the societies themselves,, and 
between the societies and their re- 
spective libraries? Has some one 
discovered another mark of stupidity 
in our unfortunate (I) predecessors — 
unfortunate not to have lived in this 
wonderful age of progress and of 
change, of novelties and of move- 

It might be suggestive, and cer- 
tainly not unfair, to ask the reader 
to picture to his u mind's eye " the 
condition of our societies and the 
state of our libraries in twenty-five 
years after some such change has 
been effected. " Respice ad finem." 


Is everybody satisfied with the 
present arrangement for the exer- 
cises of commencement day? Is it 
entirely unobjectionable that a few 
should be selected from the Senior 
class to deliver orations on that oc- 
casion ? Is the orator's medal given 
to the best speaker in the Senior 
class, or to the best out of the num- 
ber which the Faculty may select 
from the class ? Is this commence- 
ment custom perpetuated for the 
benefit of those who have already 
established a reputation before the 
people of the State, or is it for the 
benefit of those just entering the field 

of strife ? These questions are not 
unworthy of note. The wisdom of 
"cutting down" the number of 
speakers is not denied. Perhaps it 
is necessary — a "necessary evil. 


To live is to strive— to fight 
against misfortune— to battle against 
storm and tempest— to steer clear of 
the wiles and stratagems laid by foes 
and friends— to stand up manfully 
against the enemies that lurk along 
the path of mortal pilgrimage. A 
troublous world, indeed, this, were 
there not friends by our side with 
sympathizing hearts and willing 
hands. But how many of these 
friends seem to be utterly powerless 
in every way except to give advice 
and make suggestions! Let no one 
depreciate the worth of well-timed, J 
well-meant advice. Its value cannot I 
be denied. But it must be remem- 
bered that advice alone is of little I 
moment to the discontented, unhappy I 
man — the man who is in trouble. I 
There are too many of those who 
stand aloof, clothed in the mantle of 
their self- wisdom, and warn — "you'd 
better do this," "better not do that;" 
of those who wait till the end has 
come and say with a prophetic air— 
"I told you so," "I knew how it 
would be." Glad tidings do you 
bear to the sick man when you ad- 
vise him "to get well"— to the bank- 
rupt, when you suggest that " 'tis an 

unpleasant thing to be in debt." A 
happy message, indeed, to the drown- 
ing man, were you to suggest that 
he "keep his head above the water 
and pull for the shore." A celestial 
balm it would be to the agonizing 
soul of the luckless being who is 
slowly but steadily sinking to an 
irrevitable doom in the devouring 
quicksands, if you should call out— 
"friend, you had better strike for 
solid ground!" 

What we need is more active help 
and not so much advise and so many 


Nothing is more wholesome for 
| men and institutions of public inter- 
| est than criticism— a fair and un- 
biased consideration of their faults 
J as well as a just commendation of 
j their merits. Of all the detestable 
weaknesses to which unfortunate 
' man is heir, none is more detestable, 
none more pusillanimous than the 
weakness manifested in this emotion 
of finding fault. There are men 
who would not be content to dwell 
in Paradise — no opening for the ex- 
ercise of their talents! 

If there is any one institution in 
our State which deserves the special 
friendship of all her sons, that insti- 
tution is her University. If not 
friendship, give her justice, at least. 
Let us clo everything in a fair spirit. 


If you have an innate fondness for 
dwelling on the faults (?) of your 
surroundings, for heaven's sake keep 
it under control— don't let it be seen 
by the world. Away with these 
puerile, groundless attacks on the 
institution of our fathers I Earnest 
men are laboring in her interest, and 
earnest men will succeed despite the 
winnings and railings of those who 
rejoice in being inimical to the in- 
terests of everybody except them- 
selves. Cast out these evil spirits- 
envy, covetousness, jealousy, and let 
peace and content and unity dwell 
in the hearts of all ! 


Michigan: By Hon. T. M 
Cooley,LL.D.— His latest volume 
in the American Series of Common- 
wealths, edited by Horace E. Scud- 
der fully comes up to the standard set 
by Virginia and others of the series. 
Mr. Cooley takes us from the be- 
ginning of settlements in a wild 
Western State and leads us up to the 
present, all the while presenting to 
our view the changes in manners, 
customs and general condition of the 
people. He not only gives histori- 
cal facts in order, but illustrates at 
every step the condition of finance, 
the press, religion and education. 

His description of the free school 
system and the founding of the State 
University is of peculiar interest, and 
his whole story is told in a clear, 

systematic, yet thoroughly easy and 
entertaining manner. Price $1.25. 
Houghton Mifflin & Co., Boston. 

The Prophet of the Great 
Smoky Mountains: By Chas. 
Egbert Cradtjock. — A most 
charming story and true to life. 
Miss Murfree tells the story of 
love in the mountains and makes 
her main characters— Dorinda Cayce 
and Hick Tyler, pass through some 
interesting experience. Her descrip- 
tion of the manners and language of 
the East Tennessee and Western 
North Carolina mountain folk is, 
according to the editors personal 
knowledge, correct and life like. 
She introduces many beautiful de- 
scriptions that are really artistic bits 
of word painting. Price $1.25. 
Houghton Mifflin & Co., Boston. 


Long, long ago the "concord o£ sweet sounds" 

Delighted man. The spirit blest 
Of melody divine, balm to his wounds 

Had been, and to his soul sweet rest. 

The loss of Eden and the dreadful doom 
Dwelt fresh upon the life of men— 

The barn of Damach and of Zillah's son 
Rang o'er the new-born wood and glen. 

Olympus tremblod when heaven's mighty sin 

Kent forth his brow. A rear profound 
Held man. But the weird notes of Orpheus' lyre 

Held heav'n and earth and hades bound. 
O Music, how divine thou art! How deep 

The feeling, how su'dirne the thought 
Thou dost iuspire! Thou canst make men to 

Weep bitter tears. Or, as if nought 

Had been their lire-long portion but content— 

The cup or joy and peace to quaff- 
As if no care with cank'ing sorrow blent 
Had dimmed their cheeks,— thou makestthem 



Hurrah for the two out of twenty 
lu the South building, owing for last 
term's subscription to the Magazine 
who have paid up. 

The first issue of the Magazine 

for this term came in late, but was 

hailed with unusual enthusiasm. 

When the announcement was made 

that it had arrived, there was such 

a rush by the crowd to get a copy 

that the Editors were compelled to 

smuggle off the package to a private 

room, and look themselves in to 

escape the press of the anxious mob. 

The throng followed and howled 

around the door and windows like 

hungry wolves. In order to quiet 

it we cast a copy from the window 

into the crowd. That made them 

worse. The copy was torn into 

small fragments in their desparate 

struggle to see who should first have 

the honor of reading it. Most of 

this crowd were those who owe about 

two years subscription. 

The boxing gloves have come. 
Now is an opportunity to develop 
your muscle, and your pugilistic 
qualities. A sparring match will 
take place every evening in room 
No. 22, just over Dixon's. All 
wishing to enter the evening con- 
tests must hand in their names in 
idvance. Admission free. The oc- 

cupants of room do not hold them- 
selves responsible for damages in the 
room below from the accidental fall- 
ing of plastering, Th e de velopm ent 
of the body and the cultivation of 
the noble and elevating art of eye- 
bruising, nose-dislocating and rib- 
breaking must not be neglected be- 
cause of the probability of a little 
plastering falling in the room below. 
What can that do? The very worst 
it can do is to fracture somebody's 
skull- but what does a skull or two 
amount to? 


Hold me by the coat tail while I 
dive after that oyster.— Cherokee 


Young lady to Haywood— who 
had just knocked: "Come in. Is 
that you Frank?" Haywood felt 

Past graduate to young lady: 
" Do you know the best way to warm 
apples when they are cold and hurt 
your teeth ?" Young lady—" Yes, 
eat them," 

Pigs vs. People.— We are strong 
advocates of the stock law. It is 
important that the streets should be 
kept clear of hogs. One of our in- 
nocent and unsuspecting Sophs took ' 
fright at some swine a few nights 

ago, and might have done an injury 
to himself but for two of his friends 
being present, who caught him be- 
fore he had run more than a quarter 
of a mile. We protest against the 
citizens turning out upon the public 
highway animals of such appearance 
and manners as to prevent the tired 
student from taking his healthful 
evening; walks. 

love under the head of moral re- 
sponsibility, we expect to hear him 
inquire if it would be a sin to com- 
mit painless suicide to escape a 
troubled life; and in the meantime 
the class will do itself an injustice 
in dwelling so long upon one topic 
at the neglect of other important 

* * 


If the least man at the University 
can devour five plates of oysters and 
call for more, what can a " long lank 
and breezy man do ? 

The South Building claims the 
two champion vocalists of the Uni- 
versity. Thev surpass the most 
accomplished and highly cultivated 
operatic warblers ; for they can sing 
a good long piece without even the 
shadow of a tune to it. 

A certain Senior in the Psychology 
class has propounded successively the 
following questions : How can a fel- 
low know when he has gained a 
woman's heart? He was informed 
that by asking he should know. A 
few days afterwards, "Can a man 
reason a woman into loving him ?" 
" No more than a goat," was the ver- 
dict of class and professor. A few 
days later, "Now Dr. if a man's will 
is free, why is it he cannot help lov- 
ing a woman, though she sit down 
upon him?" (figuratively he meant.) 
If he does not dismiss the subject of 

A frequent visitor on Psychology 
class remarks, "Dr. has lectured on 
love every time I have attended re- 
citations recently." A reckless pun- 
ster replies, " He has been doing this 
for Weeks. 

Mr. Thomas Dixon, the brilliant 
young orator, and legislator from 
Cleveland, gave an elocutionary re- 
cital in the Chapel Tuesday night, 
the 6th. The object of his work 
was to assist in raising funds for 
i erecting a monument over the rest- 
ing place of the lately deceased R. A. 
Shotwell. Mr. Dixon's reputation, 
and his worthy cause, secured him 
a splendid audience. All were de- 
lighted with the talent which he 
displayed. We are indebted to him 
for a most satisfactory interpretation 
of the real meaning of Poe's Raven, 
and the explanation of the circum- 
stances, and the peculiar character of 
the man which led to the production 
of this weird and mysterious, yet 
fascinating poem. His recitals oi 
" How Ruby Played," and of some 
scenes from Richard III were superb. 

Considerable interest has been 
manifested by the advocates of both 
sides of a question recently introduced 
into the Societies as to the propriety 
of uniting the Phi and Di society 
Libraries with the University 
Library in the University Library 
building- We lack space to discuss 
fully in this issue the inducements 
and objections to such a movement, 
but will give our views in the next.' 
It seems that it is enough to show 
that a consolidation would lighten j 
the expense on each Society, and ad- ! 
fail us five times during the week 
instead of only twice to a much ! 
larger selection of books, more sys- ! 
tematically arranged, to induce any I 
one to favor the motion, yet many 
are ready to admit all this, and still 
oppose the motion "just because they 
lou't like it." 

It was our pleasure to attend a 
series of lectures delivered by Eev. 
Dr. Hughes in the Episcopal church, 
>n The Six Days Creation of the 

The object of the series was to 
how that there is no conflict between 
be biblical description of the crea- 
on of the world and that of true 
Oology. His lectures were intense- 
t interesting and instructive in as 
tuch as they not only removed 
most every shadow of contradic- 
on from between the two accounts, 
it also showed an almost perfect 

It seems unfortunate that there 
I are not more scientific minds in the 
, ministry who might sustain the 
truths of the Bible by scientific 
proofs. It is true that faith must 
j save the world, but whence that faith, 
if common sense combined with 
! science proves to us that the Bible 
, makes a sin gle absurd statement? 
| We cannot hope to understand the 
great "Book of Mysteries " entirely, 
but in the plain and simple state- 
ments of facts, in the first chapter 
of Genesis, we should be able to 
grasp the meaning, and if it & true 
it should agree with the results of 
truly scientific investigations. We 
have two histories of the dark and 
forgotton past. One is the Bible; 
| and the other is the hand-writing of 
J God upon the rocks of earth whose 
i words are as true as nature's laws, 
and by it all written history can be' 
verified or condemned by a correct 
interpretation of its language. Hence 
it is a matter of much importance 
whether these two histories are in 
harmony with each other. It is im- 
possible to give even a full outline 
of these lectures, but we will mention 
a few of the most important points. 
Dr. Hughes stated that the six days 
mentioned in that beautiful narra- 
tive in the first chapter of Genesis 
were not six days of twenty-four 
hours each—not six of man's days, 
but were six periods of almost incon- 
ceivable duration— six of God's days, 
The word day is used in the Bib?* 

t ^ / 'WA/a/«/'Vto'irtfe*& , o' 

to mean almost any length of time, 
as it is at the present. For example : 
we speak of anything as occurring 
in our day, or before or after our 
day, thus using the term "day" for 
an indefinitely long duration of time. 
Dr. Hughes states that all geologists 
agree that the earth was for a long 
time a molten mass, and through a 
tremendous lapse of ages it has cooled 
down till it has formed a crust on 
its surface. As proof of this we 
know, or rather conclude frOm the 
rate of increase of temperature, as we 
approach the centre of the earth, that 
at the distance of thirty or forty miles 
under the surface of the earth it is 
still a fiery mass of liquid. Again, 
we find that the polar diameter of 
the earth is shorter than the equito- 
rial diameter, showing that once the 
earth was in a liquid state and re- 
ceived this spheroidal form from its 
diciraal motion on its axis — as a 
proof of the existence of a hot mass 
in the earth's center, we have warm 
springs, which, of course, indicate a 
warmer region at the sources from 
which they flow, and what else but 
a heated, seething globe of fire with- 
in our earth would have raised the 
Alps or the Andes or supplied Ves- 
uvius or Cotapaxi—- or caused the 
rising and sinking of islands ? 
Every investigation goes to prove 
that the earth was once a liquid 
'burning ma?s 7 and has been for 
countless ages gradually cooling. In 
the ice bound regions of the North, 

elephant's fossils have been found, 
showing that this region was once 
warm enough for their existence. 
There is a similarity in all the plan- 
ets in this respect. Jupiter's diam- 
eter is about eleven times as great as 
the earth's ; but its days are only 
about ten hours long, thu%it has a 
much greater centrifugal force than 
the earth, so, taking it as true, that 
all the planets were once in a liquid 
state, astronomers concluded that 
Jupiter must be much more spheroi- 
dal in form than the earth. By in- 
I vestigation they found it so. 

The sun, which is considered by 
! some as the mother of all other 
i planets which revolve about it as a 
i common centre, is admitted to be a 
globe of fire. Its small specific 
gravity shows the pressure of heat. 
Its radiation and light are conclusive 
proofs of its being fire. The spots 
are believed to be portions of the 
sun cooling off. The sun, we con- 
clude, represents exactly the state in 
which the earth used to be, and con- 
cerning that time of the earth's ex- 
istence geological research can give 
us no other information. 

Dr. Hughes began with the first 
day of creation, which is mentioned 
in the Bible, and showed that it 
corresponds with the Archaic era in 
geology. Geologv does not profess 
to know what was done during this 
era or the first two days of creation, 
but the Bible states the work that 
was accomplished, and knowing the 

state of the earth, we can easily ex 
plain the process on scientific prin- 

This was "in the beginning" whfen 
"God created heaven and the earth, 
and the earth was without form and 
void." The earth was in a gaseous 
and liquid state, not in a fixed and 
definite shape, but subject to all the 
agitations that such immense heat 
was capable of producing. Hence it 
is spoken of as "without form." 
By "void" is meant destitute of life, 
which is incompatible with the gase- 
ous state. It is also written that 
"darkness was upon the face of the 
deep." It is believed by all scient- 
ists that the san and other luminary i 
bodies existed even before the earth. 
Granting that this was so, "darkness 
was upon the face of the deep" be- ' 
cause the light from other planets 
could not penetrate the vapors of 
evaporated waters, and gases from 
volatile substances which then en- 
veloped the earth. 

Belonging to the same era is the 
second day. Then God said "let 
there be a firmament in the midst of 
the waters, and let it divide the waters 
from the waters, and God made the 
firmament and divided the waters 
which were under the firmament j 
from the waters which were above | 
the firmament. What was the firm- 
ament? God called it heaven, but I 
the meaning of heaven is ambiquous. I 
Here heaven means the air or atmos- \ 
pare. Hence, the waters below the | 

firmament were those upon the earth, 
and the waters above the firmament 
were those which were in the sky. 
How were these great bodies of water 
divided? The sun's atmosphere 
I consists of volatized elements which 
. we could scarcely melt, and, of 
course, is in au intense state of ex- 
I citement from its great heat. A 
I flame has been observed to shoot out 
from the sun 8,000 miles in ten 
| minutes, showing how agitated must 
| be its atmosphere. It has already 
I been stated that the condition of our 
planet had been similar to that of the 
sun. So great was the agitation of 
the atmosphere that there could not 
be any separation of the elements. 
There was in the Archaic era much 
more carbon dioxide than at the 
present day, and it being heavier 
than vapor and air, settled at the 
bottom on the face of the earth as it 
became cooler, and the atmosphere 
became less disturbed. Hence, the 
carbon dioxide lay between the con- 
densed waters on the earth and the 
uncondensed and lighter vapor above 
and was the firmament. 

The third day is the beginning of 
the second geological era known as 
the Palaeozaic, and comprises the 
Silurian and Devonian ages. At 
the beginning of this day God said, 
"let the waters under the heaven be 
gathered together unto one place, 
and let the dry land appear." It 
seems that the writer of this passage 
must have known -thousands of years 



before our day that the whole earth 
was for a long time covered with 
water. Geology agrees with this 
statement of the Bible. It attributes 
the appearance of land to the ex- 
treme latter part of the Archaic era, 
while the Bible places it at the be- 
ginning of the next era. 

America first began to rise above 
the water about Labrador, and Eu- 
rope began about Norway and 
Sweeden. This division of the land 
and waters is spoken of in the one 
hundred and fourth Psalm, in which 
it is written of the waters, "Thou 
hast set a bound that they may not 
pass over ; that they turn not again 
to cover the earth," and it is a note- 
able and interesting fact that the 
continents and the waters have never 
changed places. On this same day 
God said, "I jet the earth bring forth I 
grass, the herb yielding seed, and the 
fruit tree yielding fruit after his 
kind, whose seed is in itself," and it 
is written that the command was 
fulfilled in the precise order in which 
it was made. Geology states that 
tender herbage, and perhaps grass, 
and the fruit trees came during the 
Devonian and Silurian ages. 

Hardly a species in one thousand 
of all the plants have been preserved, 
hence we can tell little or nothing 
about the age of their origin by geo- 
logical investigation. It is determ- 
ined, however, the fruit trees made 
their appearance during the Devon- 
ian age, which argues with the bibli- 

cal record. Then Dr. Hughes takes 
up the fourth day, which corresponds 
with the latter part of the Paleiozaic 
era, and the carboniferous age. 
On this day "God made two great 
lights; the greater light to rule the 
day, and the lesser light to rule the 
night." Of course the lights refer- 
red to are the sun and raoftn. We 
have admitted that the sun and pro- 
bably the moon was in existence be- 
fore this day, hence it seems incon- 
tistent that it should be stated that 
God made them on this day. 

The work of the fourth day has . 
nothing to do with the creation of 
these luminary bodies. They may 
have existed even before the first 
day. The apparent inconsistency 
arises from our misconception of the 
proper meaning of the word "made." 
This word is used in the Scripture, 
as well as at the present day, to mean 
prepare for use. For instance, we 
say that we make clothes when we 
only mean that we prepare them for 
use. In many instances the word 
i has been translated from the Hebrew 
as meaning to dress. 

Now how were the sun and moon 
prepared for use? By the condens- 
ation of the vapor and gases which 
had during the extremely hot condi- 
tion of the earth shut off every ray 
of light from the luminaries. Dur- 
ing this age the trees grew very 
large and thick. The immense 
forests aided in taking the moisture 
out of the atmosphere and deposited 



at through their roots into the 
ground. It was during this day 
that much of this rank vegetation 
sank beneath tne waters and became 
■covered with earth and formed nine- 
ten tns of all the coal which now ex- 

The lf$i day corresponds exactly 
with th<* Mesozoic era or Reptilian 
•age, Then God said " let the waters 
bring forth the movkfg creatures 
that hath life, and fowl that may 
fly al>ove the earth in the open 
firmament of heaven, and God cre- 
ated great whales, &c" This was 
strictly the reptilian age. It may be 
supposed that fish were created dur- 
ing this day because the word 
"whale" is mentioned in the text. 
These water creatures were to be 
reptiles. The text does not say so, 
but the marginal translation does, ! 
The word which was translated | 
"whale" really means dragon, serp- \ 
ent, or crocodile, There are several ! 
marginal translations along here that ' 
show that the translators were puz- ! 
zled as jta the correct meaning of | 
some of the words. 

Geology agrees with the Bible in 
its, record. It states that during 
this age the reptiles first appeared 
and appeared abundantly, and that 
they came from the water, * It also 
states that the fowls occurred after 
the reptiles, and that they came forth 
from the waters, for it states that 
flying fowls were at first flying re- 
tiles, ^[any fossils have been found 

of fowls, very much resembling 
reptiles, of that age. It is notable 
that the Geological and Biblical 
account agree in every respect con- 
cerning this day of creation. 

The sixth day ©f creation corres- 
ponds with the Cenozaic era or age 
of mammals. The Bible states that 
on this day "God said let the earth 
bring forth the living creatures after 
his kind, cattle and creeping tiling, 
and beast of the earth." « And God 
made the beasts of the earth after 
I his kind, and cattle after their kind, 
i and^every thing that creepeth upon 
I the earth after his kind. 

We notice here that unlike the 
J other of God's creations, the fulfill- 
; mentof his command is described as 
: taking place in an order different 
I from that in which he gave it. He 
J calls for the beasts of the earth last 
I in order, but in the fulfillment of 
I his demand they came first in order-, 
J We conclude from this departure 
from the rule that there was no order 
in the creation of these animals. 
These are the lower order oi animals, 
and are divided into three classes, 
viz: Cattle, creeping things, and 
beasts. The word translated "cat- 
tle''' includes large quadrupeds and 
domestic animals in general. By 
"creeping things" is meant snakes, 
The word from which "beast" was 
translated means wild animal. 

To crown all His works of millions 
and millions of years and make a 
grand finale of his creation, " God 



ereated man in his own image/ 7 j 
Geology agrees with the account of S 
the sixth (Jay's creation in that there 
was no order in the creation of the j 
lower mammals, and that the mam- J 
nials were domestic animals, wild 
animals, and snakes. It also asserts 
that man is of very recent origin. 
The age of the human race is a mat- 
ter undecided. 

Dr. Hughes discussed fully the | 
antiquity of man, and showed the | 
fallacies of several theories tending- 
to fix the origin of man at a date as 
far back as a hundred thousand years, i 
We know that man is of recent ori j 
gin, but we have never found suf- j 
ficient geological evidence to fix 
Upon this antiquity. 

We have tried to present some of 
the leading thoughts which we gath- 
ered from Dr. Hughes' lectures. We 
were struck with the harmony which 
exists between the intelligent inter- 
pretation of the Bible text and of 
geology throughout the whole de- 
scription of the creation. Moses 
must have been either inspired or a 
scientist far, far ahead of his day. 
The book of Genesis is entirely too 
exact to be a myth. 


On the first Saturday night in each 
month a public lecture is delivered 
in the Chapel, either by one of the 
Faculty or by some one outside 
whom they choose for the occasion. 
The students, town and community, 
knowing Dr. Battle would deliver a 

lecture at the last appointed time,, 
thronged the Chapel and composed 
an unusually large audience. His 
lecture was full of the most valuable 
information, and was flavored with 
the Doctor's characteristic wit and 
jokes. It is needless to say that a 
lecture from a man of such close ob- 
servation, such power of memory 
and practical sense was highly ap- 

President Battle began his lecture 
by describing the form of govern- 
ment anterior to the Revolution — a 
copy of the English. The Governor 
was a petty king, having power to- 
pardon, to veto acts of Assembly, to 
appoint officers — -including judicial 
officers — to prorogue and dissolve 
the Assembly, The council of State 
appointed by the crown on the re- 
commendation of the Governor was 
analagous to the House of Peers, the 
Assembly to the House of Commons. 
Owing to the fear of Executive pow- 
er the constitution of 1776 was 
framed on the principle of laae me ri g - 
ing the executive and magnifying 
the legislative. The General As- 
sembly elected the Governor for one 
year and controlled his salary ; gave 
him as advisers a Council of State, 
of their. own choice; could control 
his pardoning power ; elected all of- 
ficers of the militia, and also the sec- 
retary of State, Treasurer, Comptrol- 
ler, Justices of the Peace, &c. They 
also elected the Judges and control- 
led their salaries, and could turn 


them out of office by abolishing the 
•court, They had unlimited power 
of taxation subjects and amounts, 
and unlimited power of incurring 
-debts. That these tremendous pow- 
ers were not productive of great 
evils arose from the conservative 
■character of the two houses. The 
Senate consisted of one from each 
■county, a land holder, chosen by- 
land holders. The House of Com- 
mons of two from each county, a 
land holder chosen by free men, 

By drawing a North and South 
line along the Western part of Wake, 
President Butth showed that in 
1776 the counties East of that line 
were twenty -seven in number, and 
West of that line only eight. So 
that Eastern land holders had more 
than a two-thirds vote in each house. 
When new counties were created 
care was taken to form nearly as 
many Eastern as Western, 

The executive preserved its digui- I 
ty by social blandishment and per- I 
sonal influence, so that, as a rule, j 
every Governor up to 1835 elected I 
annually continued in office for the | 
three years allowed by the Oonstitu- j 
tion. The exceptions being 1 where 
he was changed to an office consid- | 
ered by him as more eligible. 
Treasurer Haywood held his post 
for thirty-three. Secretary of State 
White for thirty-two, and his suc- 
cessor, Hill, for forty-eight years. 
The Judiciary preserved its dignity 
by wise and honest decisions. The 

Judges were the first in the Union 
in claiming the right, k the case of 
Bayard vs. Singleton in 1787 of an- 
nulling an act of the Assembly be- 
cause in conflict with the constitu- 
tion;, a power possessed by no court 
in the world except in the United 
States, freely recognked now but at 
one time regarded as a usurpation 
on the rights of the legislature, 
Such was the conservative character 
of the General Assembly of North 
Carolina that they acquiesced in the 
action of our Judges, while in Ohio 
the Judges were impeached, (though 
not convicted) for simiiar decisions, 
and in Rhode Island they failed of 
re-election. The general assembly 
having to face elections, and being 
as a rule honest, exercised their 
almost despotic powers with great 
conservatism. They were economi- 
cal to the extent of stingy ness, con- 
fining the taxes to few subjects, and 
limiting them to six cents on the 
hundred dollars value, so that the 
people were measurably quiet, al- 
though land was taxed by the acre, 
instead of according to value, for 
forty years. But the success of the 
Erie canal in 1817— 1825, and the 
Railroad fever beginning about 1830, 
led to the demand by the Western 
counties for greater legislative power. 
President Battle then showed how 
this demand culminated in the con- 
vention of 1835, and the compro- 
mises then adopted. 

The number of Senators was fixed 


at fifty, distributed according to tax 
ation, so that they represented pro- 
perty mainly., elected by land holders. 

The house was- fixed at one hun- 
dred and twenty distributed, after 
allotiosf one to each county , accord- 
ing to population, estimating; bow- 
ever, as- a part of the population, 
three-fifths- of the slaves. The 
General Assembly thus constituted 
had unlimited power of increasing 
debt, but their power of taxation, 
while unlimited as to land and all 
other subjects-, except slaves, was 
confined as to the latter, 

Slaves- could not be taxed as 4 pro- 
perty, but only as persons, and the 
tax on each slave between twelve 
and fifty years of age must be the 
same as on each white man between 
the ages of twenty-one and forty -five. 

Passing rapidly over the abolition 
of the freehold requirement for vot- 
ers for the Senate in 1854, and the 
taxation of slaves according to their 
value as ordained by the convention 
of 1861, President Battle explained 
the theories of restoring the State 
to its relations with the Union, 
adopted by President Johnson and 
then by Congress. 

The constitution of 1868 being in 
the main a copy of the constitution of 
a State far distant from lis was in 
many features found not suited to 
our needs. It was amended in sev- 
eral particulars by legislative enact- 
ment and still more materially by a 
convention called in 1875. 

This amended constitution was 5 
ratified by the people in 1876, one 
hundred years- after the first. The- 
chief difference between the two 
constitutions were pointed out, for 
example, the Senate is- founded on 
population only, the House after 
giving one member to each county, 
likewise on population. The Gen- 
eral Assembly is- commanded to do 
some things- and forbidden to do 
others ;; its- attention is- directed to 
other subjects with liberty to act on 
them or not in its discretion. Its 
power of taxation is- regulated and 
limited j. its power of incurring debt* 
is restrained. The per diem and 
mileage, and the number of days for 
which the members may draw pay 
are alike prescribed. 

The Governor and other chief 
executive officers- owe their offices to 
the people and their salaries cannot 
be increased or diminished during 
their continuance in office. 

The Judges are elected by the peo- 
ple and are similarly made indepen- 
dent of legislative caprice. The 
Supreme Court has its jurisdiction 
defined in the constitution, and can 
thus watch over and protect the con- 
stitution. Since 1868 scores of acts 
of Assembly have been nullified by 
this Court, and the Assembly dare 
not resist and have not even com- 

President Battle, after mentioning 
many other points of difference be- 
tween the two constitutions explained 

the reasons thereof. Up to 1868 no 
change has been made that the ma- 
jority of any of our Assemblies has 
been bribed, as was done in Georgia 
in the case of the Yazooland fraud, 
but we have repeatedly seen moneys 
appropriated, debts incurred and 
officers elected by "log rolling." 
But the great cause of those treating 
the legislature as if its members may 
become either grossly ignorant or 
corrupt is of course universal suf- 

We have a large mass of ignorant 
and propertyless voters. They can- 
not be trusted to act wisely and ! 
honestly always in the selection of j 
:heir agents, and hence the powers I 
)f these agents must be restrained, 

theories of the day, the history of the 
constitutional protection of property 
against the propertyless and or the 
poor man against the rich is very 
j interesting. 

Tne history was given of the checks ' 
and safe-guards from the first con- 
stitution, when the General Assem- 
bly consisted of laud-holders, so- ap- 
portioned as to give over a two-thirds 
majority to Eastern slave owners, 
through the compromises of 1835, 
and subsequent changes to the pres- 
ent time, when the free man under 
fifty years, is tied to three hundred 
dollars worth of property, to be 
taxed the same and that not over two 

In conclusion, attention was called 

mtf +h» r iKl a i i Ju~-i1i -" w^ii, auwi , aLieuuou was called 

md the three departments, legisla- to the fact that Great Britain so 

ive, executive and judicial, balanced 
gainst each other. A single provi- 
ion has nullified this scrupulous 
are to keep the executive depart- 
ment independent of the legislative, 
"he House of Representatives can 
refer articles of impeachment, 
'he Senate is the court for the trial, 
'he impeachment of the Governor 
ow suspends him from office. A 
lajority of the house can thus sus- 
and this high officer, and a majority 
? the Senate, by delaying the trial 
in continue the suspension. 
Each action was once proposed 
it the proposal met with no favor,' 
id it is to be hoped that the con- 
rvative temper of our people will 
ve us from this evil. In view of 
e wild socialistic and nihilistic 

rapidly advancing towards universal 
| suffrage, has no such safe-guards as 
| we have. The provisions of magna 
j charta,the petition of rights, its de- 
| claration of rights, &c, are only acts 
| of parliament; with these they are ' 
beyond the power of the General As- 
sembly, and "Parliament" has come 
practically to mean the House f< 
Commons only. The constitution 
of the United States and of the States 
are the most perfect schemes ever de- 
vised for the protection of life lib- 
erty and property against the tyran- 
ny of the executive and the wild 
actions of the ignorant populace. 

The young men were exhorted to 
prize this great heritage, to guard it 
well, and transmit it to their succes- 
sors unimpaired. Many points of the 
lecture have been necessarily omitted. 




Dialectic Hall, XL N. C, 
October 31, 1885. 
Whereas, God, in his all-wise 
Providence, has seen fit to remove 
from our midst oor distinguished 
and highly esteemed fellow-member, 
Dr. W, C. Kerr; 

Resolved, That we humbly submit 
to the will of the Father of all, even 
in thiri great affliction. 

Resolved, That the cause of edu- 
cation has sustained a loss in the 
death of Dr. Kerr which cannot 
easily be repaird : the loss of a man 
whose zeal never slackened, and 
whose diligence did not relax even 
after a fatal disease had fixed upon 
him ; who devoted his varied attain- 
ments and best faculties to the ad- 
vancement of science and the good 
of his fellow-men. 

Resolved, That this faint evidence 
of our high appreciation of the worth 
of Dr. Kerr be sent to the bereaved 
family to convey to them our sym- 
pathy and condolence, to remind 
them that though he is taken from 
them he leaves to them an imperish- 
able heritage in his good fame and 
distinguished usefulness, and to show 
them that he has won the love and 
respect of the students of the Uni- 
versity, and the people of North 

Resolved, That copies of these re- 
solutions be sent to The News and 
Observer, The Durham Recorder, and 

The University Magazine, with 

request to publish. 

R. N. Hackett, ^ 

D. T. Wilson, V Com. 

N, H.D.Wilson, jr.) 

Dialectic Hall, U. N. C, 

Nov. 13, 1885. 
Whereas, God, in his all-wise 
providence, has seen fit to remove 
from our midst one of our most dis- 
tinguished and honorable fellow- 
members, Hon. A. A. McKoy, and 
to show our appreciation of his many 
virtues, and to express our sorrow at 
his untimely death : 

Resolved, That by the death of 
this eminent Judge and highly es- 
teemed gentleman, the Dialectic So- 
ciety, of which he was a member, 
and the State of North Carolina, 
have another illustrious son num- 
bered among their honored dead. 

Resolved, That to his bereaved 
family we take this means of ex- 
pressing our grief and sympathy, 
and further more feel assured that 
his life will prove a consolation to 
them in their affliction. 

Resolved, That a copy of these re- 
solutions be sent to the family of the 
deceased, and also to The Raleigh 
News and Observer, Wilmington 
Star, Clinton Caucasian, and Uni- 
versity Magazine, with a request 
to publish. 

D. T. Wilson, ] 

H. L. Greene, V Com. 

E. P. Withers, J 



— Since the last number of The 
Magazine was issued, this depart- 
ment has changed hands, Mr. 
Hester has turned his face toward 
the setting sun, and has carried out 
in a practical manner the advice of 
Horace Greely when he said, "go 
west, young man, go west." When 
a raw recruit comes into the editorial 
chair, it is usual for him to make his 
bow to the public, strive to wiu their 
favor, and, before they are made, 
offer excuses for mistakes which are 
said to be of the "head and not of 
the heart." Hoping that the reader 
will kindly take note of these re- 
marks, and lend us his kind sympa- 
thy, we finish our bow and proceed 
to work. 

— We were pleased to see Alton 
Mclver, class of '81, on the Hill a 
few days ago. He is looking fat 
and hearty, and is engaged in merch- 
andising at Jonesboro, N. C. 

— H. M. Rowe, who was in Col- 
lege last year, paid us a short visit 
recently. He is now a student of 
Trinity College "preparing" for the 
University classes. 

—Messrs. O. C. Bynum and W. 
E.Edrmndson were elected delegates 
from the chapter of the Sigma Alpha 
Epsilon Fraternity here, and attend- 
ed a convention of the different 
chapters held at Nashville, Tenn., a 

few weeks ago. They were absent 
eight days and report a very pleasant 

— Prof. Winston made a trip to 
Trinity College recently, and deliv- 
ered a lecture on the domestic cus- 
toms of the Romans. He reported 
a very pleasant time, and says that 
Horace Williams and Gus. Long, 
both of whom are University boys, 
are the strong men in the faculty. 

— What was the matter with our 
President the night of his lecture 
on the Constitution of 1776 and 
1876? He talked an hour and got 
off only three jokes. Was he sick ? 
Such a small number of jokes is very 

— A. S. Grandy, class '82, is a 
clerk in one of the government de- 
partments at Washington city. He 
went there to take a course in law, 
fell in love with the place and se- 
cured a position. Henry G. Osborne, 
Hi essay medalist '84, is there also! 

— A. J. Harris, class '84, known 
in College by the classic name of 
"Ajax," studied law last year at 
Dick and Dillard's law school in 
Greensboro, received his license to 
practice in October, and has settled 
in Henderson. A recent number of 
The Gold Leaf, published in that 
place, referred to him in a very 
complimentary manner. 


. — Nothing is so charming and 
cheerful as to go into the Chapel in 
the morning when the thermometer 
is at 30° and see the new cold stove 
and half a, dozen shivering boys try- 
ing to keep it warm. But this stove 
was put up for "special occasions/' 
as if we were not as apt to freeze on 
one occasion as on another. Please 
have compassion and give us more 
fire or less "prayers." 

— The winter has come, and with 
it a demand for wood and coal. It 
is also the season when boarding 
houses break. One of the Sophs 
finding that he can secure neither 
wood or grub without pecuniary 
outlay, proposes to hibernate. He 
has visited the professor of natural 
history and received the necessary 

— The Phi Society recently pre- 
gsnted its valuable collection of 
minerals to the University museum, 
thinking that they belonged there 
rather than in the library of a liter- 
ary society A sword surrendered 
at Yorktown was placed in the 
cabinet of curiosities which is now 
being made up by the faculty. 

—Julian Wood, class '84, spent 
the sessions of 1884-85 at Johns 
Hopkins University, taking a special 
e >nvse in history. He went to 
Euiope last summer, and is now 
t iking a course of law at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. 

- — Scene in' the Astronomy class ; 
Prof. G.— Mr. McM.,. how long 
would it take you to count ninety- 
two millions and a half? 

Mr. McM. About half a day, I 

— Scene in the English Literature 
class: Prof. H. (reading), 

" He might return to vasty Tartar back, 
And.teli the legions, I ean never view, &c." 

Mr. J., for what is Tartar a short- 
ened form? 

Mr. J. (with a smile), for Jfett, sir. 

— M. C. Milleuder of Johnston 
county, who was at one time a pro- 
fessor at the Bingham School, is now 
a student in medicine at the Univer- 
sity of Virginia. So are T. J. 
Hoskins and S. H. Cannady. They 
are all University boys. 

— We recently noticed the marri- 
age of Mr. Norman L. Shaw, editor 
of The Albemarle. Enquirer, of Eden- 
ton, to Miss , of Warrentom 

Mr. Shaw is one. of our old Alumni 
and we congratulate him on his 
change in life for the better. 

— Y. D. Moore and S. P. Wilson 
left the University last June to 
tramp the country as book agents. 
They soon grew tired of that busi- 
ness, and now have a flourishing 
school iu the west. 

— We were pleased to see C. K. 
Thomas, Jr., class of '70, on the 
I Hill recently. He is now a lawyer 
| in Beaufort, N. C. 


— During the past summer Mr. 
C. Taylor Grandy, one of our form- 
er editors, had charge of The Falcon, 
of Elizabeth City, and performed 
the duties of his office well. 

— Some of the Class of 1885, 
where they are and what they are 
doing: — 

J. A. Bryan is president of an 
Academy at Gastonia. He has laid 
aside politics and quill driving, and 
is devoting himself to his favorite 
studies — English and speech making. 
He recently purchased a full set of 
the Encvclopsedia Brittanica, and 
has gone to work in earnest. 

H. A. Latham, former editor of 
The Magazine, merchant to the 
University, &c, is now general agent 
for the publishing house of John S. 
Wily & Co., with a salary of $1,200 
a year. He takes a few rubber 
stamps along to fill in the odds and 

Marion Butler has a flourishing 
School at Clinton, Sampson county. 

W. D. Pollock is the cashier of 
Loftiu's bank in Kinston. 

J. R. Monroe is teaching in one 
of Hie excellent preparatory schools 
of Wilmington. He is contemplat- 
ing matrimony. 

Sol. Weill is teaching Greek here, 
and rumor says he is a successful 
teacher too. 

Ernest Mangum is taking a port 
graduate course in college and is 
devoting himself to higher English. 

St. Leon Scull is a country peda- 
gogue in Rowan county. 

Julian Mann is teaching in Fair- 
field, Hyde county. 

Jene Felix West is at the Univer- 
sity of Virginia. He is taking a 
two years course of law in one. He 
says the boys wear beavers and long 
tail coats, and carry canes. Lord 
deliver us from the dudes. 

C. R. Thomas, Jr., class '80, was 
on the Hill recently, visiting his 
brothers. He is now practicing law 
in Beaufort, N. C, and is doing 
well, we hear. 

Rev. J. U. Newman is professor 
of English literature in Antioch 
College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. He 
has charge of a church in the town 

Alex. Feild is teaching in the 
Horner School at Oxford. 

We hope to complete this list in 
our next number. 


Among Our Exchanges, 

The College Message, a monthly 
journal; devoted to the interest of 
Greensboro Female College, falls on 
our table this month for the first 
time. Knowing something of the 
energy and talent among the young 
ladies of the Institution, we predict 
for The Message much success. 

We extend our sympathy to The 
Wake Forest Student, upon the severe 
illness of its poet. We hope he will 
be better ere he sings again. Cupid 
shot him, and here is his wail : — 
" Darling, tell me how I have won 
Such bitter woe ere I've begun 
To sip from Love's enchanted spring 
The hidden sweets which poets sing ?" 

* * 

The " Belva Lockwood brigade " 
has evidently made a charge on the 
Randolph Macon Monthly, from the 
spirited discussion of "woman's 
rights" in its last issue. Don't be 
alarmed gentlemen, the women will 
not take you ! 

The Wabash has united with The 
Lariot, and announces to its readers 
that its name must be spelled now 
with capital letters, and that it can 
never die. Oh that your prophecy 
be true, dear Wabash! If so, a suc- 
cess unparalleled in the history of our 
country awaits other American journ- 
alist, and many a lean and lank editor 

will yet wax fat, and wear good clothes 
as other people. 


The Student is the name of a 
sprightly little monthly that comes 
to us from Pennsylvania. It is pub- 
lished in the interest of the Society 
of Friends, and like everything 
those good people undertake, it is a 
success. Its editorials are plain, 
forcible and to the point — it is in 
fact our idea of what a journal de- 
voted to the interest of education 
ought to be. Among the best ar- 
ticles of this month we notice "the 
christian teaching of the classic," 
showing the benefit, from a moral 
stand-point, to be derived from the 
classics. " How to study history " 
also furnishes some valuable infor- 
mation to the readers. 

A person with a flat nose, reced- 
ing forehead or probably a knot on 
i the side of his head has never im- 
I pressed us as anything unusual until 
we read carefully The Phrenological 
Journal, published by Messrs. Fow- 
ler, Wells & Co., of New York. 
The Journal is a first-class Magazine, 
and the November issue contains 
some excellent articles, among which 
we notice the following : — The writer 
of the production, " an American 
Botany Bay," reviews the present 
mode of punishment for criminals, 


and after objecting to them all, con 
eludes with a suggestion of trans- 
porting all criminals to Alaska. 
As a matter of course perfection is 
never attained in any human under- 
taking. So we cannot expect such 
a result in our system of punishment. 
When the pillory was common 
among most of the States, the great 
cry was, that it was a shame to pub- 
lic decency. The penitentiary was 
substituted in its stead, and now 
many sympathetic (!) Writers grow 
eloquent in their abuse of this sys- 
tem, because the convicts have to 
work a little harder than the average 
tramp. Yes, we agree with the 
author of "An American Botany 
Bay," that the present system is de- 
fective, and with him we favor 

transportation, but not to Alaska 

let us transport graver offences to a 
territory of higher temperature, and 
let the convict of petty offences re- 
ceive reward at the whipping post. 
The Southern Bivouac for October 
contains some excellent articles. 
Among them we noticed "Antebel- 
lum Charleston." "The Beginning 
of the Klu Klux Elan/' "The 
Pocahontas of the South," with sev- 
eral other articles that are exceed- 
ingly interesting. 

No one who has any interest in 
the part played by the South in the 
history of the late war between the 
States should fail to read it. It is 
both a literary and historical maga- 

zine, published monthly by B. F. 
Avery & Sons, Louisville, Ky. 
Price $2 per annum. 


The November number of Electra 
is quite up to the standard, and it is 
a Magazine that will always be of 
special interest to students. 

The range of subjects discussed is 
wide and liberal, while its list of 
contributors is as notable as those of 
many of its contemporaries. Special 
rates made to schools and colleges. 
Address Annie E. Wilson & Issa- 
bella M. Layburn, Louisville, Ky. 


Cannon Farrar opens the Novem- 
ber issue of the Brooklyn Magazine 
with a decidedly notable and elo- 
quent paper on the question " Should 
America have a West-Minster Ab- 
by ?" In no previous production 
from the pen of this gifted and dis- 
tinguished English preacher has his 
love for and admiration of America, 
our institutions and great men ever 
been so eloquently made manifest as 
in this paper. 

A commendable taste and wisdom 
has been shown by the Magazine in 
procuring the services of such men. 
By a praiseworthy display of enter- 
prise and literary excellence, it has 
achieved a deserved success in a 
short time, and of which its conduc- 
tors should feel proud. 

The JAbrary Magazine for Novem- 
ber fully carries out its promise to 


furnish a repetory of the best peri- 
odical writing of the current month 
or two. This number contains 
about half a score of the most care- 
fully conceived and best written 
papers in the English Reviews. 
Among them there is a thoughtful 
essay by Bishop of Carlilse entitled 
" Thoughts about life," being really 
a review of Herbert Spencer's 
Principles of Biology. The article 
on the " New Star in the Andromula 
Nebula," by Richard A. Proctor, is 
worth more than the space it occu- 
pies, and might be of special interest 

to some of the students of the " Is- 
land universe." 


Shakesperkma for October con- 
tains the following articles : " Coun- 
cils and Comedians;" Hamlet and 
Montague •" " Annals of the Career 
of John Day," and ''Shakespeare 
Societies in America. Their methods 
and their work." 

In addition to these articles there 
are a great many notes and queries 
and some miscellaneous matter. 
This Magazine is one of the best of 
its kind, and is indispensible to the 
student of Shakespeare. 


University Magazine. 

Old Series Vol. XVIII 

New Series Vol V. JANUARY, 1886. No. A 


" He was not, for God took him" 

His throngmg years marched to the gates of bliss in stately tread ■ 

The garnered fruit of age upon the air a mellow sweetness shed- ' 

Even as in Eastern shrines, within the alabaster vase 

Soft shines the perfumed lamp, his heaven-fraught heart glowed through his face 

But on one day he was not in the market-place, 

Where oft, in thunder-tones, his warning voice 'rang clear 

Of love of God and coming doom : nor in the dear 

And happy home could he who was its joy be found. 

A dreadful blank was in the world ; no sound 

From heaven gave sign. Where is he ? cried the wondering child 

O, where is he ? the mother grayed in anguish wild. 

The hoary sinner feared that silence of the world, 

As if at last God's curse would surely now be hurled— 

But all believed that he who walked in love 

Of God and men must be with God above, 

(For such a winged soul was no mere breath) ; 

And faith and hope like his would break the spell of death. < 

" God took him ! He was speeding through the pathless air 

And whirled aloft by viewless power in angels* care, 

With breathless ecstasy he rode upon the wind, 

And left the dwindling world, a speck, behind. 

He urged his flight past star and sun, 

Past myriad orbs whose rays have just begun 

To touch our earth. A blissful trance shut all the gates of sense, 

And oped the secret soul to heavenly influence. 

And as a drowning man, whose thoughts come thick and fast, 

Within the ebbing seconds ere he dies, will crowd his past ; 

As in a supreme night of joy or woe, 

The tides of being over life's low levels flow 



And what we have been is no more : we rise and go, 
Transformed, to see diviner splendors in the sky, 
Or else, our hearts being dead, to find that all things die; 
So in that upward rush, the powers of endless life, 
With which, e'en here, his soul was charged and rife, 
Bore sudden fruit, and he awoke from trance to find 
The serpent slough of sin cast quite behind, 
And in the flush of that one spiritual hour, 
Full ripened grace burst into glory's flower. 
University of N. C. 




Satire is the tongue's most pow- 
erful weapon. Its purpose is to 
reform morals by denouncing 
vice. It ridicules and destroys. 
So far as it merely pulls down all 
preexisting ideals of good, it is an 
evil ; but when it points out a 
nobler course, gives us a higher 
ideal and raises our hopes and our 
desires, it becomes a blessing. Sa- 
tire is of two kinds. In one the 
writer looks on vice with a con- 
temptuous smile, furnishes amuse- 
ment for the reader, shoots folly 
as it flies, and his purpose is 
accomplished. The other is stern 
and unrelenting. Its purpose is 
thorough and complete reform. 
The writer pours down on the 
heads of his victims an over- 
whelming and irresistible storm 
of abuse. There is no palliation 
of vice and crime. With a sneer 

they are held up to contempt and 
ridicule in all their hideous de- 

Horace is an Epicurean. Life is 
a comedy. He is a jolly, good- 
natured fellow, takes life easy, en- 
joys himself and wishes others to 
be like him. He gives you a sharp 
rebuke, and apologizes for it. He 
writes you a sermon on temper- 
ance, and drinks like a toper. Life 
is a passing dream, his object is 
pleasure, "Dum vivimus vivamus," 
is his motto. Juvenal is of^the 
strictest sect of the Stoics. Life 
is a stern reality — a tragedy in the 
truest sense. His charges are vig- 
orous and to the point. He means 
what he says. He sometimes tries 
to laugh ; but it is rather a sneer. 
He is too mad, too much in ear- 
nest to smile. His object is re- 
form. Swift is a misanthrope. The 


world is entirely bad. There is 
nothing good. Man is worse than 
the brute with its delicate instincts 
and semi-reason. He wrote to 
gratify his own hatred of the hu- 
man race. 

Horace writes on the vices and 
follies of men. He is a philoso- 
pher, and makes use of his phil- 
osophy. He points others onward 
and upward in a course of virtue, 
but cannot lead the way. " Begin 
to be virtuous," he pleads ; "an 
act is half done when well becmn 
Dare to be wise. He who puts 
off the hour for living well is like 
the rustic waiting by the river 
side until the water flows by; but 
it flows on, and will flow on for- 
ever." He laughs at himself as 
well as at others. " Am I free 
when I am ruled by my own evil 
passions?" He alone is free who 
rules himself. " Is he good who 
does right from fear of punish- 
ment?" Love of right must in- 
spire hatred of sin. This is said 
with a smile and a bow. You ad- 
mire the man and the artist more 
than the moralizer. 

Juvenal writes on the wicked- 
ness of Rome and the vanity of 
human wishes. The vices of Nero 
and Domitian are depicted with a 
fearless pen. " What fools these 
mortals be," he ejaculates. Hear 
him preach: "You pray for 
wealth ; poison is never drunk 
from earthen ware. The garret is 
never invaded by a soldier. The 


poor man laughs in the robber's 
face. Democritus wept over the 
follies of men; what would he have 
done had he seen a Roman tri- 
umph ? Sejanus was the second 
man in the empire. He fell, and 
from his statues are made pots, 
kettles and pans. Had the god- 
dess of Fortune smiled more pro- 
pitiously on him, the populace 
would have hailed him as Cassar. 
They now care only for bread and 
the circus. You pray for the elo- 
quence of Cicero and Demosthe- 
nes. Had Cicero written only bad. 
poetry, he might have despised 
the sword of Anthony. It was a 
bad day for Demosthenes when 
his father took him from the forge 
and sent him to school. Many 
thirst for military fame. Weigh 
Hannibal. He leaps over the Py- 
renees and rushes through the 
Alps— to please school-boys and 
'be a theme for Freshman ora- 
tors.' The world is too narrow for 
the young man from Pella. Six 
feet of earth will satisfy him when 
he enters Babylon. Death alone 
shows how small are the lit- 
tle bodies of men Give long 
life, oh Jupiter, is the universal 
cry. And why? To be blind and 
deaf, toothless and helpless, child- 
ish and childless, to experience 
the sorrows of Priam and Hecuba, 
of Croesus and Marius. Kind Cam- 
pania gave Pompey the fever, 
which he ought to have desired. 
The state prayed for his recovery, 

7 6 


and his head was cut off in Egypt. 
The mother asks beauty for her 
child — that she may suffer as Vir- 
ginia and Lucretia. Beauty and 
chastity seldom dwell together." 
Then he sums up the whole mat- 
ter in a few words : " Let the gods 
decide what is best for us. Man 
is dearer to them than to himself. 
Pray for a sound mind in a sound 
body, a spirit brave and free from 
the terror of death, one that reck- 
ons life's end among the bless- 

broad human sympathies and vig- 
orous common sense. His satires 
are as true to-day as when first 
written. His manner is superior 
to the matter. His language is 
marked by current coins of 
thought, well rounded expressions 
and flowing periods. He is the 
rhetorician and the artist. 

Juvenal satirizes types in the 
individual. He is a reformer and 
a missionary ; a deep, passionate 
preacher. He foams at the mouth 

ings of nature, that can bear toil and declaims against the vices of 

and prefers hardships to pleasures 
Thou hast no divinty, O Fortune, 
if we be wise ; we make thee a god- 
dess and put thee in the skies." 

Swift writes against the human 
race. A hatred of the detestable 
Yahoo can be seen in all his works. 
There is no grace nor comeliness, 
virtue nor honor in man. All is 
black with vice and crime. His 
reason is used only to increase his 
vices or minister to his appetites. 
From him the brute is evolved — 
Darwinism is reversed. The 
highest honors are the rewards of 
bribery and corruption. Wars are 
waged for mere differences in opin- 
ion, for lust and ambition. Every 
occupation of life is satirized. Not 
even his own family escapes his 
malignant attacks. 

Horace satirizes types, is too 
polite to take individuals, is fond 
of making little allusions to him- 
self, and his biography might be 
written from his poems. He has 

Rome. He never mentions him- 
self, and rarely smiles. He has not 
the elegance and refinements of 
Horace. His language is abrupt, 
terse, and pointed— more forcible 
than elegant— his logic more 
weighty than pleasant. He is too 
mad to think of his style, he 
plunges in medias res and bursts 
out with an irresistible tor- 
rent of invective and abuse, over- 
whelming every form of depravity 
and vice. 

Swift is a combination of the 
other two. He has some of the 
elegance and polish of Horace, the 
bluntness and logic of Juvenal. 
He has satirized types and indi- 
viduals too. He has a clear head, 
a cold heart, no admiration of no- 
ble qualities, a ready wit, a thor- 
ough knowledge of the baser parts 
of human nature, and a great com- 
mand of language. He looks at 
you with a microscope, then with 
a telescope, and finally sets up an 



old gray horse as your critic. He 
is mild and polite. He now tickles 
your fancy, and the next moment 
overwhelms you with ridicule and 

Horace was successful in his ob- 
ject. The strain of bitterness is 
relieved by little gleams of human 
nature here and there. His phi- 
losophy is practical. Juvenal writes 
for reform ; his success is small. 

Philosophy moderates the bitter- 
ness of his satire. Swift has no 
philosophy. He was eminently 
successful in his object. There is 
nothing to mollify the intensity 
of his satire ; it is all bitterness 
and hatred. All affected with 
Yahooism must keep out of the 
sight of this king among satirists. 
Stephen B. Weeks. 


The ancient Germans were the 
forefathers of those nations whom 
we call Teutonic, the last great 
wave of the Aryan race, the race 
of progress, which has overrun 
Western Europe. Germany and 
England belong to the Teutonic 
race. The elements of our own 
civilization are Teutonic. From 
ancient Germany came the swarms 
of barbarians which occasionally 
overwhelmed Southern Europe. 
From these inroads, but more 
from the wars which were carried 
on against them, they became sub- 
jects of great interest to the Ro- 
mans. With a view to satisfying 
this interest Tacitus wrote the 
"Germania," a work which dis- 
closes the Germans to us in their 
native country and original bar- 
barism. Tacitus enjoyed peculiar 
advantages for the study of the 
Germans. His narrative is vivid 

and apparently truthful, though 
sometimes tinged with bitterness 
and possible exaggeration when 
he contrasts the corruption of his 
own age and people with the 
primitive purity of the Germans. 
Many of the inconsistencies no- ' 
ticeable in his account, however, 
arise unavoidably from his taking 
in at one glance so many tribes 
differing in institutions and de- 
grees of civilization. 

Ancient Germany stretched from 
the Arctic and the Baltic to the 
Rhine and the Danube; on the east 
its boundaries were marked by the 
fears of the neighboring people. 
The region thus laid off was bleak 
and unfilled. Boundless forests 
and extensive swamps covered it. 
This inhospitable country nour- 
ished a vigorous and hardy peo- 
ple—giants in the eyes of the de- 
generate Romans. Their unity 



of race was marked by their 
common speech and by the phys- 
ical characteristics which prevailed 
in all ; .fierce blue eyes, red hair, 
and huge tough bodies, proof 
against the rigors of their climate. 
In the interior of Germany the 
•skin of some wild animal served 
to protect the rude inhabitants; 
on the banks of the Rhine they 
were already learning the use of 
cloaks. The women were distin- 
guished by a garment of linen. 
Their houses were constructed of 
rough timber, without regard to 
beauty. Agriculture among them 
was of the simplest description. 
A little wheat was the only crop 
required of the soil ; nor did they 
endeavor to overcome by art the 
natural deficiencies of thei»- coun- 
try. Their chief riches consisted 
in herds of small cattle. The use 
of gold and silver, without which 
there can be no extended com- 
merce, was wholly unknown 
among them, except where it had 
been introduced by the Romans. 
Iron, the foundation of the arts 
and manufactures, was very scarce, 
so that there was hardly enough 
for what was to them its noblest 
use, the making of weapons for 
their incessant wars. 

War was the principle employ- 
ment and chief glory of the Ger- 
mans. Bravery was the most ex- 
alted virtue ; want of courage the 
vilest crime 'Twas sluggish in 
their eyes to acquire by honest 

sweat what one might gain by 
bloodshed. The coward met with 
sure and ignominious death. Even 
in the assemblies the freemen sat 
down armed. To leave the shield 
on the field of battle was a mark 
of the greatest infamy, and those 
so disgraced often put a voluntary 
end to their miseries by the rope. 
On the other hand, glory in war 
opened the way to the leadership 
and gave them ready hearing in 
the assembly. When there were 
no wars at home the noble youths 
often sought glory among distant 
nations. Like the North Amer- 
ican Indians, the warrior left the 
cares of the household and the 
field to the women, the old and 
the infirm. To while away the 
dull seasons of peace they resorted 
to deep drinking and business-like 
gambling, often staking their 
own liberty on the final throw of 
the dice. This vice, however, 
served to bring into bold relief a 
noble quality — that of truthful- 
ness. The defeated one did not 
murmur at the decree of fortune, 
but to redeem his rashly plighted 
word, yielded himself to voluntary 
slavery. Hospitality was with 
them, as with all savages, a crown- 
ing virtue. Like all savages, too, 
they were very superstitious. The 
neighing of a horse decided the 
event of wars ; a change of the 
moon the fate of nations. 

Their fidelity to the marriage 
vows and their respect for women, 



marked a noble characteristic of 
the people, placing them in their 
rude state far above the licentious 
Romans. The chiefs alone were 
allowed more wives than one, and 
they only for the alliances which 
they thus cemented. The women 
were the companions of their hus- 
bands, and shared with them every 
hardship and toil. Praise from 
their lips was the sweetest prize ; 
on their account was danger most 
feared.- They were believed to 
possess a sacred influence and di- 
vine foresight ; their counsels 
were sought and their advice 
obeyed. There was no surveil- 
lance over the women ; they lived 
guarded by modesty alone. No 
allurement was held out to vice ; 
it was not called the way of the 
world to seduce and be seduced. 
Wandering at pleasure over 
boundless forests, making war at 
will, love of liberty was with them 
a ruling passion. Not even by the 
leader could a freeman be pun- 
ished ; this was permitted to the 
priest alone, as the direct minister 
of God. In rights all the free- 
men were equals ; each had his 
own home, each had a place in the 
assembly of the tribe. To them 
the land was allotted yearly in 
divisions suited to the dignity of 
each, while a large tract remained 
over as a common pasture. Be- 
sides freemen, there were among 
them nobles, freedmen and servi. 
Tacitus, in several places, men- 

tions the nobility, but it is diffi- 
cult to ascertain its exact position 
and privileges. It seems to have 
been hereditary, and to give the 
possessor certain advantages, as 
the right of speaking in the as- 
sembly ; beyond this, nothing can 
be gathered. The freedmen were 
looked down on with contempt, 
and were without influence in 
home or state. The servi ap- 
proached the condition of serfs. 
They were bound to the soil, and 
their only service consisted in 
paying a certain amount of cattle 
and clothing. 

The tribal organization consist- 
ed of an assembly of the people, 
which discussed wars and alliances 
and administered justice ; and in 
chiefs, leaders, priests, and, in 
some states, kings. The chiefs 
were elected in the assemblies of 
the freemen. They were sup- 
ported by corn or cattle from the 
state. Their duty consisted in 
administering the laws through- 
out the tribes, and in adjusting 
difficulties. To assist in this each 
one was attended by a hundred 
followers to counsel him and 
enforce his decisions. They 
claimed a hearing in the assembly, 
and discussed beforehand the 
measures which were submitted 
to it. They also assisted at the 
taking of auspices. Their privi- ' 
leges consisted in a superior dignity 
and the right to maintain the fol- 
lowing {comitatus). This comitatus 



consisted of a band of warriors, 
often of noble birth, who at- 
tached themselves to the chief and 
fought for him, while he in return 
was expected to furnish them 
with equipments and mainte- 
ance. The leaders were chosen 
for the sake of their military rep- 
utation, and ruled rather by ex- 
ample than authority. To the 
priests was given the punishment 
of the warriors. They carried to 
the field of battle the symbols 
taken from the sacred groves, at- 
tended to the taking of auspices, 
and announced silence in the as- 
sembly. Kingly rule seems rather 
to have been the exception. The 
king was chosen from the nobility. 
It was a position of dignity rather 
than power. 

The army was ■ composed of 
cavalry and infantry, though the 
chief strength lay in the infantry, 
which consisted in one hundred 
warriors from each canton or pa- 
gus. The company consisted not 
of a chance gathering of the 
people, but families and kinsmen 
fought together, so that the trust 
of the soldiers, the shame of the 
deserters, was increased. 

The tribes were divided into 
pagi and communities, or vici. 
The pagi seem to have been di- 
visions of the people, each fur- 
nishing its quota of the troops. 
The communities consisted of 
rudely built houses, each sur- 
rounded by a considerable space, 

as Tacitus supposes, as a protec- 
tion against fire ; more probably 
it was the freeman's homestead. 

The simple religion of the Ger- 
mans was in marked contrast to 
the complex systems of Greece 
and Rome. " They worshipped,"" 
said Tacitus, "that secret influ- 
ence seen by the eye of reverence 
alone." It was inconsistent in 
their eyes with the dignity of di- 
vine beings to represent them by 
images. Themselves the imper- 
sonation of freedom, it seemed to 
them impious to confine the de- 
ity within walls. 

These are some of the most 
striking points, in the characters 
and institutions of the Germans,. 
as related by Tacitus. The les- 
sons that we can draw from them 
are many and interesting. They 
picture our forefathers in their 
original state. They show how 
little they were then advanced be- 
yond savages in the arts of life. 
Their virtues and vices are in. 
many instances the virtues and 
vices of savages. We see the in- 
stitutions, common to all Aryan 
people, of the king with limited 
power, the council of chiefs dis- 
cussing the measures to be put to 
the general assembly of the free- 
men. Here is the basis of the 
Feudal system in the chief and 
comitatus bound to one another 
by mutual benefits and services, 
and in the freeman cultivating his 
land by serfs. Here, we find, are 



the germs of the mark system in 
the village communities sur- 
rounded by their homesteads, and 
the common territory portioned 
out among the freemen. 

But, further, we trace in this 
sketch qualities and powers that 
must place this race at the head 
of men. It is like looking at the 
first rough outlines of a master 
painting, destined on its comple- 
tion to be a wonder to the world. 
We wonder at the courage and 
fidelity of the Germans. We ad- 
mire, even in this rough state, the 
same reverence for woman, which 
afterwards forms the one bright 
feature in the universal darkness 
of the middle ages, and which 
raised her from a slave of passion 
to be the equal companion and 
gentle soother of man's rougher 

nature. At that time, as through- 
out all the subsequent ages, the 
Teutons were guided by the ide- 
ality and reverence which culmi- 
nated in the protestant reforma- 
tion. But our greatest debt to 
these barbarians is liberty — liberty 
in a far wider sense than it was 
before known to the world. The 
Greek and the Roman belonged 
to the state ; they were citizens. 
The German was an individual; 
he was his own master ; he was 
responsible to no one; he pun- 
ished his own wrongs ; he thought, 
he acted as he willed. Thus it is 
to him that we owe one of the 
most precious privileges of our 
modern life, freedom of thought 
and action. 

Lucius P. McGehee. 


Prominent among the events of 
history are the rise and fall of na- 
tions. For ages past man's great- 
est effort has been to devise a 
form of government that would 
stand the tests of time. 

When it has seemed that his 
labors would be crowned with suc- 
cess, when heaven has bestowed 
her richest blessings upon her peo- 
ple, when peace and happiness 
spread abroad over his land, and 
the future gleamed before him 

with brightest prospects, it has 
appeared, after all, that destiny 
opened a secret way for the de- 
stroyer. Man's fondest hopes have 
faded. Man's prided plans of 
government have fallen. 

Such failures have indeed been 
fatal, but from them mankind has 
learned important lessons. Ex- 
perience has taught that rules and 
regulations are mere instruments 
of man's power; that national 
prosperity does not depend upon 



land alone, but, that a people's 
industries enter as an impartant 
factor in preserving their welfare. 
When all interest in these is lost, 
when the intelligent cizens of a 
country willingly refuse to recog- 
nize the importance of honest 
labor, and scorn to be numbered 
among the sons of toil ; when 
every class deserts the industries 
of their land to seek some petty 
prominence in public affairs, the 
prosperity of that people has 
reached its culmination, and ruin 
awaits with eager eyes the rapid 
approach of a doomed victim. 

The nations of the old world 
have contributed their sad experi- 
ence as terrible warnings to other 
lands. Greece could once boast 
of her rapid progress. Patriotism 
once filled the hearts of her peo- 
ple. But, in the midst of her 
prosperity, the eagerness for power 
seized upon her yopulation. Her 
fertile fields and fruitful vineyards 
were forsaken. Labor lost all 
honor. Slave and master, poet 
and painter, sculptor and scholar, 
dsecrating their occupations, join- 
ed in the race for political promi- 
nence, and Greece fell by the 
hands of her own countrymen. 

The power of Rome was once 
felt throughout the known world. 
Her people struggled faithfully 
for her welfare. All of her in- 
dustries were encouraged,. High 
honor was shown to her labor. 
Then it was that the sun of 

Rome's prosperity shone with un- 
equaled brightness ; then, too, 
Romans had just cause for being 
proud of their land. But here, 
when success was crowning their 
efforts, the desire to rule entered 
every rank. The minds of the 
people were turned toward the 
affairs of government. Labor 
lost its importance. Roman in- 
dustries sunk into insignificance. 
Contentions arose in every quar- 
ter. And the fate of that na- 
tion is now sealed in the tomb of 
her former glory. 

Within the past century Amer- 
ica has reared a new nation into 
magnificent proportions. History 
can show no parallel to our be- 
loved country in its rapid progress 
and essential excellence. Civili- 
zation has nowhere reached a 
higher degree of perfection. No 
land has ever possessed richer or 
more abundant resources. No 
people has ever enjoyed such 
blessings of liberty. Patriotism 
never prompted a people to 
greater deeds of heroism. Na- 
ture never favored a land with 
greater opulence. And shall not 
this continue ? Shall all that 
causes Americans' hearts to burn 
with national pride fade away and 
be forgotten ? The shadows are 
falling fast ; the gloom is surely 
gathering. Our labor is losing its 
importance. Our industries are 
being sadly neglected. 

The North is being filled with 



the oppressed from every land. 
They appeal to the sympathies of 
our people in behalf of their starv- 
ing wives and children. They 
flock to our shores in search of 
work and are welcomed to every 
advantage that our land can af- 
ford. But unfortunately for 
America's welfare, they come to- 
tally ignorant of all her industries. 
They have entered the service of 
the railroads, workshops, factories, 
mines and quarries of the North ; 
in fact, they are represented in 
every industry that America can 
offer. And what is the result ? 
Here may be seen the fatal effects 
of inexperience. The prospects 
of the North are being blighted in 
every department of business. 
Railroad companies are becoming 
insolvent, factories are being 
closed, mining suspended, and 
trade now trembles under the 
general incubus. Ask the intelli- 
gent business men of that section 
the causes of their failure. Their 
answers have already been heard. 
Their railroad interests demand 
experience, their factories demand 
experience, their mining demands 
experience, all their industries 
demand experience, and this their 
laborers have not acquired. 

But where are those to be 
found who, by their incompetency, 
have wrecked the interests of our 
land? Are they endeavoring to 
prepare themselves for better ser- 
vice ? Are they seeking to fulfil 

the requirements of American in- 
dustries? Are they striving to 
advance the prosperity of their 
adopted houses? Or, fired by 
political aspirations, are they not 
struggling for special prominence 
in our public affairs? Listen to 
the clamor resounding throughout 
the North for your answer. Hear 
there the clashing conflict of labor 
and capital, and behold the thou- 
sands that annually desert their 
occupations to join in political 

But the neglect of American in- 
dustries is by no means confined 
to the North. The South, too, 
feels the great need of industrial 
improvement. The disposition of 
her people, her pleasant climate, 
her vast resources of wealth, com- 
mand the admiration of the civ- 
ilized world. The fertility of her 
soil is unsurpassed. She is most 
abundantly supplied with valuable 
minerals. Her forests are exten- 
sive and unequalled in value. 
We are indeed rich, blessed with 
every advantage that a people can 
possess. But do we properly ap- 
preciate our advantages? Have 
Southern sons been awakened to 
their own interests? Have they 
been taught to appreciate the im- 
portance of honest labor? Have 
our industries received the atten- 
tion which they justly demand? 

Here, where nature has so gen- 
erously scattered her more valua- 
ble gifts in profusion, where the 

8 4 


earth yields more abundantly, 
what would not labor, energy and 
enterprise accomplish, if properly 
directed ? The peaceful labor of 
experienced, industrious and en- 
terprising millions applied wisely 
and faithfully to the development 
of our home resources, with the 
view of making them most availa- 
ble, is our only true dependence, 
our only hope of success. 

Our mines are not sufficiently 
worked, our forests still wave in 
useless luxuriance, our fertile 
fields are not thoroughly tilled, 
all of our industries are far less 
productive than they should be. 
And where are those upon whom 
our prosperity must depend ? Too 
many of our Southern sons are 
devoting their lives to unproduc- 
tive occupations. Our schools 
and colleges furnish annually an 
enormous supply of professional 
politicians. The minds of our 
people are being absorbed in pub- 
lic affairs. The prosperity of our 
country demands a change, our 
national safety demands a change, 
and who is there to respond to the 

Our "Rip Van Winkle of the 
Union," refreshed by his quiet 
sleep, has, at last, arisen, and steps 
forth upon the scene of action,. 
filled with renewed energy. North 
Carolina has resolved that new 
interest shall be infused into her 
indstries. No longer shall our 
sons complain of inexperience. 
No longer shall the time and tal- 
ents of so many of then be wasted 
away in political struggles. The 
" Old North State " has touched 
the keynote of a nation's success. 

Let North and South, let every 
section of our country follow in 
her footsteps. Let Americans all 
quell the rising storm of political 
discord, beat down that demon of 
unutterable despair, arm our la- 
borers with experience, train the 
muscle and the mind, place our 
industries upon an independent 
plane, and over a land of peace 
and plenty, liberty and love, pro- 
gress and prosperity, our country's 
flag shall forever float— the sym- 
bol of genuine progress and na- 
tional triumph. 






The patriotism of one of Amer- 
ica's greatest statesmen has been 
crystalized into that electric sen- 
tence : " Liberty and Union now 
and forever one and inseparable." 
Though we are not natives of 
Massachusetts, yet to-day each 
heart-beat echoes in unison with 
the words of her most eloquent 
son. Notwithstanding the late 
civil strife, we are still true to the 
stars and stripes. And no people 
in all this broad land can right- 
fully charge us with a want of pa- 
triotism, or of fidelity to the 
American Union. We believe that 
sectionalism in its tyrannical type 
is buried with the tragic past, and 
above its mouldering form has 
been erected a monument to 
American liberty more lasting 
than marble. But sectional pride 
still lives. Yet, in speaking of 
Southern goodness and greatness, 
we would not pluck one laurel from 
the wreath that graces the brow 
of the North. All honor to that 
section of this Union, whose 
Franklin first caught the fiery 
steeds of the skies, and whose 
Morse made them subservient to 
the will of man ; whose Edison 
gave wings to the human voice, 
and whose Hamilton laid the 
corner-stone of our National 

Banking System. Yes, we are 
Americans all, but we were South- 
erners before we were Americans. 

The character of a people is 
affected in no small degree by the 
influences by which they are sur- 
rounded, and hence by the occu- 
pation they follow. The people of 
the. South have been, and are still 
to a great extent, an agricultural 
people. VVe have but few crowded 
cities, with their horrifying con- 
trasts of pale poverty and pomp- 
ous wealth. Our middle class is 
large, and the simple every-day 
blessings are enjoyed by nearly 
every citizen. The original oc- 
cupation of man — the cultivation 
of the soil — seems to be most 
consistent with the formation of 
pure, strong, noble, independent 
character. Born and reared prin- 
cipally in the rural districts, as 
free as the air they breathe, the 
people of the South seem to im- 
bibe a spirit of independence and 
individuality which follows them 
through life. 

History shows that the greater 
number of men who have left 
their impress upon the world were 
men who were reared in rural pu- 
rity and simplicity, freedom and 
happiness. As a result of these 
facts, we are to-day secure from 



many of the besetting sins of the 
North. We should feel grateful 
that we are removed as far in fact 
as in space from its " isms" and 
"schisms." We know but little 
about the socialists, the commu- 
nists, and the dynamiters. And 
we pray that we may ever remain 
free from that fiendish class, the 
dynamiters ; and that their only 
advocate in the Congress of this 
nation may soon be consigned to 
the shades of political oblivion. 

Reared under these beneficent 
influences, the South may be said 
to be a race of rulers. For seventy 
long years, though in the minority, 
she guided the destiny of the 
American Republic. This was 
done despite the boasted wealth 
and intelligence of the North. 
What other people in all the past 
has run such a race of goodness 
and greatness? During these sev- 
enty years no nation of the earth 
surpassed the United States in 
the enjoyment of liberty, pros- 
perity and happiness. Who but 
a people of marked characteristics 
could have achieved such feats? 
What integrity, what firmness, 
what ability to govern does this 
reign imply! 

History proclaims to the world 
that the South has been outstrip- 
ped by no people in the produc- 
tion of great men. Doubt you, 
my hearers? go enquire of the. si- 
lent tomb at Mount Vernon ; go 
read the history of this Republic 

ni the days of its childhood. ' Go 
ask who made the first burst of 
opposition against the Stamp Act, 
though less pecuniarily interested 
than their New England breth- 
ren' ; ' go ask whose Madison drew 
up the Bill of Rights which has 
been called the Magna Charter of 
America' ; ' go ask whose Henry 
condensed the Revolution into- 
that electric sentence — ' Liberty, 
or Death' ; ' go ask whose Jeffer- 
son wrote the Constitution and 
whose Marshall became its most 
eminent expounder' ; ' go ask 
whose "Henry Lee moved that the 
Colonies be Free and Independent 
States' ; go ask what people made 
the first Declaration of Indepen- 
dence; and whose Calhoun and 
Clay hurled their shafts of elo- 
quence in defense of that great 
principle which though dead yet 
lives. For the day we ignore ut- 
terly the rights belonging to the 
States will be a sad day for the 
American Republic. 

Perhaps the most distinguish- 
ing characteristic of the Southern 
people is their devotion to their 
native land. The bosom of every 
true son of the South, be he great 
or small, rich or poor, burns with 
purest patriotism. History affords 
no better illustration of this than 
the life of the peerless Lee. When, 
after much discussion and hesita- 
tion, Virginia's Convention de- 
clared that she should cast her lot 
with the Gulf States and fight the 



American Union, Gen. Lee was 
serving in the United States Army 
under Gen. Scott, Commander-in- 
Chief. His pure character and 
ability to command had already 
won for him the warmest affec- 
tions of Gen. Scott. And he would 
have recommended the young 
warrior for the highest position in 
the service. But feeling that he 
must tread the path of duty, 
though it bristle with bayonets, 
Lee turned his back upon all these 
honors, resigned the position he 
held, and came to his native State. 
In his letter of resignation he'says, 
" Save in defense of my native 
State, I never desire again to draw 
my sword." His attachment to 
the flag for which he had fought 
so bravely upon the hills of Mexi- 
co was strong. But his love for 
his native State was still stronger. 
By birth a Virginian, he deter- 
mined, if need be, to die in her 
defense. Some writer has said 
that if the South Carolinians were 
to become satisfied that the New 
Jerusalem were outside of their 
State, they would not wish to go 
there. While this statement is 
false, yet it suggests an honorable 
truth. For we believe that if there 
be one State in all the South more 
loved than another, by its own 
people, that State is South Caro- 
lina. And never will her sons 
grow indifferent to her interests 
so long as the memory of Calhoun 
remains embalmed in their hearts. 

Nor have the people of the whole 
South any less cause to love their 
land. It is, indeed, as all the world 
acknowledges it to be, a great and 
goodly land. Its people have 
made it great in its productions, 
great in its political history, great 
in war, and great in peace. In its 
bosom sleep, the ashes of soldiers 
as brave as ever followed Caesar 
to victory; orators whose elo- 
quence was never surpassed ; mili- 
tary leaders, the peers of Marl- 
boro, Wellington or Napoleon. 

The South has ever shown two 
characteristics which may be re- 
garded as indicative of the true 
Anglo-Saxon — respect for author- 
ity and resistance to its abuse. 
Her people were ever loyal to the 
General Government until they 
became convinced that they were 
oppressed by it — that they were 
being deprived of Constitutional 
rights. Then they seceded. We 
will not stop here to discuss the 
rights of secession. But we do 
affirm that their unprecedented 
courage and undying tenacity 
proves to the world that they 
were fighting for what they be- 
lieved to be right. Convinced 
that either home and liberty, or 
their life was to be destroyed, 
they preferred to " die upon the 
field of glory." For four long 
and gloomy years they fought a 
trained army of three times their 
number and often hurled them 
back in defeat. Hope gone, homes 



desolated and hearts rended, they 
were overpowered and compelled 
to surrender. They were never 
conquered. As few people are, 
they were great even in the hour 
of defeat. Money, property and 
friends swept away by the flood- 
tide of war, they began at once to 
restore their former prosperity, 
and submitted to the insults and 
injuries of a victorious foe with 
even God-like heroism. The car- 
pet bag rule and negro govern- 
ments which they endured were 
sufficient to try men's souls. And 
the fortitude which they displayed 
in these hours of adversity has no 
parallel in the annals of history. 
Defeated in what they believed 

to be right, the South again de 
clared her allegiance to the Union. 
For several years, as Mr. Watter- 
son expresses it, she had no seat 
in Congress. For twenty years 
she occupied a backseat and held 
but few of the offices of this great 
nation. Her voice was hushed by 
the hand of oppression. But dur- 
ing these twenty years of misrep- 
resentation and almost obscurity 
the buoyant, brave men of the 
South were sowing the seed of 
perennial hope; and after so long 
a seed time the 4th of November 
last brought the "rich harvest of 
a rapturous triumph." Thank 
God, the Union lives and the 
South is free ! 


The above named lady late- 
ly died near Chapel Hill, leav- 
ing a handsome bequest to the 
University, viz : 1440 acres of 
good land in Chatham county. 
The tract is well known as the 
"Jones Grove" tract, situate eight 
miles from Chapel Hill, on the 
Pittsboro road, originally 1740 
acres, 300 being devised to three 
of the former slaves of the testa- 
tor. The Trustees of the Univer- 
sity can hold the land or sell and 
reinvest the proceeds. The in- 
come only is to be used for the 
education at the University of 

such students as may be nomi- 
nated by the Faculty. The land 
is out on lease during the present 
year and the rents will be availa- 
ble next Fall. The Trustees will 
probably determine at an early 
day whether to hold the land or 
sell and reinvest. 

It is interesting that Tignal 
Jones, the great grandfather of 
Miss Smith, in 1792, offered 500 
acres of this land for the site of 
the University, but the more lib- 
eral combined offer of the owners 
of the Chapel Hill lands, amount- 
ing to nearly 900 acres in one 



body, and 400 in another, was 

It is supposed that this tract 
would bring, if put on the market, 
some $16,000 or $18,000. There 
is a large amount of valuable tim- 
ber on it, and it is advised by 
some wise men of the neighbor- 
hood to have this converted into 
lumber before selling the land. 
They believe that $8,000 or $10,- 
OOO more would be realized by 
this course. 

The land was bequeathed by 
Francis Jones, a Revolutionary 
hero, who c'ied in Hillsboro about 
45 years ago, to his grandson, 
Francis Jones Smith, M. D. Dr. 
Smith died a few years ago, un- 
married, leaving no will, and Miss 
Smith, being his only heir at law, 
inherited the estate. She directs 
that the fund shall be known as 
the " Francis Jones Smith Be- 
quest." She was a woman of 
rare intellectual ability, remarka- 
bly well cultivated, of uncommon 
piety and benevolence. She had 
no near kin and being of singu- 
larly independent judgment, con- 
cluded of her own head, after di- 
viding 425 acres of land and about 
$2,000 in money, among five of 
her former slaves, to bestow the 
residue to charity. 

We have explained the nature 
of her benefaction to the Univer- 
sity — to education. The residue 
of her property, with the excep- 
tion named above, she'bequeathed 

to the Episcopal Church of North 
Carolina, that is, to the Western 
Diocese, under Bishop Lyman, 
which is called the Diocese of 
North Carolina, that part under 
Bishop Watson being called the 
Diocese of Eastern Carolina. She 
gives no specific directions as to 
what shall be done with this part, 
leaving the whole matter of its 
management and disposition to 
the Convention of the Diocese. 
This property consists of New 
Home, or Price's Creek tract, 
which after cutting off 125 acres, 
embraces 1275 acres, one of the 
best plantations of its size in the 
State, worth nearly $20,000. The 
Episcopal Church is made residu- 
ary legatee, and from the residuum 
will probably be realized enough 
to make the bequest about $25,- 
000. We get these points from 
President Battle, who is the exec- 
utor of the will. 

When we think of the good, 
which in all human probability 
will be done by these benefac- 
tions, generations after genera- 
tions made wiser and better and 
stronger by their aid, we realize 
the power for good or evil pos- 
sessed by those to whom God has 
given " talents," whether tangible 
or intangible gifts. This reserved, 
modest, quiet, Christian woman 
has devised and inaugurated 
charities which will confer bles- 
sings for centuries. And although 
unostentatious and shrinking 



from the public gaze she has 
erected for herself a monument 
which will cause her name to live 
among men long after costly 
mausoleum will have disinte- 
grated into sand, and high sound- 
ing epitaphs will have become 

undecipherable. We are forcibly- 
reminded of another Mary, of 
whom the Savior of mankind 
said : " Mary hath chosen the 
good part which shall not be 
taken away from her." 


As a poet Horace enjoyed a 
happiness of expression and a 
kindly sympathy with every phase 
of nature which alone would have 
given to his writings a universal 
interest. But in these expressions 
he has set the gems of a philoso- 
phy as lasting as beautiful. At the 
time in which Horace wrote, the 
Stoic and Epicurean were the 
philosophies which influenced the 
minds of men. The Stoic pertain- 
ed to mental, the Epicurean to 
physical pleasures. And each in- 
dulged in its peculiar pursuit of 
happiness to the sacrifice of the 
other's principle of happiness. 
They were two extremes ; one 
preyed on the mind, the other on 
the body. 

Horace's philosophy is a com- 
bination of the mild indulgences 
of both of the old philosophies. 
It was a happy mean between 
two extremes. It pertained to 
both physical and mental pleas- 

The chief elements of his phi- 
losophy were moderation and con- 
tentment. Perhaps Horace's be- 
lief in Fatalism was the origin of 
the element of contentment in 
his philosophy. There is little 
doubt that this is what prompts 
him to warn men not to care so 
much for the future. "Quid sit fu- 
turum eras fuge quaerere et cum, 
foro dierum cumque dabit lucro 
appone," he says. His teaching 
was to enjoy the present, make 
the best of what you have, and 
Permitte divis cetera." 

Such a belief as this would nat- 
urally suggest to the mind that 
contentment was much more in 
harmony with it than a restless 
nature would be. Hence content- 
ment is a great element of his 
philosophy. Be satisfied with 
what you have, do whatever con- 
tributes to your pleasure, but do 
not sacrifice physical to mental 
pleasures, is the main of his phi- 



Knowing the difficulty of being 
content, he places next to it mod- 
eration. "Acquam memento rebus 
in arduis servare mentem, non 
secus in bonis," he enjoins upon 
us. By a blending of these two, 
his philosophy glows in a very 
agreeable and acceptable light. 
The beauty and force of his ex- 
pression adds agreeableness and 
consequence to his philosoplvy. 
"Carpe diem," he says in his char- 
acteristic felicity of conciseness. 

Not selfish contentment alone 
would he have you possess, but 
also cheerfulness, that you may be 
a pleasure to others. " Laetus in 
praesens animus quod ultra est 
oderit curare et amora luto tempe- 
ret rim." 

The practicality of Horace's 

philosophy and its near relation to 
the characters of men have made 
for it a deserved perpetuity. Al- 
most humorously, yet how truth- 
fully, he attacks the rash desires 
of men: "Rebus augustis animosus 
atque fortis appare, sapienter idem 
contrahes vento minimum secudo 
turgida vela." It is an antidote for 
the poisons of avarice and desire 
which corrupt men, and it comes 
in pleasing potions : " Desideran- 
tum quod satis est neque tumul- 
tuosum solicitat mare." 

His sympathetic and common- 
sense philosophy, told in words of 
everlasting life, claim for Horace- 
as a poet and philospher all the 
fame that has been bestowed upon 

J. C. Johnson. 

9 2 


College Record. 

The Y. M. C A.— During the 
past session the work in the Y. 
M. C. A. was very satisfactory. 
The members took more interest 
in it, and performed their duties 
more faithfully. Religious ques- 
tions were more freely discussed, 
and it has become the rule rather 
than the exception for some one 
to make remarks. The result was 
that more good was done. All of 
those converted at the revival last 
fall attended it regularly. The 
membership is about thirty-five. 
They have ceased to receive asso- 
ciate members, as they are found 
to do more harm than good. The 
average attendance is very large. 
The officers are elected twice a 
year. For the last session they 
were : N. H. D. Wilson, Jr.. Presi- 
dent ; Jos. A. Morris, Vice-Presi- 
dent ; S. B. Weeks, Cor. Secretary; 
St. Clair Hester, Rec. Sec. (and 
after his departure J. L. Foster 
served) ; Hayne Davis, Treasurer. 
For the present session they 
are : N. H. D. Wilson, President ; 
Jos. A. Morris, Vice-President; 
D. T. Wilson, Cor. Sec. ; Geo. S. 
Wills, Rec. Sec; Hayne Davis, 

A few things are still wanting, 
and they should be supplied by 
all means. The faculty recognize 
the association as a part of the 

University, and put it down in the 
catalogue as such. Since this is 
so, they ought to fit up the hall 
more comfortably. A new carpet 
is very much needed ; so are 
benches, lamps, and a stove. The 
room is now very uncomfortable 
in cold weather. Something was 
done toward fitting it up last sum- 
mer, but the good work was stop- 
ped too soon. The members can- 
not do this even if they felt it to 
be their duty. Let the faculty 
make these improvements, and 
they will be as bread cast upon 
the waters, and will return before 
many days. 


The Temperance Associa- 
tion. — Some of the students no- 
ting and deploring the fact that 
much whiskey is drunk by a cer- 
tain class of students, and wish- 
ing to use their influence against 
it, have organized a temperance 
association. They expect to do 
the most of their work among the 
new students, and prevent them 
from taking the first glass. They 
meet the first Thursday night in 
each month in the Y. M. C. A. 
hall. The pledge is to abstain from 
all wine, beer, whiskey, or other 
intoxicating liquors during the 
session. It does not hold during 
the holidays. The penalty for 



breaking the pledge is unqualified 
expulsion. It now has fifty-five 
members, and seems to be in a 
'growing condition. 

The officers are elected twice a 
year, and the first ones were as 
follows : S. B. Weeks, President ; 
J. W. Alexander, Vice-President; 
C. F. Smith, Secretary. For the 
second term the same were elected, 
except that D. T. Wilson was 
made Vice-President. 

The tree of the class of '86 has 
been planted on the southeast 
corner of monument square. It is 
a fine young oak, and has received 
the special care of Prof. Holmes. 
The planting committee were 
Messrs. Wilson, Weeks and Battle. 

■$»■ -X- 

Herbert B. Battle, of the Expe- 
riment Station, Raleigh, was re- 
cently married to Miss Alice Wil- 
son, of Morganton. They spent 
a few days on the Hill, and held 
a very elegant reception at Dr. 
Battle's. About the same time 
Miss Lizzie Manning, daughter of 
Hon. John Manning, was married 
to Mr. Weldon W. Huske, of Fay- 
etteville, N. C. 

There was a very pleasant socia- 
ble given at Prof. Gore's the night 
before thanksgiving. The candy 
was fine, and pulled well. The 
company was large and all seemed 
to enjoy themselves. 

Sore eyes and glasses have been 
all the rage for three months. 
Several students have been com- 
pelled to go home because unable 
to work. 

Holiday Happenings.— The 
examinations came and finally 
went; but they dragged slowly 
by. The battle was long and se- 
vere. All fought, some fled,, and 
many were the slain. But nothing 
lasts forever, not even examina- 
tion days. The morning of Dec. 
23rd dawned bright and clear, and 
the air was rent with the shouts 
of blithesome Freshmen, gay and 
festive Sophs, steady Juniors, and 
dignified Seniors, w'ho were to 
bid the Hill farewell for a time 
and greet the loved ones at home. 
After the excitement of hand- 
shaking had passed, we settled 
down and thought how we were 
to enjoy ourselves. Those who 
went home perhaps did not envy 
those who were to remain. But 
never has there been such a quiet,, 
enjoyable Christmas spent here. 
The weather was very fine, seem- 
ing more like spring than winter. 
There was no ice or sleet or snow, 
and just enough cold to make it 
pleasant. The turkeys were nu- 
merous and fat; the cakes and 
confectioneries plentiful and de- 
licious; the presents fine and ap- 
propriate; the boys gallant and 
courteous, and the girls more love- 
ly and charming than usual. Much 



of the time was spent in feasting 
and mirth. The first thing on the 
programme was a bonfire in Bat- 
tle Park, gotten up under the su- 
pervision of our President. Then 
the boys not caring to be left be- 
hind, got up one of their own. 
Brush wood, small trees, kerosene 
barrels and dry boxes were piled 
high on the base-ball ground, 
saturated with oil and ignited. 
While the flames were at their 
highest, the fire-works began to 
be seen, and the rockets and Ro- 
man-candles were very beautiful. 
Many ladies visited both, and pro- 
nounced them successes. 

After the marriage, which was 
the great event, there was a socia- 
ble at Prof. Manning's, a " storm" 
party, as it was called. The num- 
ber of visitors was not too large 
for comfort, and the time was 
spent very pleasantly in chatting 
and playing games. Tete-a-tetes 
were by no means uncommon, and 
were perhaps sought after more 
than anything else. The old, old 
story was told over again, and was 
as sweet as when it first fell on the 
listening ears of Eve. 

The Baptist Sunday-school gave 
an entertainment for the little 
ones. Short speeches were made 
by Mr. Edmund Alexander, Prof. 
Thos. Hume, and Prof. Gore. The 
hearts of the pupils were made 
glad by the candies, fruits, and 
toys lavished upon them, nor 
were the teachers entirely for- 

gotten. The church was well 
filled with visitors, and they were 
satisfied with seeing the children 
enjoy themselves. 

The colored people thought 
they must be up and doing, so 
they had a parade of the " Good 
Samaritans" with a brass band ac- 
companiment. At night they had 
a festival for church purposes. 

To prevent monotony the pro- 
gramme was varied, and a mas- 
querade party was held at Mrs. 
Thompson's on the last night of 
the old year. The ladies wore 
sheets enveloping the body, pil- 
low-slips covering the face and 
tied in a knot on top of the head, 
and white stockings over their 
shoes. The gentlemen were dress- 
ed in the same grotesque fashion. 
It was impossible to tell the sex. 
Mistakes were numerous and 
amusing. We know of one young 
lady who knelt for half an hour 
at the feet of another striving to 
win the girl's heart by impersona- 
ting a certain gentleman. The 
second young lady was of course 
deceived,and won by the charming 
addresses of her would-be lover. 

A mock-court also helped to 
banish dull care from our presence. 
Dr. Battle presided. Rice was 
sheriff; Dockery, clerk; Riddle, 
assisted by Edmund Alexander 
and W. Reece, appeared for the 
State ; Weill and C. Johnston for 
the defendants. R. L. Cooper and 
G. B. Patterson were tried for 



making various outrageous and 
hideous noises with a brass band 
on the night of Dec. 31. A plea 
of not guilty was entered. The 
witnesses were examined : Prof. 
Gore on the theory of music ; Dr. 
Klutz, as a medical expert, on the 
effects of unusual noise on the 
human system ; Prof. Atkinson on 
the effects of a serenade when a 
man is popping the question, on 
the removal of an opossum from 
the Zoological Garden of the Uni- 
versity, and on the presentation of 
a certain bill for cooking the same. 
The lawyers then made their 
speeches. The defendants admit- 
ted that the prisoners were with 
the band, but claimed that their 
intentions were to please the la- 
dies and not to make a distur- 
bance. The jury returned a ver- 
dict of guilty. The prisoners were 
sentenced to pay a fine of one 
penny and costs. All these young 
disciples of Themis did well, and 
the audience was pleased with 
their efforts. 

The village was favored with 
quite a number of lady visitors 
also. Among them were Misses 
Grace Mangum and Sallie Luns- 
ford visiting the Misses Mangum, 
Miss Annie Williams at Dr. Man- 
ning's, Miss Nina Jones at Mrs. 
Anderson's, Miss Nora Phillips at 
Dr. Phillips'. Miss Fannie Cun- 
ninggim was also at home from 
Peace Institute, and was visited 
by Miss Hooker of Greene county. 

These young ladies, with those 
who live here, form a company 
who, in beauty and intelligence, 
are hard to beat. Those who went 
home may well envy us instead 
of thinking they are envied. 

But now the holidays are ended. 
The session has re-opened. Work 
is upon us, so with tenderness we 
bid these joyful times adieu, and 
enter with renewed hopes and ef- 
forts on the great, battle of life. 

An Examination Paper. — The 
following is a copy of the exam- 
ination on English language and 
literature, given to the Senior 
Class, Dec. 12, 1885. It repre- 
sents both in quality and quantity 
the work done during the first 
three months of the session. It 
was finished by a majority of the 
class in four hours and will com- 
pare very favorably, we think, 
with other institutions. 

(I) What particulars enter 
into the internal evidence for the 
date of plays? In what period is 
Love's Labor Lost? Apply met- 
rical tests to it. How is the main 
purpose of the drama worked out ? 
In what group is Mid-Summer 
Night's Dream? Why is Richard 
III in the Marlowe-Shakespeare 
group ? Discuss the difficulty in 
applying the metrical tests to it. 
Where do Julius Caesar and The 
Tempest belong? What descrip- 
tive name has The Tempest group 
and why? 

9 6 


(II) Henry 4, Part 2, A. 4, S. 
3, V. 184. "God knows my son, 
&c." Explain this passage. Dis- 
cuss the development of Prince 
Hal's character in H. 4, P. 2, and 
Henry 5, and give its principal 
traits. How are dramatic diffi- 
culties overcome in H. 5. Dis- 
cuss the claim to the French crown 
in A. 1, Sc. I, 42. Criticise the 
humor of the subordinate charac- 
ters. What internal evidence of 
the date of this play? 

(III) Compare Shakespeare's 
Richard 3rd with history, with 
Milton's conception of Satan. 
What was Richmond's relation to 
the succession to the crown? His 
moral relation to the action of the 

(IV) Give the sources of the 
plot of "As You Like It," and 
show Shakespeare's method of 
using them. Contrast Touchstone 
and Jacques. What view of hu- 
man life given in this play? Ex- 
plain italicised words below : A. 

2, Sc. 6, V. 46. The Needless 
stream. Sc. 7, V. no. Whistles in 
his sound. (History of form his. 
Compare King James Bible.) A. 

3, S. 2, V. 289. Right painted 
cloth. A. 3, S. 3. Feature? Hon- 
est? A. 4, S. 1 . A humorous sad- 
ness. Censure ? Modem ? Com- 
pare A. 2, S. 7, and give meaning 
of modem instances. Explain 
grammar in A. 3, S. 5, V. 93. I 
were better!' Compare "/ had 
better r Scan A. 4, S. 3, V. 85. 

Other examples of distributed ac- 
cent. Criticise seeming errors or 

(V) Define the periods of Mil- 
ton's career and the circumstances 
of the composition of Paradise 
Lost. What passages in B. 1, re- 
late to his Italian experiences? 
In what does its epic character- 
consist? Criticise lines 14-16, 
"That with no middle flight." 
Examples of imitation of other 
epics, of the use of mythology 
and Scripture, of simile, antithe- 
sis, oxymoron. Analyze certain 
examples of his method of 
impressing imagination. His the- 
ory of the origin of idolatry in B. 
I ? Describe the metre with Mil- 
ton's reasons for using it. Scan. 
V. 558 and explain. Criticise the 
1st foot in vv. 21, 45, 372. Scan 
v. 66 .. Nature of the poetical 
effect in v. 177? Compare vv. 
710-730 with the Roman Pantheon. 
Show by examples his peculiar 
use of classical derivatives. 

(VI) What agencies determine 
the literature of a nation ? De- 
scribe the earliest historic inhab- 
itants of Britain and their relation 
to our race and language. Define 
the position of English in the In- 
do-European family. How does 
our language differ now from its 
earliest form? Characteristics of 
Saxon literature ? What were the 
religious ideas and social customs 
of our ancestors? 



The Gymnastic Contests. — 
On Thanksgiving Day it was ap- 
pointed that the gymnasium con- 
test should take place in the new 
gymnasium building and out on 
the gymnasium grounds. The 
day was very unfavorable. The 
wind blew very hard and was ex- 
tremely cold, so that fewer ladies 
were present than we hoped to 
see. This no doubt was a dis- 
appointment to some of the con- 
testants, most of whom had rigged 
themselves in nicely fitting gym- 
nastic suits. 

In spite of disagreeable weather 
a large crowd assembled to wit- 
ness what proved to be one of the 
most entertaining occasions of the 
year. The acting was surprisingly 
good. Professor Venable announ- 
ced the contests and contestants. 
There having been five judges, 
McDonald,Alexander,H. W.Jack- 
son, Howell and Schenck, selected 
to decide as to the best in each 
contest, Messrs. John Atkinson 
and Ernest P. Mangum were read 
out for the contest on the hori- 
zontal bar. The championship was 
awarded to Mr. Atkinson. 

The second was on the parallel 
bars by Jno. Atkinson and Smith. 
Atkinson was judged the winner. 

The third was on the ladders. 
Atkinson, Smith, Mangum and 
Patrick entered for the contest. 
Mangum was the successful one. 

Fourth was a contest between 
Hedrick and Woodson, in wield 

ing Indian clubs. The champion- 
ship was awarded to Hedrick. 

The fifth was a contest on 
swings. The contestants were At- 
kinson, Cox, Mangum, Woodson, 
Bourne and Smith. In this there 
were some wonderful, feats per- 
formed. Bourne was awarded the 
honor of having done the best. 

The rest of the programme was 
to take place out on the grounds. 
A half a mile race was first run 
by Hedrick and Patrick. Hedrick 
did not reserve himself enough 
for the final part of the race, and 
being fatigued entangled himself 
with his own feet in some way, 
and took a headlong fall in the 
arena. The by-standers were gal- 
lant, and assisted him in regaining 
his feet, and suffered him to re- 
gain his breath, and applied to 
his bruised limbs some St. Jacob's 
Oil, thus restoring him to a good 
running condition for another 
dash. Patrick, of course, was 

The next was the "fools' race," 
in which Baker the giant, Cooper 
the runt of College, and " Buck" 
Tucker, dressed in tights, saw fit 
to enter. Tucker came out con- 
siderably ahead. 

Next came " the tug-of-war" 
between Jackson H., Alexander, 
Green, Parker J., Erwin, Bethel 
Cornelius, Rice and Taylor on one 
side, and Patrick, Faust, Manning, 
P. B. Hord, Patterson, Souther- 
I land, Bright and Stowe on the 

9 8 


other. The first named side was 

The next contest was a jump- 
ing match between Patrick and 
Smith. Running and jumping, 
Patrick beat by making four feet 
four inches in height — a very 
small distance over Smith. 

The last contest was one-tenth 
mile dash by Hedrick and Patrick. 

Patrick made it in 22 seconds, 
Hedrick in 21. 

The crowd dispersed well pleas- 
ed, and surprised that within such 
a short time for practice we should 
have such accomplished athletes 
among us. More importance will 
be attached to the contests which 
will occur next term. 


— "Gulick" got 100 on algebra. 

— ; ' Jodie" Morris got 100 on 

— "Bonus!' plead insanity on 
trigonometry and got 49. 

— Toms spent the holidays with 
L. Grandy, at Oxford. 

— The session closed Decem- 
ber 23rd, and reopened January 

— Sophomoric learning is dis- 
played on every occasion. In 
French he translates puisquil ria 
plus un son, thus: Since he had 
not a sow in his pen. 

— The latest returns from gov- 
ernment headquarters give the fol- 
lowing as the appointments near 
the court of the M'n'g'ms: " L. 
B.," Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenopotentiary; "Nath," 
President Consul. 

— " Tammany " has " busted." 
"United we stand, divided we 

— Prof. Winston spent the 
Christmas with his mother, in 
Bertie county. 

— J. P. Crump, of Danville, Va., 
paid us a short visit during ex- 
amination time. 

— " A tonic is good after din- 
ner," remarked the professor of 
English, and then he put up a 
Miltonic examination. 

— Dr. William Lynch has pur- 
chased the place recently occupied 
by Dr. Purefoy, and will reside 
there. Rumor says he will soon 
be offered up on Hymen's altar. 

Mrs. Dr. R. H. Lewis, of Ral- 
eigh, the daughter of President 
Battle, was visiting here during 
the holidays ; and so were Mr. 
and Mrs. H. B. Battle, of Raleigh. 



— Since hazing has been finally 
put down by the expulsion of the 
leaders in it, the Freshmen are be- 
ginnings think thattheir position 
is courted by the envious Soph, 
and that in these latter days to 
be a Freshman is greater than to 
be a king. " Oh the times ! O 
the manners !" 

— The " Heathen " is the nom- 
inee of the Old East for borer's 
medal. He goes into the busi- 
ness with a vim, and has every 
chance of winning if he contin- 
ues to strive " upward and on- 
ward " in his chosen profession. 

— Prosessor of Latin, on exam- 
ination : " If Horace had been a 
preacher, what would have been 
his text?" Senior, standing the 
examination — " His text would 
have been taken from Timothy, 
/^/zchapterand sixteenth verse. 

— The University Joke Book 
for 1886 is now out. As usual, it 
contains many jokes rich, rare and 
racy. By applying early at the 
President's office it can be had 
without charge. The demand is 
great, and the supply is limited. 

— One morning Prof. Henry 
came into the chapel with a very 
broad smile on his face. We could 
not imagine the cause. Finally 
some one informed us that his 
better half had reached the Hill, 
and the mystery was solved. 
They are living at the Wheat 
place, perhaps better known as 

the residence of the late James 
Wills. Similar good luck hap- 
pened to Dr. Hume not long 
after. He and his family are 
stopping at Mrs. Martin's. They 
will not go to house keeping be- 
fore next summer. 

— Jack Grimes, a deserter from 
the ranks of the class of '86, is 
now farming at his home in Pitt 
county. He went to Bryant & 
Stratton's Business College in 
Baltimore last spring. He has 
finished his course, and has now 
settled down for life. 

— Rev. R. B. John, class '80, 
has been returned by the Confer- 
ence to the Methodist church 
here. He is a man of much 
promise. We have listened to 
some of his recent sermons with 


much pleasure. This is his third 
year in the ministry. He seems 
to be devoted to his work, and 
we predict for him a brilliant fu- 

— Since his resignation, Prof, 
Hooper has moved to his own 
home on Rosemary street, one 
block west .of Dr. Mangum. We 
miss his kind face very much at 
prayers. He was one of the most 
punctual men ever connected with 
the University. The house va- 
cated by him is now occupied by 
Rev. B. R. Hall, who is to preach 
on the Haw River circuit. 

— B. F. White, class '84, is tak- 
ing a post-graduate course in en- 



gineering at the Cornell Univer- 
sity. Our own post-graduate 
course has been extended so much 
during the past year that it is 
now unnecessary for our alumni 
to go out of the State to get ad- 
vanced training. Let us build up 
our Alma Mater first. 

— Rev. A. R. Morgan, who was 
in college in i88'-'84, is now 
principal of the La Grange Colle- 
giate Institute, Lenoir county. 

— George B. King is editor of 
Eastern Reflector, of Greenville, 
N. C, we understand. He has 
quit the law and gone into some- 
thing more remunerative (?) 

— Henry E. Thompson, class 
'83, is principal of Cameron Acad- 
emy, in Moore county. He was 
known in college as the man who 
counted by the rules of meta- 
physics, and of course was irre- 
sistible in his wooings. 

— James A. Bryan, class '85, 
made us a flying visit during 
Christmas week. His school at 
Gastonia is flourishing, 107 being 
enrolled. " Jeems " has all of his 
boys "solid." 

— Clem. Wright has bid the 
Hill a long and lasting farewell. 
When last heard from he had 
purchased a full set of reference 
books, and was preparing for a 
special course of study in Shake- 
speare. The enthusiasm of our 
new professor is beginning to bear 

— Sam Osborne, class '84, has 
gone to the West. He has set- 
tled at Little Rock, Ark, has ob- 
tained his law license, and will 
clear or convict as he is paid. 

—Numa Fletcher Heitman,. 
class '83, has gone to live in Kan- 
sas. He read law two years at 
the University of Virginia, and 
took a high stand in his class. He 
is a man of great energy, and will 
undoubtedly make a success. A 
visit to the Hill last summer con- 
vinced us there was some great 
attraction here for him, and we 
think he is very sensible in mak- 
ing such a choice among so many 
fair ones. 

—The editor recently received a 
very pleasant letter from William, 
D. Barnes, of the class of '52 and 
one of the editors of the first 
volume of the MAGAZINE. He 
left his native State soon after 
graduation, and went to Florida. 
He was Presidential Elector in 
1856, and served four years in the 
Confederate army, reaching the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Since 
the war he has filled various po- 
sitions in his adopted State, being 
at one time President of the State 
Senate. In 1881 he was elected 
Comptroller, and is now serving 
his second term. He is tired of 
politics and public life, and at the 
expiration of his term of office 
will become an "honest granger,"" 
and leave the affairs of State to- 
other minds. 



— Professor Gore is now Secre- 
tary of the Faculty. 

— A- W. Long, class '85, pro- 
fessor of English language and 
literature in Trinity College, N. 
C., spent the holidays at home. 
He is looking well, and reports 
that the past session was a very 
flourishing one. They enrolled 
113 students against 76 for the 
previous year, and the prospects 
are still growing brighter. 

— Our Baptist brethren are un- 
fortunate. Their pastor, Rev. M. 
D. Jeffries, left them last summer 
and went to Louisville, Ky. They 
then called Rev. E. M. Poteat. 
He was recently elected assistant 
Professor of Latin in Wake For- 
est College, and has accepted. 
Again they are left as sheep with- 
out a shepherd. Dr. Hume is 
now acting as their pastor. 

— Mr. and Mrs. James Lee 
Love were married Dec. 23, 1885, 
at 31 o'clock p. m. The bride, 
nee Miss June J. Spencer, is a 
daughter of Mrs. Cornelia P. 
Spencer, and a niece of Dr. Charles 
Phillips. The groom is the newly- 

elected professor of mathematics 
in the University. The ceremony 
was performed at the Presbyterian 
church, in the presence of a large 
number of spectators, by the Rev. 
Mr. Wilhelm. It was beautiful 
and impressive. 

Miss Nora Phillips, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, and Professor 
Atkinson, of the University, 
acted as the waiters. The ush- 
ers were Messrs. Frank Parker, 
John W. Alexander, W. J. Battle 
and E. P. Mangum. The church 
was handsomely decorated. 

The presents were numer- 
ous and costly, among them 
being a set of elegant castors, 
presented by the classes of 
the groom. After the ceremony 
was ended, the happy pair took 
the train for Northern Alabama, 
where they will visit the bride's 
uncle. They will return by way 
of Gastonia, and visit the rela- 
tives of the groom. This scores 
one for the summer of 1883, and 
the " Meeting of the Waters ; " 
for then they met, and there he 
told her the story of his love. 



Among Our Exchanges. 

The Normal Echo, organ of the 
Southern Normal, Lexington, N. 

C, is one of the best papers of 
the kind that visits us. Its main 
feature is its educational edito- 
rials, which are of interest to all 
and of peculiar benefit to teachers. 
The first article of the last num- 
ber — Voltaire — is very good. 

* * 

The Lantern takes rank among 
the best of our College exchanges. 
It evinces in all its departments, 
and especially in its editorials, a 
certain sprightliness and " go- 
aheadativeness" which well cor- 
responds to the progressive spirit 
of the State of whose University 
it is the organ. 

The Pennsylvania College Month- 
ly is before us, and presents a neat 
appearance, as usual. 

The National Illustrated Maga- 
zine, published at Washington, 

D. C, contains many interesting 
sketches of prominent characters 
of the day. 

It is with regret that we note 
the suspension of the N C. Edu- 
cational Journal. The Journal has 
for years wielded a great influence 
in the educational affairs of the 
State, and its suspension creates 

a loss which will be much felt by 
our teachers. We hope it will 
soon be revived. Trinity College 
is now left entirely without an or- 
gan, and its students should es- 
tablish a paper devoted to the in- 
terests of their institution. 

The Christmas number of 
Town Topics makes its appear- 
ance clothed in holiday attire. 
This is one of the leading society 
journals of the country. It also 
devotes some space to literature 
and the arts. 

The Christmas number of the 
North Carolina Teacher is fully 
up to the standard. We know of 
no one who is doing more to ad- 
vance the cause of education in 
the State, and who deserves the 
patronage of the people more 
than brother Harrell. The UNI- 
VERSITY Magazine extends to 
the Teacher its sincere congratu- 
lations, and wishes it a long life 
of success and usefulness. 

The Occident, from the far off 
University of California, continues 
to make its regular appearance. 
If there was nothing else com- 
mendable in it. the regularity 
with which it makes its visits would 
be sufficient to insure a warm re- 



We gladly give place to the fol- 
lowing from The Virginia Univer- 
sity Magazine, as it expresses our 
own opinion in stronger terms 
perhaps than we could express 
them ourselves: "Barely one-third 
of the students have subscribed 
and an inappreciably small num- 
ber have contributed, although all 
have read and criticised. Thus 
the editors are forced to labor 
with but little of that encourage- 
ment which robs toil of half its 
pain. Our parting malediction is 
upon the head of the man who 
wont subscribe to the Magazine, 
the man who sneaks into the room 
of a friend and steals that which 
his selfishness does not permit him 
to buy, the man who rails at that 
which his comprehension has not 
the breadth to embrace, the man 
who sneers at the result of his 
own breach of duty, the man who 
is devoid of every principle of pa- 
triotism to the institution of 
which he is a member." 

* * 

The Brooklyn Magazine takes 
another stride forward in a suc- 
cessful career with its January is- 
sue, and more firmly establishes 
its well earned and deserved repu- 
tation. After a well edited sym- 

posium discussion of the annexa- 
tion of New York and Brooklyn, 
by five of the most prominent cit- 
izens of the latter city, and essay 
of timely and interesting contri- 
butions is pointed, including the 
continuation of a delightful little 
story by Rev. Robert Collyer; 
two more chapters of Mrs. Admi- 
ral Dahlgreen's beautiful Southern 
novel ; a gossipy paper on Mary 
Anderson by Mrs. Lisle Lester; 
an article on "The Glad New 
Year," from Miss Agnes Carr 
Sage, and other poems and papers 
from Donald G. Mitchell, George 
H. Boker, George Birdseye, Gen- 
eral J. Meredith Read, Mrs. N. A, 
Monfort, and other famous writers, 
besides one of the best contribu- 
tions by Mrs. Henry Ward 
Beecher, on " How to Make a 
Home Happy," which we have 
yet read from the pen of this 
gifted old lady. . In addition there 
are some twenty-five pages of ex- 
cellent miscellaneous matter which 
serves as a fitting conclusion to a 
number that is indeed a marvel of 
cheapness for 10 cents, or a Mag- 
azine that gives twelve such inter- 
esting books for only one dollar 
per year. 




The Master of VEntrange, by 
Eugene Hall, is an excellent novel. 
The Philadelphia Daily Evening 
Bulletin, in speaking of it says : 

The Master of VEntrange, by 
Eugene Hall is a startling and 
powerful book, possessing sus- 
tained and absorbing interest and 
originality that cannot be ques- 
tioned, and an irresistable charm. 
It deals with a love fraught with 
peril for both lover and the wo- 
man he adores. The theme and 
scene are American, while the 
characters are such as might be 
met with at any time in real life. 
The plot is involved and compli- 
cated, constantly presenting new 
phases that enchain as well as 
thrill the reader. The mysterious 
and supernatural are largely drawn 
upon and used with much effect. 
The love scenes are intense and 
strong. Guy L'Entrange and 

Genevieve La Bue are the hero 
and heroine, and their adventures 
and experiences are in the highest 
degree romantic. Little Jules is 
an exceptionally bright and inter- 
esting child. There are several 
exceedingly sprightly young ladies 
whose words and deeds brighten 
the pages of the novel wherever 
they appear. The Master of 
V Entrange should be read by all 
who relish a really excellent novel. 
It will be published in one large 
duodecimo volume, paper cover, 
price 75 cents, or $1.25, bound in 
morocco cloth, and will be found 
for sale by all booksellers, by all 
news agents, and on all railroad 
trains everywhere, or copies of it 
will be sent to any one at once, 
post-paid, on remitting the price 
in a letter to the publishers, T. B. 
Peterson & Brothers, Philadelphia, 



February, 1886. 

Old Series Vol XVIII ^ T ===== 

New Series Vol. V. ' CHAPEL HILL, N. C. N04 




J. F. SCHENCK, J jAMEg ThomaSj 

G. B. Patterson, Vernon w _ Lqng 

W - AUG - Self - I Stephen B. Weeks 


The graceful and touching poem given below is contributed from 

rnorW a r Tr" ° f * ^^ ° f '" disti ^^d author, ex Gov- 
einoi William E. Cameron. The charming cantatrice, Parepa-Rosa 
the great panUer of animals, Landseer, and the brilliant and everyway' 
admirable scientist, Agassiz. died within a few days of each other 

AHred Tm ^ ™ nddenCC " the fa " ° f ^ is USed with «« felicity." 
Alfred de Mussett has not surpassed it. Our readers know that every- 
thing relating to Agassiz has a special interest now in connection with 
the fascinating biography just published by his wife. 

But now Art's foremost son lay dead, 
But now the Oak' of Science fell, 
Now Music mourns her Priestess' fled, 
And tuneless peals the tolling bell. 

The artist, dying, left his life 

In colors warm on canvas writ ; 

We have the fruit of Landseer's strife, 

His setting sun all time hath lit. 



And he, the simple great, the Sage, 
Who child-like learned and God-like taught, 
Bequeathed to us the wondrous page 
That tells what Agassiz had wrought. 

So when our poets die, the earth 
Doth of their souls the essence keep, 
And often 'tis their real birth— 
This dying that their lovers weep; 

But oh, sweet Singer! in thy flight 
The charm is lost, the music fled : 
When trills the bird no more at night 
No answer comes,— the echo's dead. 

And so some untouched chords must sleep, 
The chords that knew thy magic call — 
Until the sky and earth and deep 
Chant solemn chorus o'er us all. 


I shall attempt to give a com- 
parison of • Shylock of Shakes- 
peare's "Merchant of Venice" and 
Barbaras of Marlowe's "Jew of 
Malta." How interesting and 
profitable a study of Shakespeare 
and Marlowe together should be 
will be seen when we remember 
that at one time in the develop- 
ment of our literature Christopher 
Marlowe was the foremost dra- 
matist of England, that it was he 
who first broke away from the 
conventionality of writing in 

rhyme and wrote in blank verse, 
and that his works themselves 
rank second only to those of 
Shakespeare. The second of these 
facts is one of the most important 
in English literature, for if he had 
not broken away from the tram- 
mels of convention who knows 
whether or not Shakespeare would 
not have followed in the tracks of 
the older dramatists. If he had 
then we would never have had a 
Shakespeare, that is a Shakespeare 
as he is now known, for his genius 


would have been cramped and 
prevented from showing itself by 
the fetters of rhyme. Thus Mar- 
lowe was the forerunner of Shakes- 
peare and prepared a path for him. 
Many other facts connected with 
Marlowe, especially his treatment 
of character, go to make a study 
of him in connection with Shakes- 
peare not only interesting but of 
the greatest importance to one 
who wishes to become familiar 
with our Elizebethan Age of litera- 

In comparing Shylock and Bar- 
baras I do not mean to convey the 
impression that there is any great 
similarity between the characters. 
On the other hand there is a very 
great difference and it is this differ- 
ence that the object of this essay 
is to bring out rather than to bring 
out any similarity. In following 
the development of the characters 
of these two Jews by these two 
great authors we can best arrive 
at their comparative worth and 
see how much the great Shakes 
peare excelled the great Marlowe. 
Taking up Shylock first we find 
that being the principal character 
fn the play he is so intimately 
connected with its accidents that 
we can hardly understand his 
character unless we have a knowl- 
edge of these accidents. It would 
not then be inappropriate for me 
to give right here the principal 
events of the play. 

The story of the play is this. 


Antonio is a rich merchant whose 
friend Bassanio is in love with a 
wealthy and accomplished heiress. 
Lacking the means "to hold a 

rival place" he repairs to Antonio 
whose funds being at sea, borrows 
the necessary amount from a rich 
Jew, who being his enemy cun- 
ningly gets him to sign a bond on its forfeiture to allow 
him to cut a pound of flesh from 
over his heart. Bassanio suc- 
ceeds in his love adventure, but 
just as he has sworn the sweet 
oath he learns that Antonio has 
forfeited his bond. He immedi- 
ately hastens away determined to 
save his friend's life. Portia, Bas- 
sanio's bride, gets instruction 
from a learned lawyer and disguis- 
ing in a judges garments goes to 
Venice to preside over the trial. 
The Jew sticks to the letter of the 
'aw and demands his bond. After 
she has failed to draw him from 
his purpose on the score of justice 
and mercy she too takes advant- 
age of the law, gives decision in 
favor of Antonio, and dispossesses 
the Jew of his property. The play 
closes by all except the ) ew going 
to Portia's house where they find 
Lorenzo who has run away with 
the Jew's daughter. There Portia 

announces the return of Antonio's 
ships and informs the run-away 
lovers of their good fortune. 

The character of Shylock is 
truly a master-piece. It is so 
natural, so true to life, that we 



forget that it is a production of 
art. He stands a monument to 
the genius of the man who created 


His- two leading characteristics 

are avarice and revenge. But we 
must remember before we con- 
demn him for his avarice that it 
was not considered morally wrong 
by the Jews to take usury from 
the Gentiles. It was also no doubt 
prompted to a great extent by the 

hate he bore the christians. 
Whether his hate was without ex- 
cuse we must also defer to say 
until we have considered whether 
a man persecuted, scorned, and 
constantly in danger of losing his 
life would have left within him 
much of "the milk of human kind- 
ness" towards his persecutors. 
Underneath his Jewish gaberdine 
we catch glimpses of a great soul, 
b ut it had been goaded into ma- 
lignity by his enemies. To stimu- 
late his revenge there was besides 
his avarice and revenge, patriot- 
ism He looked upon insults 
offered to him as insults offered 
to his "holy nation" and upon in- 
sults offered to the Jews as insults 

offered to him. The loss of his 
daughter, the ring that Leah his 
; i{e S left him. and of his precious 
ducats had also been caused by 
one of these christians. Hardly 
I ny wonder then that in the rial 

he sticks to the letter of the law. 
He must be revenged and nothing 

ca n dissuade him from it. Stimu- 

lated by his desire of revenge all 
his faculties are aroused and he 
gives back argument for argument 
and taunt for taunt. At last when 
the letter of the law has been 
turned against him he turns away 
a poor heart-broken Jew. He had 
to be broken, he could never be 

The same remark that was ap- 
plied to Shylock as being so inti- 
mately connected with the acci- 
dents of the Merchant of Venice as 
to render his character unintelligi- 
ble without a knowledge of those 
accidents applies to the character 
which I now take up— Barbaras, 
with double force and for this 
reason. Marlowe had a peculiar 
way of making a play and to this 
peculiarity has been given the 
name of Marlowesque. It consists 
in taking one character and 
making it supreme over all the 
rest in point of interest, power, 
and forte. If we examine the' 
-Jew of Malta" we find that it 
particularly illustrates this pecu- 
liarity of Marlowe's dramas. We 
will find that the Jew is the main 
character and that every acci- 
dent of the play is for the special 
purpose of his development. 

A synopsis of the principal 
events of the play may be given 
as follows: Barbaras is a rich Jew 
of Malta. The annual tribute that 
the governor of Malta pays to the 
Turks has not been paid in ter 
years and is suddenly demanded 



To raise the money the governor 
makes all the Jews pay down half 
of their effects but is especially 
hard on Barbaras whom he leaves 
nearly destitute and turns his 
house into a convent. The Jew 
seeks revenge which causes him to 
cause the death of the governor's 
son, to poison nearly the whole 
convent, to kill one monk, and to 
have another falsely hung for the 
murder. He, then turns the Turks 
into the town, but soon plots 
against them and is killed by the 
trap he set for the death of others. 
The immense wealth of Bar- 
baras and his avarice are shown in 
the first act of the play which 
opens by showing him counting 
his treasures and indulging in 
bursts of indignation because his 
wealth is in such a bulky form as 
silver. He says he would be con- 
tent if he had it in wedges of gold 
one of which would be valuable 
enough to support a man his life- 
time. His watchfulness and ava- 
rice are shown by his hiding a 
considerable portion of his wealth 
as soon as he hears that the Turks 
demand the tribute. Further on 
he calls his gold his life and di- 
vides titles of endearment equally 
between it and his daughter. To 
acquire wealth and to do evil are 
the main ends of existence with 
him, and when the power to do 
the first is taken away from him 
he lives only to satisfy the latter 

As to the revenge element of 
Barbaras' character if he had 
stopped in its satisfaction with the 
governor he could be excused. 
From this man he had suffered 
great wrong and the wrong came 
from a member of a people he 
despised. And in the mind of 
Barbaras the taking away of world- 
ly possessions was the greatest in- 
jury one man could do another, in 
proof of which we find him say- 
ing to the governor: 

"Why I esteem the injury far less 
To take the lives of miserable men 

Than be the causers of their misery. 

You have my wealth, the labor of my life,. 

The comfort of mine age, my children's hope.' 

You see then he had some cause 
to cherish revenge towards the 
governor of Malta. But it did 
not stop here. He causes the 
death of two perfectly innocent 
young men, he kills one monk and 
causes another to be unjustly 
hung, and poisons a whole con- 
vent, with the exception of two of 
its inmates, one of which was his 
daughter; and to cap the climax 
of fiendishness he plots the death 
of the Turks who have just made 
him governor of the town. But 
these are not all the offenses of 
Barbaras. Previous to the offence 
given to him by the governor we 
find him engaged in the most 
brutal and uncalled for crimes. 
Another point in his character 
which goes to prove him a natural 
born wretch is, that unlike most 



Jews he has no very strong love 
for the Jewish nation. It is true 
we find him soliloquizing how 
much the lot of the Jew is to be 
preferred to that of the Christians, 
but these sentiments find their 
origin, not because of any great 
love of his for the Jews, but in 
the fact that he himself is a Jew. 
In the presence of the Jews he 
treats them with seeming respect 
and love, but when out of their 
presence he heaps upon them epi- 
thets of contempt. He makes 
the impression that he takes great 
concern in their state but says 
aside that he will look only unto 

But what shall we say of the 
two characters when brought into 
comparison ? It is here that we 
see the supremacy of Shake- 
speare's sense of propriety, his 
sense of the fitness of things, or, 
in other words, it is here that we 
see the supremacy of his genius. 

In the first place both Shylock 
and Barbaras are made very 
wealthy. But Shakespeare, with 
that sense of propriety which 
seems to be ever present with him, 
makes Shylock only rich enough 
to fill the bill of the traditional 
rich Jew of the Middle Ages, and 
there leaves him. Barbaras, on 
the other hand, is made so im- 
mensely wealthy that he becomes 

In the next place, we do not 
find that patriotic love of the 

" Holy Jewish Nation" in Barba- 
ras like we do in Shylock. Shy- 
lock is ever recurring to his race 
with pride and delight, and swears 
by " father Abraham." He is de- 
voted to his daughter, and 
when he hears that she has run 
away with a Christian, we have a 
very different scene from that in 
which Barbaras hears that his 
daughter has gone into a convent. 
Shylock is distracted ; Barbaras 
curses Abigail and commences to 
plot the death of her and the whole 
convent. . Shylock also loves the 
Jews around him, and calls Tubal 
'•good Tubal." Barbaras is con- 
centered all in self, and speaks of 
his Jewish friends with contempt. 
Thus one of the most redeeming 
features of the Jewish character 
is conspicuously present in Shy- 
lock, while in Barbaras it is con- 
spicuously absent. 

But perhaps the greatest par- 
ticular in which Shylock and Bar- 
baras differ is in what you might 
call the diabolical element of their 
characters. It is true that Shy- 
lock appears very cruel in de- 
manding his bond. But he can 
be excused. In the first place, he 
was brought up in the spirit of 
Judaism, which does not teach its 
followers to have charity to those 
who are not Jews. In the next 
place, he had been cruelly wrong- 
ed. He had been thwarted in his 
schemes, spat upon, scoffed at, 
and his own daughter had married 



a Christian and stolen his precious 
ducats. As I said before, his was 
a great soul that had been goaded 
into malignity. And while some 
of these excuses apply to Barba- 
ras, yet we see on a further ex- 
amination of his character, that 
he was a natural born demon. 
Even before he had been wronged 
by the governor, he had been ac- 
customed, to use his own lan- 
guage, to 

— " walk abroad a-nights 
And kill sick people groaning under walls ; 
Sometimes to go about and poison wells," 
&c., &c. 

Thus throughout Shy lock's 
character there is something 
grand, lofty, that commands our 
respect ; in Barbaras we find hard- 
ly anything but what is repulsive. 

In these two characters we can 
best see the comparative worth of 
the two authors. Shakespeare 
aimed at something higher ; Mar- 
lowe pandered to the prejudices 
of the rabble, and " thereby hangs 
a tale" that is well worth the care- 
ful study of the sensational writer. 
The result was that Shylock lived 
on, and to-day is justly esteemed 
one of the very finest productions 
in dramatic literature ; while Bar- 
baras, although in many respects 
he is of the greatest interest, has 
long since been consigned to the 
shelf • where moth doth corrupt 
and thieves never break through 
and steal." 

R. L. Uzzell. 
Noveviber, 1885. 


Why is it that some nations 
have outstripped others in the 
race toward social, political and 
religious perfection ? Why was it 
that Greece, Rome and England 
in succession attained the proud- 
est eminence among other nations, 
and have attracted the admiration 
of all men and of all times? Why 
is it that our own country separa- 
ted as it was from civilized Eu- 
rope by a desert "of waters has 
built for herself a nationality as 

strong as adamant and a character 
as bright as Sirius? A large por- 
tion of the world's success has 
been due to the cultivation and 
use of oratory. It has carved the 
fortune and fame of all republican 
forms of government and has been 
the main factor in the overthrow 
of despotic and monarchical rule. 
That note of liberty which Demos- 
thenes breathed forth on the 
plains of Attica comes ringing 
through the dark centuries on the 



silver tongues of Cicero, Pitt and 
Henry Clay. By the magic wand 
of eloquence, despotism has been 
changed into democracy and the 
fetters of slavery have been broken. 
The great questions that involve 
a nation's destiny must first be 
explained to the people. The 
two agents needed are the press 
and rostrum. We do not under- 
value the press, since it is a great 
factor in a country's civilization, 
but oratory wields a more potent 
influence. It rolls back the veil 
of ignorance and impresses stern 
facts upon the minds of men. It 
urges a people to defend their in- 
stitutions and cherish the noble 
deeds of their ancestors ; it thrills 
their minds with magic words of 
wisdom and warning. It is as 

" Orpheus tuned his matchless lyre, 
To make the sweetest symphony ; 

While earthward bent the heavenly choir 
To catch such harmony." 

In olden times the strains of the 
orator were one of the sweetest 
charms of Arthenian society. Let 
us imagine that we are entering 
the gates of that city in the time 
of its power and glory. Behold ! 
Socrates is pitted against the 
. famous Atheist from Ionia, and 
has brought him to a contradic- 
tion of terms. Listen, behind 
you hear the clapping of hands, 
Pericles is mounting the rostrum! 
Hear Demosthenes with his 
trumpet tongued appeals to Athe- 

nian pride and honor. The 
thoughts that fell from the lips of 
those great men live to-day upon 
the pages of literature. Oratory 
has been the handmaid of both 
civil and religious liberty. The 
fire and wisdom of a Socrates 
were blended in the early christian 
orators. We read of St. Paul, 
reasoning on "righteousness, tem- 
perance and judgment to come." 
He thunders before Agrippa for 
justice ! He tells on all of his mis- 
sionary journeys of the beauties 
of Christianity, and on Mars hill 
points out the unknown God to 
the heathen. By that same elo- 
quence the temples of the living 
God have been reared upon the 
fragments of heathen empires. 
Yes, even the ruins of the "Marble 
city of Augustus" shines with 
reflected light from the star of 
Bethlehem. Gregory goes forth 
from the "city of Muses," the ear- 
liest orator and poet of Christiani- 
ty. Basil stamped upon the minds 
of Cesarea's populace, the undy- 
ing theories of a Socrates. But 
the palm of eloquence among the 
early pulpit orators must be as- 
signed to Chrysostom. The walls 
of the great Cathedral of St. 
Sophia resounded with his defense 
of the new faith, and all the an- 
cient religions withered before his 
irresistible logic. Carthage with 
all its wickedness, produced Au- 
gustine, whose eloquence shaped 
and guided the convictions of 



Luther. See Luther, the father 
of the Reformation, laboring and 
suffering for the cause of truth, 
speaking to a people and by the 
fire of his invective rousing them 
to throw off the shackels of Roman 
Catholicism. See Calvin, fighting 
against the spirit of his age and 
convulsing nations to their centre 
with words of truth and warning. 
Let us turn now to the home of 
Cicero. We hear him with his 
bitter sarcasm driving Cataline 
from the crowded forum ; Mark- 
Anthony rousing the populace to 
a sense of their duty. History 
tells, that at one time England's 
lower classes were the most bar- 
barous and most ignorant of any 

of Europe would be to-day if Fox 
and Grattan had never shaken the 
British senate with their elo- 
quence. What could be more 
knightly than Cobden and Bright 
standing as bulwarks against aris- 
tocratic prejudice, and fighting 
almost alone the great battle of 
Free-trade. It was by their un- 
tiring efforts that bread was made 
cheap to England's toiling mill- 
ions, and happiness rested upon 
the hearth-stones of its suffering. 
That sublime note of liberty 
which moved the hearts of men 
in past ages was first sounded on 
America's shore by Patrick Henry. 
Think of John Adams and Otis 
pouring forth their burning elo- 

in Europe, but oratory elevated ; quence on the Boston Commons 

their minds and caused them to 
emerge from barbarism. Pitt by 
his moving eloquence became the 
first man in England. Says Ma- 
cauley: "His trophies were in all 
four quarters of the globe. His 
name was mentioned with awe in 
every place from Moscow to Lis- 
bon." Yet no orator in England 
defended what is now admitted to 
have been the constitutional cause 
with more ardor than did Chat 

against British injustice and tyr- 
anny! Behold Webster uphold- 
ing the Constitution in its grand- 
eur! We see Prentiss's glowing 
tribute to La Fayette rousing pa- 
triotic feeling in the breasts of 
grateful Americans. 

But in eulogizing the orators of 
other States, we cannot forget 
South Carolina's favorite son — 
that great orator and champion 
of States-rights, John G. Calhoun. 

ham. At his death the voice of As a true South Carolinian, and 

even just and temperate censure 
was mute. Well may the monu- 
ment that has been erected to his 
memory, bear the inscription. 
"No one has left a more stainless 
and, none a more splendid name." 
Who can say what the history 

as one proud of the noble deeds 
of her sons, I desire to place one 
more laurel upon his well-decked 
brow. His name comes to us 
garlanded with Carolina's flowers 
and wet with Carolina's tears. 
As the monuments that have 



been erected to his memory lift j 
their marble shafts heavenward, I 
they can but do honor to his great j 
name, lofty eloquence, and vir- 

We cannot pause without speak- | 
ing of him who, with feeble health j 
but true patriotism, called upon j 
his country to witness his loyalty j 
to the Constitution. But when 
the crisis came, he cast his for- 
tune with the people of his home. 
The call of the South was to him 
as the voice of duty. The spirit 
of Alexander H. Stephens is gone, 
but his fame still lives. 

In later days we hear the voice 
of a Bayard, the Curran and Burke 
of America, pleading for honest 

That chivalric defence of South- 
ern integrity delivered by Senator 
Ransom makes him very dear to 
the people of the South. We still 
hear those ringing words, '' When 
did the South become degene- 

The mention of the names of 
Bishops Otey and Pierce, tells us 
that the South has boasted of 
pulpit orators who dealt stalwart 
blows against the tides of infi- 

The thoughts that fell from the 
lips of Rev. Dr. Hawthorne on the 
commencement occasion of 1884 
should always be fresh in our 
memories. The tremendous pow- 
er of oratory cannot be estimated. 
The history of every age and 

country teems with good that has 
been wrought with this magical 

We have seen that it was the 
master-piece of the nations of an- 
tiquity, that it was not Attica's 
troops that directed her destinies, 
but the words and gestures of a 
few men who had the skill to di- 
rect the energies of a people as 
though they were one person : 
that in the Dark Ages, the earnest 
tones of one man, roused the peo- 
ple "to engage in the crusades, 
drove back.the victorious crescent, 
overthrew feudalism," emancipa- 
ted the serfs, and changed the 
moral face of Europe. A few 
centuries later the voice of a soli- 
tary monk " shook the vatitan, 
and emancipated half of Europe 
from the dominion of Papal 

Great changes have been 
wrought in England's political 
system by the indomitable energy 
of her orators. Gambetta's heart 
stirring appeals for liberty urged 
thousands of Frenchmen to throw 
off the yoke of tyranny and shape 
their government after that of 

The hero, who has served his 
country gains a high and lasting 
fame, but what is that to compare 
with the good that has been ac- 
complished by the truths that 
have fallen from the tongues of 
truthful orators. "Look" says 
Tacitus "through the circle of the 


fine arts, survey the whole com- 
pass of the sciences and tell me 
in what branch can the professors 


acquire a name to vie with the 
celebrity of a great and powerful 
orator." g 



We are accustomed to speak of 
the times in which we live as ex- 
traordinary and doubtless we say 
so with reason, viewing the rapid 
strides which have been made in 
the sets of civilization, the develop- 
ments of science and the general 
diffusion of gospel principles. Yet 
every intelligent observer of the 
events of the last few years must 
acknowledge that there has been 
a gradual, yet powerful tendency 
to lower the authority of law and 
to deny and annul its sanctions 
and the mightiest billow which 
dashes against the bulwarks of 
government and the safe-guards of 
society, is the wilful taking of 
human life. 

"What can withstand its terri- 
ble force?" the people cry. We 
.answer,— "Only a stricter interpre- 
tation of the law of Capital Pun- 
ishment, so that every man who 
•stands fairly convicted of murder 
may meet the just deserts ap- 
pointed by eternal justice." 

Let then this punishment be 

restricted to murder and made so 
direct and certain that every 
hardened villian is assured that by 
taking the life of another he kills 

The old Jewish law, which would 
not convict on inconclusive cir- 
cumstancial evidence, but required 
guilt to be established by the con- 
current testimony of two or more 
witnesses, is a worthy guide for us 
in many respects. These and the 
other precautions of our courts 
should satisfy those who claim 
that the gallows should be torn 
down because innocent men have 
suffered upon it. Such a case is 
indeed deplorable and ought to 
have no recurrence; but must we 
on this account pull down our 
prisons and set all criminal laws 
at nought? The right to life and 
the "pursuit of happiness" is the 
inherent privilege of every free 
man, rich or poor, learned or sim- 
ple ; "a principle which" says the 
the eloquent Sheridan, "neither 
the rudeness of ignorance can 



stifle nor the enervation of refine- 
ment extinguish." It matters not 
whether one holds a position in 
the highest offices of public trust 
or herds his sheep upon the distant 
hill, he pays his tribute to the sup- 
port of a true and honest govern- 
ment and should be allowed to 
rest securely in its protecting 
shadow. But our opponents say 
this applies also to the criminal, 
and that the State which can not 
give life to the lowest creature, 
should not deprive any human 
being of this precious and sacred 
gift. Is it not a custom consid- 
ered beneficial also in animal and 
vegetable life to root out and des- 
troy whatever by nature or after- 
growth is noxious and hurtful to 
• the general welfare ? By what law 
of nature or humanity can he claim 
this privilege of life who has de- 
faced and destroyed the image of 
God and sent a soul without a 
moments warning into a dread 
eternity, into the presence of the 
Judge of quick and dead? 

But the more lenient class shud- 
der at such barbarity and direct 
our sympathies to the ruined 
family, the dreary dungeon, the 
treacherous scaffold, the awful 
death struggle. Alas ! let them 
visit the home of the victim, see 
the pale widow, the hungry little 
ones, and ask who will comfort 
them when the storms howl and 
the winter winds blow cold. This 
position is by no means incom- 

patible with the present enlighten- 
ment and progress of christian 
truth, when we remember that 
good legislation has always affixed 
the penalty in proportion to the 
decree of knowledge under which 
an offense was committed. How- 
ever hard it may be in a case of 
life and death to sit upon a jury 
and render a verdict of "Guilty," 
we believe that there are still 
among us, men who, despite the 
difficult task, are prepared to up- 
hold the direct authority of the 

The only substitute offered is 
imprisonment for life and if this 
be accepted what guarantee have 
we that it will be fully carried out ? 
While life lasts the convict thinks 
only of his chances for escape. In 
a few years the State Executive 
may grant his pardon and he is 
turned loose to again work his in- 
human will upon society. This, 
moreover, is injurious to the peo- 
ple at large, for unless there are 
momentous reasons for the par- . 
don, his subjects must despise the 
sovereign at heart and foreigners 
will do so openly. If, however, 
the man ends his life in his cell,, 
he has but little conscience, his 
former habits of procrastination 
are there confirmed and he makes 
no preparation for the end. But 
let him know that at a certain 
hour the law demands his life, that 
he is fast approaching the thresh- 
old of eternity and if this does- 



not arouse his drowsy conscience, 
it must sleep on till startled by 
the horrors of a second death. 

In the primitive state of social 
organization, retaliation was the 
•common method of punishing 
offenses. Abolish capital punish- 
ment, and this is the result of the 
immediate revolution. Lynch-law 
rules supreme. The innocent and 
guilty alike are prey to the pas- 
sions of the lawless, who satiate 
themselves with revenge, " the 
sweetest morsel to the mouth," 
says Scott, "that e'er was cooked 
in hell." See what startling fig- 
ures was the United States record 
for 1884. Out of 3,377 murders, 
there only 103 legal executions, 
and 210 lynchings. What a fear- 
ful example the masses have set 
the lenient courts. Then let the 
law be strictly but fairly adminis- 
tered, and Americans will abide 
by the result. This has certainly 
been the case in England, for 
Samuel Hand, writing of the state 
of affairs in the mother-country, 
says that "in no country, since 
the reform of its criminal law, 
does the capital punishment more 
•certainly follow the offense than 
in England ; in no other countries 
do juries obey the law, and, in 
clear cases, find the murderer 
guilty in disregard of all passing 
public excitement. And in no 
other country has human life be- 

come so safe, so sacred, and so 
completely protected. It contains 
a population who are subject to 
the most violent and brutal pas- 
sions ; immense inequalities of 
wealth and property afford strong 
temptations to crime, and yet, by 
certainty of the death penalty, the 
crime of deliberate murder is, 
more perhaps than in any other 
country, completely prevented." 

We need only mention those 
best of all arguments — those great- 
er than human laws: "Ye shall 
take no satisfaction for the life of 
a murderer, which is guilty of 
death, but he shall surely be put 
to death" ; and "If a man come 
presumptuously upon his neigh- 
bor to slay him with guile, thou 
shalt take him from mine altar, 
that he may die." 

While these and their kind re- 
main for the guidance of man, 
justice can never be turned back- 
ward. But infidels even make 
war upon the Bible, and if they 
triumph the arch hypocrite will 
lift his mask, and the angel of 
light stand confessed a fiend of;, 
darkness. May they never en- 
throne the "Goddess of Reason" 
upon the ruins of Jehovah's sanc- 
tuaries, and discard the law of 
God to make room for the code 
of infidelity. 

E. B. C. 




The era in which we live has 
made strides up the path of 
progress. It has been a wonder- 
ful age in many respects. Espe- 
cially in the present century has 
the Chemist dazzled the world 
with the splendors of an undis- 
covered region. Little thought 
the Chemist who discovered the 
art of making Dynamite, that he 
was producing a substance that 
would possibly change the future 
of the world's history, or perplex 
the wisest and most serious men 
of modern times. And now in the 
evening of the nineteenth century, 
in this time of our country's pride 
and its power, this time of its 
peace and its plenty, it is besieged 
with a problem that has made the 
crowned-heads of Europe tremble 
with fear. 

The Dynamite fever first raged 
in Russia, until it spread with fury 
all over her vast domain. And it 
finally unsettled her government 
and removed her Czar. The 
scourge of Dynamite then began 
its westward journey, and moved 
on until it startled England in its 
attempt to stop the law-making 
power. It took but a short time 
for it to span the waves of the 
Atlantic; and now this deadly 
pestilence has begun its work of 
horror in the land of Washington. 

In the eagerness of the present 
century to scale the walls of 
knowledge, it cared little what it 
piled up to help it in its march ; 
but it might well have paused 
when it placed Dynamite in its 
path. The demands of the present 
day bid the nineteenth century 
to stop in its wild career of pro- 
gress and examine this object of 
its creation. 

The era of Dynamite tells the 
sad story of the faults and frailties 
of human governments. Its first 
use against governments plainly 
shows that there is some grave 
trouble somewhere, and the con- 
tinuation of its use shows the 
weakness of the governments of 
men. It proclaims the dissatis- 
faction of men with their laws and 
their rulers. 

The attention of the world was- 
first called to the workings of this 
evil in Russia. Those who tamp- 
ered with it there were called 
Nihilists, and the world tried to 
frown them down because of this 
epithet given to them by their 
enemies. Nihilism has been great- 
ly misrepresented and defamed. 
The Nihilists have in their ranks 
not only those who favor anarchy 
and misrule, but the best and most 
law-abiding citizens in their coun- 
try. History will not be true to- 



the trust that has been assigned 
her, if she fails to tell of the jus- 
tice of the Nihilist's cause in Rus- 
sia. Their country was one that 
was bound down by the iron chains 
of oppression. The increasing 
strength of civilization that had 
snapped these chains in other 
lands, brought no relief there. 
Everything was ripe for a change; 
all peaceful methods in favor of 
change were exhausted, and only 
secret resistance was left. There 
was no other way to gain that 
freedom that the heart of enlight- 
ened man sighs for. It is not 
strange that in such an extremity 
as this, men turned to Dynamite 
for help. We must admit that 
there was some excuse for its use 
in down-trodden Russia. 

The Irish believe that their 
cause too is the cause of sacred 
right. While the Goddess of Lib- 
erty, with her benign presence, 
has blessed Ireland more than 
Russia, yet even at this late day 
she must weep over unfortunate 
and struggling Erin. The Irish- 
man's cry is but the universal 
wail of mankind for freedom. We 
all know that the Irish policy of 
the English government has not 
been a fair one. The dissatisfac- 
tion prevalent in Ireland appears 
to prove this. But I am inclined 
to believe that the Irish are not 
law-abiding, and would not be 
satisfied with any system of laws. 
The famous island upon which 

they live cannot well support 
them, but they believe that their 
troubles come from the laws, and 
not from their loved native land. 

Our faithful statesmen in Con- 
gress were right in condemning 
the use of dynamite in Great Brit- 
ain. For not to condemn it there 
and everywhere else, is to encour- 
age it in our own land. But while 
we condemn the act of the Irish, 
we must confess that it is no great 
surprise that dynamite has been 
used against the English govern- 
ment. We may admit that a 
man's conduct is not altogether 
unnatural under the circumstances 
and at the same time condemn 
his act. 

But while there may be some 
shadow of excuse for the use of 
dynamite in these countries, there 
can be no excuse for it in the 
United States. In this country 
it is impossible to be oppressed, 
for every man is a ruler. If faults 
exist in the government, they 
have only to be corrected. And 
corrected how? Not by dynamite, 
but by ballots— ballots that fall 
as gently as the brown leaves upon 
the autumn earth— yet ballots 
that bring as great changes as the 
fierce strokes of the swords of Na- 
poleon and his legions. I am glad 
that it has not been used against 
our government. This plainly 
shows the adaptation of our sys- 
tem to all men. But still it has 
been used in this country for 



other purposes. With it the la- 
boring classes of the North try to 
make their employers pay more 
wages than they are able, and try 
to make them lessen the number 
of working hours. The great Dis- 
raeli said that he went to the 
House of Commons to fight the 
people's battles, Taking him as 
my guide, I would crave no greater 
epitaph than that I did what I 
could for the masses of the peo- 
ple. In this free land, where the 
valiant knight of the plow is the 
equal of the valiant knight of the 
Senate, it is an honor to eat the 
bread of honest toil. I am proud 
to say that I honor the bread- 
winners. For the toiling thou- 
sands who are honestly striving 
to make the most out of life they 
can, I have the profoundest re- 
spect. But generally those who 
tamper with dynamite, spend their 
money for tobacco and grog, 
waste their time in idleness and 
folly, and then make war with 
dynamite upon those who by dint 
of honest work and hard saving 
have raised themselves above 

I am glad to be able to say that 
so far the South has refused to 
use dynamite. The North claims 
to lead in everything, and it is in 
such as this that she always leads; 
and if any section has to be fore- 

most in such disgraces, I for one 
am willing for her to forever lead. 
Only one Southern man of any 
prominence has dared to raise his 
puny voice in favor of dynamite ; 
and he misrepresents Virginia in 
the Senate of the nation. 

It is not strange that dynamite 
is so much feared ; for with it the 
weakest man becomes more power- 
ful than the most august Senate 
upon earth. It is shocking to 
think of the destruction that could 
be inflicted upon humanity with 
dynamite. . But I have no sympa- 
thy with the chronic croakers who 
tell us that dynamite will over- 
throw our government and finally 
check the rising tide of civiliza- 
tion. 1 have no doubt that things 
worse than these were predicted 
about gun-powder. I have great 
faith in the honor of American 
manhood, and the firmness of 
American institutions. There is 
only one way to stop the use of 
dynamite in secret warfare, and 
that is by an appeal to the virtue 
and good sense of the American 
people — an appeal that is always 
answered with a sublime amen, 
whose great voice is heard in all 
the land and whose grand echo 
resounds from every mountain top 
of true civilization. 

St. Leon Scull. 





A traveller traversing Ireland 
sees an anomaly. He sees pro- 
ductive lands poorly cultivated, a 
temperate climate, a rich agricul- 
tural soil crowded with ill-fed 
laborers that want employment. 
He sees the inhabitants living in 
dingy dens of dirt, in straggling, 
tumble-down huts, in misery and 
wretchedness. A writer has well 
said that "the Irish are a people, 
and the only people, who starve 
in the midst of plenty." Senator 
Jones, recently in a speech at 
Dublin, said that "there is more 
suffering and sorrow to-day in this 
loveliest of lands than in any other 
on the face of God's earth." What 
is the reason of all this ? It is be- 
cause capital is afraid to invest in 
a country where property is so 
insecure on account of dissensions 
and rebellions. What causes the 
dissensions and rebellions? The | 
answer is evident — misgovern- 

Dan O'Connell once said that 
as barbers who are just learning 
their trade shave beggars for noth- 
ing, to get skilled in their business, 
so young English politicians are 
put off on Ireland to try their in- 
experienced hands in experiment- 
ing upon her with their vagaries 

1 and theories of government. And 
poor Ireland, she can and must do 
nothing but suffer. Every time 
she winces, shows that she is in 
pain, and resists, English bayonets 
are then to coerce her. 

As each minister comes into 
i power, he considers the interests 
;' of his party of more importance 
I than the welfare of Ireland, and 
; rules her accordingly. The Irish 
j gain little by quietly submitting 
J to tyranny; for it is a fact worthy 
! of note that the British govern- 
1 ment has never granted a reform 
to any of its provinces voluntarily. 
j Every reform has been brought 
, about by the voice of the masses, 
! compelling the government to re- 
dress grievances. 

Many are the causes of Ireland's 
discontent; but time and space 
will allow us to mention but her 
two greatest : the despotic rule of 
the priest, and the trouble between 
the tenants and landlords. 

The Roman Catholic priest- 
hood, subtle and lynx-eyed, is the 
colossal curse of Ireland. It has 
been one of the main causes of all 
the crimes that have occurred on 
that unhappy isle, crimes that 
fright the rest of the world be- 
cause of their hideousness and 



blood-thirstiness. This priest- 
hood keeps alive the hatred the 
father has for the English, deepens 
the national prejudices, and keeps 
the flames of sectional enmity I 
burning brightly and hotly. It 
trains the mind of the young to 
but two principles : idolatry of the 
Virgin, and virulent hatred of the 

It was this priesthood that 
drove the landlords into exile, 
making one of the greatest of Ire- 
land's troubles — A bsentee ism. 
The landlord, away from Ireland, 
cannot appreciate the feelings, 
cannot understand the discontent, 
and, consequently, cannot allevi- 
ate the sorrows of his Irish ten- 
antry. This absence is what the 
priest most desires; for when the 
landlord is away, he reigns with 
absolute sway over his supersti- 
tious, ignorant countrymen. He 
is, then, a monarch, unrivalled 
and unrestrained. If the landlord 
were permitted by the priesthood 
to remain in Ireland, he would be- 
get a fellow-feeling for his tenants. 
As it is now, the landlord is an 
utter stranger, an enemy, to his 
tenant. Often it is that we dislike 
one whom we are not well ac- 
quainted with, but as we know 
him better, traits appear which 
we never would have discovered 
as strangers, and draw us as cords 
of love to him. It is little wonder 
that the landlord, in order to get 
free from his tenants, who are al- 

ways committing some acts of 
meanness at the instigation of the 
priests, seeks peace and comfort 
in calm old England. 

The landlord-tenant question is 
a vexed one. To get a fair view 
of it, we must look at the indi- 
vidual Irishman, and consider his 
woes. The Irish peasant gets 
about one dollar a week for his 
work. He has to support his 
family en this, and pay from three 
to eight dollars a year for the rent 
of his little cottage. He gener- 
ally pays this rent in labor. Often 
the labor for the whole year's rent 
is required of him in the spring, 
and he has to tend his own farm 
when he can. Many an Irishman 
works hard the live-long day just 
for one meal. Even at this low 
rate many cannot get employ- 
ment. Thus,, idle, unemployed, 
is it strange that the Irish peasant 
is miserable? The single animal 
enjoyment that he has is getting 
married. This he does when he 
has scarcely enough money to pay 
for the marriage license. Very 
often the old man, his wife, six 
children, cow, dog, old sow and 
litter of pigs, and potato hill can 
be 'found in one hut! 

The peasant has many wrongs. 
He is obliged to rent his little 
piece of land, not from the old 
Irish proprietor, not from the 
landlord who goes over to Eng- 
land ; but from an agent, and 
often from an agent of an agent. 



This agent raises the rent and 
speculates on the poor tenant. It 
used to be that if a tenant im- 
proved the farm, by repairs and 
otherwise, that the agent would 
raise the rent the next year on 
account of the improvements, and 
not allow the tenant a thing for 
them. The tenant then would 
either have to leave or pay a 
higher rent, not because of negli- 
gence or laziness, but because he 
improved the place. Sometimes 
the agent would turn him off any- 
way, because he could get much 
higher rent from others who were 
eager to lease, since the place was 
so much improved. Considering 
this, is there any wonder that 
there were so many arsons at one 
time in Ireland ? This evil was 
once great. The master-reformer, 
Gladstone, had a bill passed which 
compels the land-renter to reim- 
burse the tenant for all the im- 
provements he puts on the place. | 

Often the tenant is evicted by 
the landlord after the crop has 
been planted and is being worked. 
Evicted, and that without com- 
pensation ! Should we blame 
tenants for combining to obtain 
better wages, to lower the exor- 
bitant rent of land, to boy-cott 
and prevent others from taking 
the land from which they were 
ejected ? When a government 
ceases to give protection to its 
citizens, they should not be cen- 
sured if they should combine for 

j their common protection. The 
I English law plainly does not pro- 
i tect the Irish peasant. Instead of 
I protecting him, it drives him into 
I the wayside ditches to starve, in 
j order that the absent landlord 
:. "may rid his farm of human en- 
cumbrances put there by the 
I Creator." 

In open rebellion there is little 
hope. The Irishman, poor and 
unaided, what can he do! Can 
he fight successfully against the 
mighty government of Great Brit- 
ain, which holds many millions at 
its beck and call? Ireland's best 
soldiers are in the English army 
and navy. They have agreeable 
quarters, good pay, and are not 

likely to become discontented 

to enter rashly upon a forlorn 
hope. Were the Irish to rise, not 
the English navy, but a few frig- 
ates could soon quell the rebellion. 
If the whole navy were sent 
against the rebels, it would only 
be a matter of a short while be- 
fore the whole Irish coast would 
be blockaded, and all the princi- 
pal places burned to the ground. 
But there are two sides to the 
: landlord-tenant question, as there 
are to every question of interest. 
The tenant finds improvements 
on the farm ; goes on the farm 
: and works it, and, of course, makes 
| the place more saleable. The 
j landlord wants to make as much 
J as he can out of the capital he 
has invested in the land. He leases 



it to the highest bidder, as he has 
the perfect right to do ; for if the 
right of open competition be taken 
away, stagnation and decay is 
bound to follow. Now, the old 
tenant comes in and demands pay 
for the good he has done the farm 
while he was on it— wants pay for 
doing his duty. He even goes so 
far as to contend that since he 
has paid for the value of the place 
many times over in paying his 
yearly rents, it rightly belongs to 

Politicians, like quack doctors, 
have a remedy for every disease, 
and they have a cure for this 
trouble. They propose that the 
government shall assess the land, 
and divide and sell it among the 
tenants at stipulated prices. In 
this way the workers of the land 
would become its owners. This 
theory seems quite plausible at 
first glance ; but if the government 
should assess the land high, would 
not the tenants cry out ? if low, 
would not the landlords be dis- 

Ireland is in distress. She 
should not submit to tyranny; 
she cannot shake off the yoke of 
England. What is to become of 
her? Should she be coerced? At- 
tempts to reclaim her poor by 
coercive statutes are unavailing. 
They do more harm than good. 
The poor become prejudiced and 
hate the government that grap- 
ples them harshly by their throats 

with an iron, unrelenting hand. 
But kindliness and cheering help 
will avail much. The heart of the 
poor wretch is like the flower that 
closes up and draws within itself 
at the approach of storm and 
darkness, but opens and expands 
its petals to the bright and gentle 
rays of the morning sun. Let 
words of kindness, sympathy and 
encouragement be uttered, and 
then the sunken eyes will beam 
with gratitude, and the pale, ema- 
ciated, wrinkled features will 
lighten up with bright smiles of 
hope and joy. 

Statesmen have advocated a 
large appropriation by the govern- 
ment to Ireland for extensive in- 
ternal improvements. A system 
of public works will improve the 
habits and excite the industry of 
the inhabitants. By opening up 
the Highlands of Scotland in this 
manner, they were improved and 
the interests of that country were 
advanced. If the splendid coun- 
try of poor Paddy were opened 
up, had more canals and railroads, 
more inland navigation, it could 
support twice as many people as 
now live but poorly there. The 
latent advantages of the isle are 
great ; but they are like valuable 
metals in the earth— they need to 
be worked out. Facility of inter- 
course from place to place, a bet- 
ter inter-province communication 
will bring out the resources of the 
country and benefit the inhabi- 



tants, by diminishing the price of 
fuel and potatoes — the necessaries 
of life. 

The English government once 
adopted the plan of giving each 
poor, discontented peasant money 
enough to take him to America. 
It encouraged the pauper with his 
filth and vices to emigrate to our 
shores. This policy was highly 
esteemed by somewise heads; but 
our government put a quietus on 
it by refusing to receive any more 
of the helpless, really needy men, 
of the offscourings of Europe. 

Agitation is Ireland's only hope 
— a slender one, it is true, but it 
has benefited her in the past. It 
emancipated the Catholics in the 
time of O'Connell, and came near 
causing the repeal of the union 
with England. Agitation for 
Home-Rule under Parnell has ac- 
complished much. The Home 
Rulers have gained greatly in favor 

and influence until now they hold 
the balance of power between the 
two great contending parties. 
Already in the House of Com- 
mons often can be heard the ex- 
pression from one of the ministry 
"we dare not offend the Irish 
members." At last, all Irishmen, 
irrespective of creed — Protestant 
and Catholic alike, — putting aside 
their religion differences, are be- 
ginning to see that their true in- 
terests are one and the same. 
Both Protestant and Catholic are 
beginning to labor peacefully and 
patiently within the pale of the 
law to bring about one great end 
— the gaining of a local self-gov- 
ernment, "the life-blood of liberty" 
— like the one that Canada now 
has. May the end soon be ob- 
tained ! May the gloom of Erin's 
suffering and sorrow melt away 
and leave her united, prosperous 
and happy ! 




" An ancient minstrel sagely said, 
' Where is the life we lately led' ? 
Yet now days, weeks, months, but seem 
The recollection of a dream." 

Dramatis Person.e. 
VASHTI — Former queen to Ahashuerus. 
ESTHER — Present queen. 
Scene — Garden in rear of the harem, 
{Enter Ester walking in the garden, Vashti seated on a stone at the 
other end of garden weeping.) 

E. The God of Heaven still rules ; his hand is felt 
In affairs of men. The sons of Abraham 
Are not forgotten. Strange and unlooked for 
Are his dealings. Not one promise has failed, 
And he is the 'God of Israel still. {Sees Vashti.) 
How beautiful, yet how fallen ! For her 
I can't refrain from tears. That head once wore 
A royal crown, it wears a willow now. 
Gilded sandals once covered her shapely feet, 
They now are bare and bruised with pavement stones. 
She wears a modern garment where once 
The purple robe bedecked her lovely form. 
Her face is buried in her hands — she weeps. 
Her lovely locks, in which the king had pride, 
Now hang unkept, neglected, by her side. 

{Addresses her.) 
Woman, why weepest thou ? 

V. To-night I leave the harem. I, who once 
Was queen, cannot remain a slave. I did 
My duty ; for this I suffer. I thought 
My honor too sacred to be violated 


By even a royal husband ; for this 
Am I degraded. Every face, every spot 
Reminds me of my departed grandeur. 
Ah, wretched me! At last I understand 
That duty and honor go not hand in hand. 

E. In this, dear, can't you see the hand of God 
Guiding and protecting his chosen flock? 
The highest duty a woman owes is to 
Her husband. She the weaker vessel is. 
Who thus in open rebellion stands 
Must take her due from powerful hands. 

V. ' Tis well for you to talk. You know not 

What trouble is. The hand of God ! ' Tis He 
Who drives me forth to give another room. 
Is that the justice which you laud so high? 
I want it not. I '11 keep my honor bright, 
And, unconquered, stand for Woman's Right. 

E. 'Tis not the first in which our God has shown 
His power. For us the first-born sons of Egypt 
Lay stiff and cold. Frogs, flies, locusts, lice, blood, blains 
Darkness, hail and murrain, ten plagues were sent. 
And now the bones of Pharaoh's host gather moss 
Buried in the ooze of the salty sea. 
The pillars of cloud and fire destroyed the kings 
Of the wilderness. And at last they reached 
The promised land. And as the Eastern wind 
Piles up the falling snow, or on the desert 
The dreadful Simoon heaps the drifting sand, 
So Jordan's waters above the Jewish host 
Rose heap on heap, held back by God's own hand. 
And so they passed with every garment dry. 
' Twere long indeed to count the mighty deeds 
He did for us in Canaan's land. But still, 
When Israel sinned, he did not spare the same 
Avenging rod. For this we serve to-day 
A foreign king. This is the justice 


Of which I speak. But does our fathers' God 
Forget? Hears he not the groans and prayers 
Of his chosen children ? See, I, a Jewess, 
Am queen of a land where I was captive. 
By these his works, I know, I see, I feel 
That He alone turns Fortune's wheel. 

V. Perhaps 'tis so. But he has no care for me. 
I leave the scene of joy to walk the roads 
Of pain. My self-respect is yet preserved, 
And this I prize more than crowns or pearls. 
Though now maligned, mine honor 's yet to come. 
I will die a beggar, who once was queen. 
I gladly step from robes and thrones to walk 
Barefoot in a dusty road. And he who smoothes 
These locks in death will never know that they 
Once upheld a crown. And if in pity 
He should close these drooping lids, he '11 never 
Dream that they have drunk the truest love 
From monarch's eyes. These lips so thin, so pale, 
So cold, will bear no trace of royal kiss. 
Farewell, I now depart. Think not of me, 
From husband's cruel bondage I am free. < {Exeunt?) 

It was night. Forth she went from that garden 
With heavy heart. Her feet refused to tread 
The ground where once she walked as queen. 
She heard the royal music ; "but music came 
Upon her ear like discord, and she felt 
That pang of the unreasonable heart 
That, bleeding amid things it loved so well," 
Must break. She sank upon a bed of roses, 
And knew no more. Next morn a Persian found 
That spirit crushed had gone to seek its God. 






To Our Patrons. 

No December number of the 
Magazine appeared and for this 
reason : — The printers who then 
had the Magazine in band did not 
get it out until the 22nd of De- 
cember. The time was lacking 
for a December number, and pre- 
ferring to omit a number rather 
than have every one come out 
late, we at once decided to issue 
the January number. It appeared 
in new dress last month, and we 
hope you are pleased. 

Will it be Done ? 

It has been suggested to the 
Faculty to change the time for 
prayers from 8 A. M. to 1 or 5 P. 
M. and make different arrange- 
ments for all morning recitations 
now held from 8 to < . There are 
quite a number of men in College 
who would like to include 
"prayers" in their course but it is 
in direct conflict with that "last 
nap" or breakfast. Others com- 
plain that passing from the cold 
morning air into the superheated 
atmosphere of the Chapel has so 
injured their health that attend- 
ance there must be discontinued 
until some change is made. The 
Magazine staff boasts of two mem- 

bers who attend to this important 
duty and the rest claim that they 
would be glad to do likewise. 

Again it is complained by those 
who bestir their "drowsy powers" 
only when the 8 o'clock recitation 
bell is ringing and then get to the 
roll-call, that the effort is fatal to 
brisk thinking and clear answers ; 
consequently they do themselves 
no credit for the thorough work 
done late the preceding night. 
Some of the rising "M. D's" tell 
us that this early and sudden 
strain on all the powers is mate- 
rially damaging and should be 
avoided. The number of those 
who suffer from these causes is 
steadily increasing, and it is ex- 
pected that the Faculty will soon 

receive a statement of all these 


grievances, with a request that 
they be removed. Will it be done ? 

The Swain Prize. 

We find in one of the issues of 
the Magazine for i860, mention 
made of a prize given under this 
title, to that student contributing 
the best literary production during 
the year. All were permitted to 
compete, save the Editors, and a 
special committee was selected to 
pass upon the merit of each essay. 
The prize being in money, the 



winner could either expend it for 
a medal or valuable books. Sub- 
sequent numbers of the Journal 
state that the idea was an entire 
success, and that by the annual 
awarding of this honor, a much 
higher standard of literary attain- 
ment was reached. 

We would favor re-establishing 
by some means a similar prize, 
with however the additional re- 
striction that all be excluded from 
competition who are not subscri- 
bers to the Magazine or have ac- 
counts standing against them on 
the books. Were this really the 
condition of things at present, we 
are painfully aware of the fact 
that there would be scarcely any 
competition, but we speak of it 
now in order that each one may 
give it his consideration and see if 
our ideas are sound. This would 
be a struggle not of "politics" but 
"brains," and the successful man 
would feel that he had gained a 
victory which was not worse than 
a defeat. 

Where are the Poets ? 

One conspicuous feature of the 
Magazine has for a long time been 
the absence of poetical contribu- 
tions from students of the institu- 
tion. We feel that there is no 
justifiable excuse for it and are 
interested in seeing that a new 
effort be made in this direction. 
It is unnatural to suppose that 

among all the men gathered here 
there is not one who has an apti- 
tude for expressing his thoughts 
in verse. We do not mean "spring 
poetry" and "sentimental effu- 
sions," for these are common 
enough and generally considered 
correspondingly worthless ; but 
germs of real poetry, which may 
some day grow into pages of 
beauty and power and give to 
North Carolina a master of melody 
and harmony, a greater than 
Timrod or Father Ryan, from 
whose heart, "like a spring, gurg- 
ling and running down the high- 
ways, his poems may fill the world 
with music." Does any one say 
that the necessary material is 
wanting? The campus with all 
the associations of the past which 
it recalls and hopes for the future 
which it inspires and the charming 
natural scenery about the village 
are conclusive testimonials against 
the assertion. So are those finest 
models of the Classics and Eng- 
lish, closely studied in our col- 
lege course ; these giving further- 
more the best instruction and fill- 
ing the most sluggish soul with 
enthusiasm. What is more fasci- 
nating than to follow men whose 
thoughts rise and fall like the 
markings of a human life and 
whose rhyme makes sweet music 
as it lingers upon the ear? The 
age of poetry is not gone and we 
are not attempting to revive a 
barbaric past ! We speak of that 



which springs directly from the 
heart and will be ever new, so long 
as man has feeling and imagina- 

Then pay more attention to 
this department. If your ideas 
take a poetical turn, write them 
down, polish them during your 
leisure moments, and in all proba- 
bility, they will grow into a pro- 
duction worthy of yourself and a 
place in these columns. Who will 

Clay Eaters. 

If we place the slightest confi- 
dence in a statement which re- 
cently appeared in the Philadel- 
phia Times and was copied by the 
Courier Journal, we must be some- 
what troubled by the thought that 
our boys who come from central 
North Carolina, and especially 
from back of Salisbury are — or 
have been — addicted to the habit 
of eating clay. This is strange in- 
formation and if you have a room- 
mate or friend from that region, 
notice and see if he betrays the 
symptoms given by the Times. Is 
he excessively thin, in fact devoid 
of flesh, yet puffed out about the 
eyes? Is he slovenly, unusually 
lazy and in the habit of always 
gazing on the ground around him 
as if to see where the best clay 
lies? If so he is a victim of the 
clay — or rather of the arsenic 
which it is said to contain. We 

know some persons from near the 
region mentioned who are tall and 
thin and touched with an alarming 
degree of indolence; so that on 
first reading the alleged cause we 
were considerably startled. On 
examination, however, we find all 
other assertions, such as regard 
the nature of the country, condi- 
tion of the inhabitants, etc., to be 
undoubtedly false and are there- 
fore inclined to disregard the 
whole story and go back to our 
old theories . concerning certain 
peculiar growths in certain dis- 
tricts. But the immediate con- 
clusion of all who read the story 
will be, we think, that it has no 
claim to facts. 

What we Need, 

We have become convinced 
lately that there is nothing more 
to the disadvantage of the students 
of our own and other institutions 
than the want of adequate and 
properly selected private libraries. 
We do not refer to those books 
commonly used in the college 
course where the texts (with their 
attachments) pass from one class 
to the next lower as soon as the 
coveted 70 has been reached. We 
speak of those best models of the 
different kinds of English style, 
those criticisms and commentaries 
which we must have in order to 
become real masters of our own 
tongue. And it is a difficulty for 



which we see at present no direct 
remedy. A great many, whose 
means are limited, feel that they 
can not afford to purchase these 
books now, but by use of the So- 
ciety libraries they hope to get on 
until they leave college and their 
expenses are curtailed. _ Indeed 
the great cost forces most of us to 
abandon the idea of obtaining the 
works we need in anything like 
full numbers, but some of them 
are issued in very cheap editions 
by enterprising Northern houses, 
and these we should not fail to 
secure. The Society libraries are 
very large and for the most part 
well selected, it is true, but these 
can be expected to furnish but a 
few copies of a kind, which can 
not possibly satisfy the wants of 
a class. Giving all due credit to 
the study of other languages, we 
must still admit that of English 
to be of the first importance and 
to demand our closest considera- 
tion. Nowhere can we find one 
or two books which give all the 
facts we want, extracts from the 
best representations of the varied 
kinds of discourse, an idea of what 
our language has been at different 
stages of its growth, causes of the 
foreign influences which have so 
materially affected it and a host 
of other things without which we 
can not claim to be scholars. We 
should have books which throw 
the best light upon single lines of 
investigation or out studies are 
necessarily crippled. 

Many students see that in this 
direction their libraries are sadly 
deficient. Those who expect to 
remain for some time will do well 
to utilize every opportunity for 
accumulating the sources of life- 
long value and for securing sooner, 
in part at least, what they so much 

A Proposition. 

Our Magazine is rapidly becom- 
ing a monthly edition of very- 
second-hand essays and attempted 
criticisms on classical authors and 
their writings. Every month two 
or three and sometimes more long, 
windy, worthless criticisms (so- 
called) appear, and with two ex- 
ceptions (both in the last number) 
they are mere rehashes of Tacitus,. 
Horace and the rest of the au- 
thors that are taught by the profes- 
sors of Latin and Greek in college 
every year. There is not a student 
in college who is capable of 
writing a respectable criticism or 
critique on a distinguished author. 
And gentlemen ! why undertake 
what you can't handle? 

My proposition is this. Give 
us articles on living questions, 
write on things that you can mas- 
ter and that will interest your 
readers. Give us information on 
the great issues of to-day about 
which every man can know some-, 
thing and which will interest all. 
Condense your articles. Make 
them short, pointed, pithy and 



newsy. Give us live articles on 
living subjects, and if you can't 
do this by all means give us a 

" Henry Howard." 

(The above was handed in to 
our table and we publish the 
views of the writer exactly as ex- 
pressed by him. — Ed .) 

The Magazine in History, 

To almost every history of our 
State the University MAGAZINE 
has contributed materially. The 
Editor in looking over an old, 
dog-eared volume of "Revolu- 
tionary Incidents" came across 
many interesting passages clipped 
from the Magazine. Among 
them was quite an interesting 
passage by Dr. Caldwell, on the 
birth and career of David Fan- 
ning, the notorious tory Colonel. 
A complete collection of old 
University Magazines, like the 
one in Dr. Battle's office, forms a 
very fair State history. We would 
like more of our contributions to 
be subjects connected with his- 
torical North Carolina. 

How would our subscribers like 
a series of papers, written on the 
action of Carclina and Carolinians 
during the "late unpleasantness"? 
We are making efforts to procure 
such a contribution, and hope soon 
to place it before our readers. 

Society Catalogues. 

Our Literary Societies, seeing 
the importance of keeping up with 
the history of their old members, 
their honors, deaths, and such 
like, have appointed committees 
to revise, enlarge, and republish 
their old catalogues. The last 
edition was published in 1852. 
Since then many deaths and other 
changes have occurred, and many 
different catalogues have to be 
compared to make the work accu- 
rate. The alumni are scattered 
all over the United States, and the 
desired information is hard to ob- 
tain. The catalogues cannot be 
made to do "justice to the alumni 
unless they aid in making them 
as perfect and accurate as possible. 
They will present a variety of 
information which can hardly be 
obtained elsewhere. They will be 
to a great extent a history of 
North Carolina for the last hun- 
dred years. They will show all 
positions of importance, trust and 
honor held by their members in 
civil, military and religious life, 
and especial care will be taken to 
give the position of every one 
who drew a sword in the Confed- 
erate cause, however humble that 
position might have been. 

The committeemen are Mr. N. 
H. D. Wilson, Jr., of the class of 
'86, for the Di., and Mr. Stephen 
B. Weeks, also of the class of '86, 
for the Phi. These gentlemen 



have the whole affair in their own 
hands. They are very enthusiastic, 
and are striving to make their 
work a success — an honor to the 
Societies and the University ; but 
they cannot do this without aid 
from the alumni. They are young, 
and are, from the nature of the 
case, ignorant of most of the older 
alumni. This fact makes their 
correspondence the heavier, and 
then they experience great diffi- 
culty in getting the alumni to an- 
swer their inquiries. Mr. C. D. is 
written to, and nothing is heard 
from him in a month ; then, per- 
chance, a letter comes saying that 
he had misplaced his, letter, or it 
came when he was away, or he 
had forgotten it, or something of 
that kind, and he ends by saying 
that he is unable to give any of 
the information desired, the time 
has been so long since he was in 
college that all his classmates 
have disappeared from view — 
have gone to another world, as 
far as he is concerned. And 
frequently when they are so 
placed that they ought to be 
amply able to give all. infor- 
mation asked, they are either too 
lazy or too indifferent to do any- 
thing themselves or help any one 
else. As a rule they are as brief 
as possible and generally forget 
to add even so much as a few 
words of encouragement which 
would cost nothing, but would 

raise nevertheless the drooping 
spirits of the committeemen. 
These remarks do not apply to all 
the alumni, of course. Some have 
rendered great aid in the work 
and seem to be interested in it 
themselves ; but the majority seem 
to care nothing whatever for it. 
To this class the writer directs his- 
remarks, and were he able he would 
add ten times as much weight and 
force as they now have. 

Why do the alumni show such 
great indifference to the past and. 
present of our University and her 
literary societies? Their members 
have filled every office in the 
American Union with ability and 
have been shining successes in 
every rank of life. Never did men 
fight nobler for any cause than did 
their members for that of the Con- 
federate States. Shall we forget all 
this? Shall we let the dead past 
bury its dead, and shall we not do 
them at least the simple justice of 
recording with their names on her 
roll their rank in the Confederate 
States army? 

In conclusion, we shall say that 
the alumni are urgently requested 
to co-operate with the committees 
in this good work, to answer their 
inquiries so far as they are able 
and by all possible means help 
them in making these registers 
worthy of the Societies and the 
University they represent. 



College Record. 

After about two weeks' Christ- 
mas vacation, which some would 
pronounce demoralizing to stu- 
dents, we find the full number 
back at the Hill on time and at 
earnest hard study. A quieter 
term has never opened at the Uni- 
versity, and better prospects have 
never been seen for a thoroughly 
gratifying year's work. 

Where there is little being done 
for improvement there are always 
many vices prevailing and vice 
versa. And judging by this we 
need no other proof of the ardu- 
ous efforts of the students this 
term than the complete subsi- 
dence of all demoralizing disturb- 
ances, such as party caucuses, 
"Salvation Armies" and bursting 
of "Ba-by-wakers," and nocturnal 
"war-dances" and "Freshing." All 
these nuisances are numbered 
with the things of the past ; and 
quietude and perseverence and a 
more sensible and substantial en- 
thusiasm pervades the college at- 
mosphere than usual. The only 
objections we can have to this 
quiet condition is one similar to 
that of the physician to general 
health or of the lawyer to peace- 
fulness — namely, that we have 
little matter for our profession as 
writer of College Record. Most 

of our college readers and our 
alumni turn to this department to 
find the thrilling and interesting 
details of crimes committed- by 
our "reckless set" of boys, but we 
are compelled to disappoint them 
this time — not a single "blood- 
curdler" or "hair-raiser" has hap- 
pened under our observation, and 
we are happy that we have no 
such records to write that will 
"lacerate the public bosom" and 
provoke the direful hands of our 
holy and worthy (?) critic to be 
raised against us. 
* -x- 


A Scandal. — An insignificant 
street urchin went up to a digni- 
fied Junior the other day and in- 
quired with a curious earnestness 
"ain't you Mr. Buck— the cussing 
man" ? It has been a much debated 
question whether the grave and 
reverend Junior should feel most 
insulted for being taken for Mr. 
Buck — or for being called a "cus- 
sin man." The Junior complains 
that both were very hard to bear 
with unresentful feelings. Now 
what does this mean? Simply 
this — alas ! Some one in the Uni- 
versity actually curses ! Who is 
it ? who can so degrade himself 
and endanger the reputation of 
the University by openly and 
audibly using profane language ? 



From this we can draw two moral 
lessons. As for the Junior he 
should see to it that he does not 
look like anybody else, unless per- 
chance he can resemble a profes- 
sor, and then that would not do, 
for he might slander the professor 
— and to the college to restrain 
their "cussin" men, for five or six 
boys can give a whole institution 
of two hundred students a most 
deplorable reputation. 

The Dialectic Society has elect- 
ed as its representatives for next 
commencement: Claudius Dock- 
ery, Mangum ; Wm. E. Edmon- 
son, Morganton ; and S. E. Gid- 
ney, Shelby, N. C. 

For Marshals were elected : — 
Wm. H. McDonald, Raleigh ; 
Henry Fries Schaffner, Salem, N. 
C. ; G. W. Bethel, Danville, Va. ; 
and B. Kell, Pineville. 

From the Philanthropic Society 
the following representatives were 
elected: — J. C. Johnson, John- 
son's Mills ; A. M. Simmons. Fair- 
field ; and W. S. Wilkinson, Tar- 
boro, N. C, — and the following 
Marshals: Chief Marshal, C. F. 
Smith, Coxville ; B. F. Tyson, 
Greenville; M. H. Palmer, Green- 
backs ; F. M. Harper, Kinston ; 
and A. Braswell, Whitakers. 

We give in brief form the out- 
lines of a very pleasant and in- 
structive lecture delivered in the 
Chapel the last Saturday night in 

January, before a large audience. 
His subject was : — "Pestalozzi and 
His Influence." 

Pestalozzi was born at Zurich, 
Switzerland. Jan. 12. 1746. His 
family was left in poor circum- 
stances on the death of his father 
six years afterwards. Pestalozzi 
was a mental temperament, deli- 
cate constitution, and wanting in 
practical sense — called, by his 
school mates, " Harry Queer of 
Follyville:" Was always commit- 
ting blunders and getting into 

Was first a clergyman, then a 
law-student, then a farmer. He 
offered his farm of 100 acres and 
his house, near Hapsburg, for the 
establishment of an " Industrial 
School for the Poor." The nec- 
essary funds were supplied and 
school opened in 1775, with Pes- 
talozzi in charge. Suspended in 
five years. Pestalozzi was left 
without funds, but had gained a 
great deal of knowledge about the 
theory and art of education. The 
result was his Leonair and Ger- 
trude, a popular tale, the central 
thought of which is that woman 
is the natural teacher of little 
children, and that through her, 
the world must be cured of its 
great evils. The exaltation of 
woman to the position of teacher, 
especially in the United States, 
has done much to fulfill this pre- 

His next work is at Stanz, in 



1 79 8 -'9' and then at Burgdorf. At 
the latter place, the superintend- 
ent of the school, becoming jeal- 
ous, prefers charges against him, 
and has him removed on the 
ground of heresy and incompeten- 
cy. He teaches a short time as 
assistant in a school of children 
from 5 to 10 years old ; and then 
joins Hermann Krusi in forming 
a school. Tobler and Buss soon 
unite with them, the school is 
moved to the old castle at Yver- 
dun, where it acquires a national 
reputation. Pupils attend from 
France, Germany, Italy, England, 
and America, as well as from 
Switzerland. Regular work of 
. the school interrupted whenever 
visitors came. These things very 
seriously militated against the ef- 
ficiency of the work. He taught 
ideas before words, taught read- 
ing by the phonic method, taught 
language before grammar, and 
numbers before arithmetic. Had 
weekly conferences with his teach- 
ers, in which the general manage- 
ment of the institution, methods 
of teaching, etc., were discussed. 
Conclusions were formed too hasti- 
ly. Internal jealousies broke up 
the school in 1825, and Pestalozzi 
went to his old farm, now owned 
by his grandson, where half a cen- 
tury before he had opened his first 
school. Died in 1827. 

He taught that the laws of edu- 

cation are inherent in the child, 
and must be discovered, not in- 
vented ; that the mind is self- 
active ; that it is cultivated by 
exciting this self-activity in a ju- 
dicious way; that the order of 
development of the faculties is 
perception, memory, reasoning; 
that the course of study must be 
adapted to this order; that edu- 
cation consists in culture— the 
power to think and act independ- 
ently — rather than in knowledge ■ 

1 ^ ' 

that the true incentives to study 
are knowledge and culture; and 
that the true incentive to good 
conduct is love. 

Some criticisms were offered,, 
as the giving of too much atten- 
tion to arithmetic and neglecting 
history; classifying the elements 
of knowledge into form, number, 
and language ; neglecting knowl- 
edge in his zeal for culture; fail- 
ing to keep posted in what had 
been done and what was doing in 
his line. 

The speaker then gave his at- 
tention to the influence which 
Pestalozzi has exerted, noticing 
particularly Germany, France, and 
the United States. The first to 
give the Pestalozzian system an 
impetus in this country was War- 
ren Calhoun. Horace Mann, 
Henry Bernard, Calvin E. Stowe, 
and others visited the Pestalozzian 
schools of Europe, and became 



strong advocates of the system. 
Teachers' Institutes and Normal 
Schools were inaugurated by these 
gentlemen, and became active 
and powerful agents in spreading 
the principles. Every successful 
Normal School is now founded 
upon the doctrines promulgated 
at Yverdun. The public schools, 
the evils of which Pestalozzi sought 
to correct, are completely renova- 
ted. They are no longer the ter- 
ror, but the delight, of children. 

* * 

Some Points on The Three 
Great Races as Gathered 
from Dr. Crawford's Lec- 
tures and Conversation. — We 
have been highly interested and 
instructed by Dr. Crawford in re- 
gard to "The Three Great Races 
of the Earth, "which he has long 
and arduously been studying. He 
speaks from experience and obser- 
vation as well as theoretically, 

The Dr. removes a wrong im- 
pression which we have had about 
the parentage of all humanity. It 
is not taught in the Bible that we 
all spring from one earthly parent- 
age — though it teaches us that we 
are all God's offspring. So we 
do not necessarily have to defend 
the belief that every great race, 
no matter what its color and 
characteristics, sprang from one 
man. It does not devolve upon 
those who believe in the Bible, to 
account for all this variety in race, 
color and bodily form upon an as- 

sumption that they all have a 
common earthly ancestor, for such 
an assumption is groundless. The 
Bible does not teach it. It is a 
mistake that the negro is the 
progeny of Ham. Ham was no 
more a negro than Shem or Ja- 
pheth. Dr. Crawford has advanced 
some new and strikingly reason- 
able ideas in regard to the chro- 
nology of the Biblical History in 
Genesis. Adam, instead of living 
930 years only lived 130 and then 
after him his family or dynasty 
continued for 800 years bearing 
his name. In the mean time a 
line of offspring had come down 
with the Adamic dynasty from 
Seth and had borne his name, and 
when the reign of Adam ended — 
or "died," then the posterity of 
Seth takes the place, and so on 
down to the flood. Thus we have 
the dynasties of Adam, Seth, 
Enus, Cainan, Mahalalol, Jared, 
Enoch, Methuselah and Lamech, 
making nine in all and the sum of 
all the ages of the dynasties be- 
fore the flood was 7737 years in- 
stead of 1656 years, according to 
the general interpretation of the 
text. In the same way the time 
is reckoned in the tabulated post- 
diluvian history in the Bible down 
to Abraham, where begins de- 
tailed history, and the time from 
the house or dynasty of Adam 
to Abraham is 10,988 years, and 
adding this to the established time 
from Abraham to the present day 



we have 14,376 years instead of 
the little less than 6,000 years, as 
the term of human existence 
which has been long accepted 
without the least misgiving. Dr. 
Crawford makes this scheme of 
chronology extremely plain and 
had we space we would give a 
broad discussion of the matter as 
learned from him. He proves 
that the average life of the indi- 
vidual man before the flood was 
about 120 years, and afterwards 
down to Abraham about thesame, 

great cities are the coming sav- 
ages of this people, and this our 
own industrial age. 

The Kanakas, Malays, and Red 
Indians, seem to be the debris of 
three very ancient and highly 
civilized races. In the case of the 
Red Indian we learn from the 
contents of the many mounds 
which have been excavated that a 
much higher race once existed 
here. Who could it have been 
but the ancestors of those we find 
here ? These savage races are now 

and that those tremendously long fast disappearing, are coming in 
ages were simply the expressions contact with the Caucasian, Mon- 
of the length of the reign of each golian and Negro races. We often 
dynasty which is designated by hear it suggested that we should 
the name of the head of the dy- set to work and civilize these sav- 

, ages at once. It is a noted fact 
I that they cannot stand sudden 
civilization, nor will they accept 
it. We have given a splendid 
example of our civilizing power 
and have seen the susceptibility 
of the savage to moral influences 
in our dealings with the American 
Indian! Our success in taming 
the noble Red man is encourag- 
ing ! Each great race has its cen- 
tre. There seems to be a law of 
polarity which governs the growth 
of man, animal and vegetation. 
The Caucasian centre is the Medi- 
terranean Sea. The Mongolian 
centre is China, and that of the 
Negro is Equatorial Africa. Every 
species of animal and every species 
of plant is different in these differ- 
ent centres. Each race seems to 


It is a mistaken idea among 
many that our civilized nations 
were once savages. No nation 
which has had a history from its 
origin could have ever been sav- 
ages. The Hebrew was never a 
savage race. Civilized nations 
never come from savage ancestors, 
but to the contrary. Savages are 
the debris of a once highly civil- 
ized people. Savagery is the 
effect of destruction. Every age 
is producing savages— the present 
is producing its crop— the wild 
and unsophisticated hunter sav- 
ages of the forest are probably 
the survival of military nations. 

The wandering rabble of our 
own fallen nation are the head ! 
lines, tramps and paupers of our 



have been destined by Providence 
for his own centre, and it is evi- 
dently meant that neither race 
should encroach upon the grounds 
of the other. 

New centres are being formed 
by continual changes on the 
earth's surface an'd by the slow 
revolution of th =>arth from North 
to South. Am' i seems not now 
to be any grea ace centre. 

We have no' certain evidence as 
to the origin of races. We do not 
know whether it was by separate 
creations of a ^couple for each race, 
or whether all races sprang from 
a common couple, and, having 
scattered out into their respective 
centres were changed by climatic 

Humanity is like Divinity, a 
trinity in unity. There always 
are three races going out and 
three coming in. Each race, be- 
sides having its own peculiar cen- 
tre of habitation and physical ap- 
pearance, also has its own centre 
of thought, soul, or its distin- 

ber ball, noted for his elasticity 
and he yields to pressure very 
gracefully but as soon as you "let 
up" on him he resumes exactly his 
old form. He is "John Chinaman." 
Yet the Negro is the wax ball ; 
distinguished for his plasticity — 
always yields — you may put your 
thumb on him and press, and >ou 
will leave your mark upon him 
until some one else comes along 
and entirely obliterates your im- 
pression by pressing him differ- 
ently. He was made to be ruled 
and influenced and fit his form of 
character to those with whom he 
comes in contact. Hence his 
imitative powers. 

Also the Caucasian may be 

| termed the oak, with its broad 

stubborn limbs standing out in 

full defiance to the winds— the 

grand monarch of the forest. 

The Mongolian is the bamboo 
which bends low in obedience to 
every wind, but when it subsides 
stands erect in its original posture. 
Then a wind from the opposite di- 

guishing characteristic. We com- 1 rection will bend it just as low 

pare them : The Caucasian can be 
aptly compared to an iron ball. 
Distinguished for hardness. He 
yields to no other race, you may 
strike him with a sledge hammer, 
and he maintains his own indi- 
vidual shape. He rolls right on, 
crushing everything beneath his 
weight. He bosses, but is never 

The Mongolian is a solid rub- 

again on the other side, and it will 
again resume its perpendicularity 
when the wind ceases. 

The Negro is the vine which 
clings to the larger growth for 
protection and support. It climbs 
the oak, and then it yields fruit to 
the world ; but when it has to 
grow alone, trailing on the ground, 
it is of little use to itself or any. 
one else. Now, knowing the 



characteristic traits of these races, 
we have a ground upon which we 
should base all our efforts in teach- 
ing them. It is an impossibility 
to make a Caucasian out of a 
Chinaman. We cannot rob him of 
his characteristics any more than 
we can rob him of his color, or the 
shape of his head and brain. Nor 
can we change the Negro charac- 
teristic by culture. I mean we 
cannot make an iron character out 
of a yielding elastic, or a plastic 
and susceptible character. But it 
does not require that all these 
races should have the same char- 
acteristic to believe in one God 
and Christ. So let us have Iron 
Christians, Rubber Christians, and 
Wax Christians. 

There are other distinguishing 
traits of character in these three 

The Mongolian cherishes the 
Familistic idea. Each family 
seems to be a kind of government 
within itself. If one of the family 
commits a great crime, the whole 
family must suffer for it. They 
look more to the family record 
and ancestral merit than to indi- 
vidual standing. 

The Caucasian leaves home 
and relatives and plunges out into 
the world to gain individual power 
and honor. He works for supre- 
macy. The dream of his life is to 
be a ruler — to whom many are ne- 
cessitated to bow and do honor 
and obeisance. 

The Negro is Agglutinistic. He 
forms cliques and bands in every 
community. Thus we find him di- 
vided up into so many little tribes 
in his own country. They unite 
themselves in little bands under an 
acknowledged leader, and are re- 
markably obedient to his will. 

Again : The Mongolian lives in 
the past. If a n wishes to study 
antiquity, let hi,.. j0 to China and 
see it in living, moving form. The 
Chinaman glories in the deeds 
of his ancestors, and all he does 
is to show them re. pect. He en- 
tirely forgets himself in his great 
reverence and love for those who 
have gone before him. His ideal 
is projected into the past, and he 
is continually trying to push to- 
ward that ideal. He is conserva- 
tive, and loves old customs and 
antiquated things. No book less 
than 2,000 years old has any in- 
terest for him. He worships the 

The Negro lives strictly in the 
present. He never lays up for to- 
morrow, and seldom grieves or 
rejoices over the yesterday. He 
laughs and grows fat over to-day's 
gratifications without meditating 
on the past or imagining the fu- 
ture. The present is all to him. 
There is not on record an instance 
where the Negroes have spent as 
much as $500 for a monument to 
honor their dead. They prefer to 
honor their living boss. 

The Caucasian lives in the fu- 



ture. He is imaginative and fan- 
ciful. He speculates on the future, 
and his happiness depends upon 
his hopes. Anticipation to him is 
in most instances more pleasant 
than realization. He forgets the 
past and despises it. Disregards 
and tires of the present, but is 
anxious about the future. He is 
restless and miserable in the pres- 
ent. But these great differences do 
not alter the common relation of 
the great races to God, from whom 
they all spring. Christ says: " I 
am he that was, and is, and is to 
come" thus regarding the past, 
present, and future. 

Again : The Caucasian invents 
and develops. He wants an im- 
provement on the plow he has to 
use ; a better machine for thresh- 
ing ; and, in fact, he is absorbed 
in a continual study how to im- 
prove something and introduce 
novelties. The Mongolian receives 
and preserves. The Chinaman 
uses the same plow that was in 
use centuries ago, and would not 
have the Caucasian improved 
plow as a substitute if you would 
give it to him and pay him to use 
it. His love for the past makes 
him cling to everything that is as- 
sociated with it and suggests the 
idea of antiquity to him. 

The Negro neglects and de- 
stroys. Of this we need no proof 
beyond our own observation. He 
does not accumulate property, 
but on the other hand actually 

destroys it, if in no other way, by 
bad management and neglect. 

Now we speak of the race devo- 
tions. The Mongolian is prosy. 
They never write in poetry. They 
have no poetry in their soul. The 
Caucasian loves poetry. It gives 
play to his imagination and fancy 
which constitute his chief happi- 
ness. The negro adores music. He 
does not have to cultivate his ear 
or the talent for it ; he is born with 
it in him. 

Again : The Mongolian leaves 
the whole world and cleaves to his 
parents. The Caucasian leaves the 
family circle and cleaves to his 
wife. The Negro neglects all that 
he may obey his master. 

The virtue of the Caucasian 
race is bravery and gallantry. His 
highest ambition is to prove him- 
self a brave and courageous man, 
and it sweetens his pleasure to do 
this for the sake of woman, whom 
he honors so highly. The virtue 
of the Mongolian is patience and 
filial affection. That of the Negro 
race is cheerfulness and kindness. 
He is the happy race. 

Each race has its own peculiar 
vice. The Mongolian's most char- 
acteristic vice is cheating. They 
have little or no confidence in 
any one. They consider it wrong 
to cheat, but claim that a man is 
a fool not to do so. They are su- 
perstitious, and for this reason 
dread foreigners so. 

The vice of the Caucasian race 



is robbery. Ever since they have 
existed they have been robbing 
other nations and feeding on the 

• The great vice of the negro is 

Each of these three races have 
a natural antipathy for each other. 
Each race is repulsive to the other 
in tastes, looks, touch, in odor 
and aim. This will always render 
social intercourse and amalgama- 
tion impossible — even where the 
races come under the same form 
of government. So we need not 
be so alarmed about America. 
Rich and aristocratic negroes after 
awhile will be no more willing for 
us to come into his house than we 
would be willing for him to visit 
us. Rich Englishmen living in 
China are repulsive to rich China- 

It is a law of nature that the 
races shall not agree in tastes and 
temporal and social ideas, but it 
is by no means meant that they 
should entertain a different faith 
and worship a different God. Mis- 
sionaries make mistakes in suppo- 
sing that they must first change 
the Chinese habits and tastes and 
fashions to suit our notions before 
they are fit to receive our religion. 
There is also a mistaken notion 
about the plan which is best to 
pursue in converting these people. ! 
Much money has been expended 
in distributing Bibles among the 
people. What do they do with I 

them? They actually use them for 
fuel with which to cook their rice, 
and a few other handy purposes, 
and come back and ask for more. 
j It is also a wrong idea to build a 
I church among them at foreign ex- 
j pense. You can get an audience 
; very easily by making some. extra- 
I ordinary demonstration. By ring- 
'• ing a bell you may turn the whole 
crowd on the street into your 
church but when you get them 
there you have nothing but a 
crowd of gaping, curious China- 
men, who do not know what you 
mean except it is to show off your 
building. Such a thing as a speech 
is entirely unknown among China- 
men. Again, people will take no 
interest in a church or institution 
of any kind, built by foreign 
money. We would not — much 
less the Chinaman, who is coy and 
suspicious. We can easily get an 
audience by distributing alms 
among them, as it has been the 
custom of many missionaries at a 
large expense to the denomination 
which sends them there, but we 
can not get christians in this way. 
The tricky and cunning Chinaman 
measures your character by his 
own, and considers this kindness 
of yours as a bribe. He receives 
the gifts as bribes and returns to 
you for more and greater ones. 
When your surplus rice, etc., gives 
out he stops coming to hear you. 
The Chinaman does not know 
how to listen to a sermon. The 



most effectual way to impress one 
with what you have to say is to 
let him act the eaves-dropper. 
Direct your conversation to some 
individual where others will notice 
you. Thus their curiosity is 
aroused and they will sometimes 
slip close to you where they think 
you will not notice them and there 
take in every word you say. They 
have a passion for eaves-dropping 
and through this trait of their 
character you can often get them 
interested. They dread our peo- 
ple - They associate them with 
the English for whom they have 
no special love. They have been 
made to yield to their power and 
have smelled the powder from 
their war-guns.- We can not blame 
him for being afraid of us. Our 
prodigality and luxury frightens 
him. He hates as much to aban- 
don hisfamilistic ideas and beliefs 
as we would to surrender our in- 
dividuality. It is a peculiar fact 
that he is exactly the reverse to 
our race — by nature in thought, 
habit and customs. He lives in 
the past. We in the future. He 
prefers to drink warm water to 
quench his thirst. It is impossi- 
ble in China to take off the hat in 
entering a house. He eats his 
desert first at dinner. They ar- 
range themselves like sardines 
when more than one sleeps in the 
same bed at one time, each one's 
feet at the others head. The 
nicest present a son can make to 

his father is to buy him a coffin, 
even while he is living. If a young 
man is valiant and brave and does 
an heroic act the way he prefers 
to be honored is not by a reward 
or by promotion of himself and a 
title of honor from the ruler, but 
he asks that one of his dead an- 
cestors be elevated in rank. 

The front of the Chinese book 
is the last page and the reader 
begins at the right hand corner 
of the page and reads down. Their 
needle on the compass points 
South, at least they believe it 
does, and instead of saying north- 
west and southeast they say west- 
north and eastsouth. There is 
always mourning at a Chinese 
marriage, but at a funeral they 
have music, feasting and rejoicing. 
The Chinaman puts his right foot 
in the stirrup when he goes to 
mount a horse and rides with his 
heels in the stirrup. 

Instead of saying it is warm a 
Chinaman would say "it is not 
cold." They wind their sewing 
thread opposite to ours; and in a 
thousand respects they are exact- 
ly the reverse of the Caucasian. 

We have however one common 
object in view. Happiness now 
and happiness to come. Present 
happiness we gain in different 
ways, and it is not our duty to try 
to conform there manner of pur- 
suit of it to our notions. But fu- 
ture happiness is only reached by 
one road. It is our duty to point 



this out. If the Chinaman prefers 
to keep on his hat in token of 
respect in entering- the church, let 
■ him do so. If he feels it his duty 
to venerate and love the past, let 
him do so and teach him that 
Christ is the God of the past as 
well as of the present and future. 
Let him arrive at the belief in his 
own peculiar way, work by his 
own methods to convince him of 
his duty to God. Let him remain 
a full Chinaman but make him a 
true christian. 

Jan. 23rd the University and 
town were saddened by the death 
of Prof. Hooper, an excellent 
scholar, a kind and faithful Pro- 
fessor, a beloved citizen, and thor- 
ough christian. All duties at the 
University were suspended in re- 
spect to him, and the bell tolled 
a solemn knell as the remains of 
this noble man were being carried 
to their long resting place at Ral- 
eigh. We publish below resolu- 
tions passed by the Dialectic and 
Philanthropic Societies, and of the 
students en masse ; 

Dialectic Hall, 
Chapel Hill, N. C, Jan. 23, 1886. 

Whereas, God has seen fit to 
remove from our midst our hon- 
ored instructor and fellow-mem- 
ber, Prof. J. DeBerniere Hooper. 

Resolved I, That in his death 
Learning and our Society have 
suffered a Gfreat loss. 

Resolved II, That we feel sure 
that his well-earned reputation 
and christian character will prove 
a great consolation to his family 
in their affliction, and we take this 
means of showing our grief and 

Resolved III, That the Dialectic 
Society Hall be draped for thirty 
days in token of the grief and re- 
spect of its members. 

Resolved IV, That a copy of 
these resolutions be sent to his 
family, and also to the Raleigh 
News and Observer, Charlotte Ob- 
server. Wilmington Star, States- 
villc landmark, Goldsboro Messen- 
ger and University Magazine 
with a request to publish. 

MaxyL. John, 
E. P. Withers, 
Hayne Davis, 


Hall of Philanthropic Soc'y, 
Jan. 23, 1886. 

Whereas, the death of Prof. J. 
DeBerniere Hooper has come to 
our notice, and since he was in 
truth a lover of "Virtue, Liberty 
and Science," a motto we shall 
ever cherish, the Philanthropic 
Society out of respect for his 
memory demands that we depart 
from the usual order of proceed- 
ings by suspending all business 
for this day; and while we boAv 
with deep humiliation before the 
will of Him who is too wise to 
err, and who does all things for 



the good of those that love Him, 
and while we extend our sympa- 
thies to our sister Society, of 
which he had been a member for 
half a century, 

Resolved I, That in him we have 
lost a kind teacher, who was al- 
ways ready and willing to help 
those in need of his aid, anp who 
sympathized with the students in 
all undertakings .tending to the 
elevation and improvement of 
the mind. 

Resolved II, That the Faculty 
have lost a co-laborer who was 
ever anxious to teach both by 
precept and example all which is 
best and truest and noblest in hu- 
man life. That North Carolina 
has lost one of the finest classical 
scholars she has ever produced. 

Resolved III, That his church 
has lost a worthy, consistent and 
devoted christian gentleman, and 
that his family has sustained a loss 

Resolved IV, That we extent 
our heartfelt sympathies and con- 
dolence to the bereaved family ; 
that we send a copy of these reso- 
lutions to the Dialectic Society 
and to the Chronicle and UNI- 
VERSITY Magazine, with a re- 
quest to publish. 

S. B. Weeks, 
A. M. Simmons, 
H. Parker, 


Resolutions in Regard to 
Prof. Hooper's Death. — Upon 

hearing of the death of Prof. 
Hooper, the students of the Uni- 
versity assembled and adopted 
the following testimonial of their 
feelings : 

It is with sincere sorrow that 
we the students of the University 
have learned of the death of Prof, 
J. DeBerniere Hooper. A gloom 
has been cast over Chapel Hill 
which is deeply felt. The literary 
world has lost a scholar of high 
and varied attainments ; the 
church, a devoted and consistent 
member; and society a highly es- 
teemed and valuable citizen. Many 
will express their sorrow for his 
death, and their sympathy with 
the bereaved family, but few have 
a keener sense of his excellence 
or feel his loss more than we. 
While we grieve his loss, it gives 
us a pleasure not easily expressed 
to know that we have had the 
benefit of his wise counsel and his 
gentlemanly and christian deport- 
ment. His sacredness of charac- 
ter had in the students its counter- 
part in a respect amounting almost 
to veneration. For each he had 
a kind word and a helping hand. 
Vanity he spurned, but duty was 
the watchword of his life. He 
taught more by example than by 
precept, for being of an exceed- 
ingly modest temperament, he 
acted rather than preached the 
great principles of his life. In the 



class-room he was always the same 
kind, forbearing teacher. He was 
known to be a man of strong feel- 
ings, yet he always preserved an 
even balance. 

As we stand here in the shadow 
of death and reflect upon his life, 
we feel like pointing to it and say- 

ing to all young men in the State : 

" Follow that." 

P. B. Manning, 
Jas. Thomas, 
Haywood Parker, 
G. B. Patterson, 
C. Dockery, 



— Father W., are you lame yet ? 

— What has become of the Sal- 
vation Army ? 

— Prof. Love and his accom- 
plished wife are boarding at Mrs. 

— For any news wanted apply 
to the " (mis) Information Bu- 
reau," Eure & Toms, Managers. 

— Alex Feild, class '85, has 
ceased to teach at Horner's, Ox- 
ford. He is now running a circu- 
lating library and reading room 

— " L. J.," class of '86, received 
a dun for two years' subscription 
to the Magazine. It was neatly 
stowed away inside the cover of 
his magazine. He didn't wait to 
look inside, and didn't know the 
dun was there, but wrapped it up 
nicely and sent it, dun included, 
to a young lady at St. Mary's. All 
ye delinquent subscribers take 
warning arrd pay up, as he has 
since done. 

— The editor of this department 
made a mistake last month in say- 
ing '• G. B. King had become edi- 
tor of the Greenville Reflector, and 
had quit law." " Buck" is rapidly 
on the rise as a lawyer in Pitt and 
adjoining counties, and from what 
we know of his abilities, he will 
keep climbing. He is now sole 
proprietor and editor of the Dem- 
ocratic Standard. In a private 
letter to one of the editors, he 
says: " Ever since I obtained my 
license it has been my chief aim 
to use the best energies I have in 
the practice of the profession I 
have chosen (law), and which I 
admire beyond all others, and I 
am pleased to state that my suc- 
cess thus far has been exceeding- 
ly gratifying and encouraging." 

— J. D. Bardin, Law student 
'84-'85, has taken unto himself a 
better half, Miss Eloise Bristol, of 

1 48 


Morganton. May peace, happi- 
ness and plenty be his lot. He 
has hung out his shingle in Wil- 
son and bids fair to make a suc- 
cess in the law. 

— W. K. Brown, '83, has left the 
Centennial Graded School of Ral- 
eigh, to become principal of a 
school in Alabama. 

W. D. Pemberton, '8 1, is attend- 
ing medical lectures in Baltimore. 
Max Jackson, '85, is doing the 
same at the University of New 

—Prof. Titus, of New York, the 
dancing master, is in town. The 
heavy youth of the class of '87 
are learning to trip the light fan- 
tastic toe in Gymnasium Hall. 

— Sol. Weill attended the meet- 
ing of the Grand Chapter of the 
Zeta Psi Fraternity at Easton, Pa., 
in January. He reports a full 
convention and a pleasant trip. 

— St. Clair Hester seems deter- 
mined to become a second Robin- 
son Crusoe. He left the Univer- 
sity to conduct business for a 
brother in Kansas City, Mo. He 
then travelled in Colorado for 
Duke & Co., of Durham, and now 
he turns up in New Orleans and is 
the Secretary of a theatrical 

— Prof. Toy has very nicely 
fitted up Physics Hall, the room 
over Dr. Battle's office, for the 
use of his classes. This is a very 
pleasant change from the one re- 

cently occupied — Holmes' Hall. 
Indeed almost any thing would be 
preferable to it with its dim light 
and uncomfortable benches. 

--We were much pleased to see 
John M. Morris on the Hill a few 
weeks ago. He spent the session 
just ended at a Business College 
in Knoxville, Tenn. He has not 
changed at all, except that he 
wears a dude moustache and in- 
visible siders. He will now go into 
the tobacco business at Hender- 
son, N. C. His stay with us was 
short but pleasant as he made 
many friends while in college. 

— At the recent meeting of the 
Trustees, it was resolved to put a 
tablet to the memory of the late 
Professor Hooper in Memorial 
Hall. This will be done in consid- 
eration of his valuable services to 
the University, and surely his 
memory should be cherished by 
all. One will also be placed to the 
memory of Miss Mary Ruffin 
Smith. She is the only woman 
who ever made a donation to the 
University, and hers is the largest 
ever made to the educational fund. 
May she ever live in the memory 
of those young men who will be 
enabled through her act of charity 
to secure a much coveted educa- 
tion, and may others be inspired 
by her example to go and do like- 
wise. Let them do it before death, 
and they can enjoy thcsweet fruits 
of doing well. 



— Tubby Keogh spent a few 
days with us, the first of the ses- 
sion. He is as fat and as chuncky 
as ever. 

— E. L. Gilmer, class '86, fought 
until the victory was in sight, 
until he was almost in the ark of 
safety, and then turned and fled. 
He is now in the ; Citizens National 
Bank of Greensboro. 

— Wm. B. Shepherd, Law stu- 
dent, '82, is now editor of the 
Apalachicola Herald, Fla. We 
wish him much success in his new 
field of labor. The press is doing 
great good for civilization and 
freedom in these closing years of 
the nineteenth century. 

— Harry Ransom, '87, has been 
at Lambsville, Chatham county, 
for the last few weeks. He has 
charge of Sam Turrentine's flour- 
ishing school during the sickness 
of the latter. 

— The Trustees have created 
the office of Registrar, and given 
it to Prof. Gore. He has been 
acting as such for some time. His 
duty, besides keeping the register 
of students, is to aid the President 
in maintaining order in the campus 
and buildings on all occasions. 

— Horace Williams, class '83, 
has resigned the professorship of 
German and Greek in Trinity Col- 
lege and has returned to Yale 
where he will resume the study of 

theology. He is the first, and so 
far the only one, who has taken 
A. M. here under the new regime, 
is a diligent student and we wish 
him great success in his noble 
work. He will perhaps connect 
himself with the Virginia Confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South. 

— A. L. Coble, class '80, has 
gone to Statesville, and will prac- 
tice law in that little city. He 
was Assistant-professor of Mathe- 
matics in the University for two 
years, and took a course in law at 
the same time, and a little later 
assisted Prof. Manning in his work. 
He has great energy, and must 
only keep on as he has begun to 
make a success. 

— As the spring begins to open 
and the commencement comes on 
apace, the Seniors and representa- 
tives begin to think of the trials 
they are to endure, and to make 
ready for the contest. The elocu- 
tionist is then in great demand. 
Prof. Saunders comes to us this 
year. He is from Washingtonand 
Lee University, and brings the 
highest recommendations from 
Gen. G. W. Curtis Lee, the Presi- 
dent of that institution. We hear 
that he is pleasing his classes 
much, and is making a favorable 
impression generally. He is a 
young man and quite handsome, 
but married. 



— Thomas R. Rouse, class '84, 
is teaching in Kinston College, 
N. C 

— St. Leon Scull, class '85, 
taught school last year in Rowan 
county. He grew tired of peda- 
gogism and has returned to the 
University to take a course in law. 

— The editor acknowledges the 
receipt of a copy of the Dedica- 
tion of the Washington National 
Monument, Feb'y 21, 1885, from 
Hon. Thomas G. Skinner. The 
book is handsomely printed, the 
type being large and clear. It con- 
tains 3.fac simile of the invitation 
ticket, which is a very fine engra- 
ving. It has the speeches of Hon. 
Robert C. Winthrop and Hon. 
John W. Daniels, and various 
other important things. It is a 
book of much value, and is worthy 
of a place in any library. Mr. 
Skinner is an old University boy, 
and is now serving his second 
term in the House of Represen- 

— January 20, Mr. Charles Rob- 
erts, of Shelby was married to 
Miss Fannie Hall, of this place. 
The ceremony was performed by 
Rev. B. R. Hall. It was a very 
quiet affair and the bride and 
groom immediately left for Shelby, 
their future home. This has been 
a very auspicious season for mar- 
riages. Some one says every girl 
is taken off as soon as she comes 
here. At any rate, this is the third 

marriage plus a big reception 
within two months. Never was 
there such unusual activity in the 
matrimonial market before, not 
even "within the memory of the 
oldest inhabitant." Who will be 
the next to offer themselves on 
the altar of the God of Love? 
Echo answers "who?" 

—Rev. T. P. Crawford, D. D., 
favored us not long since with a 
series of lectures on the three 
great races, the White, Mongolian 
and Negro. He has been for 
thirty-four years a missionary to 
China under the" supervision of 
the Southern Baptist Convention. 
He speaks three of their dialects 
and can preach to I5o,oc*),ooo 
Chinamen in their own tongue. 
Has been in the United States 
nine months, will remain some 
three months longer and then re- 
turn to his work. His purpose in 
lecturing is to bring into promi- 
nence the differences between 
these three races and to correct 
some false ideas which are now 
generally held as to the best man- 
ner of converting the heathen. 
He belongs to the "anti-subsid- 
sin^" faction "Do not build school 
houses and establish colleges and 
thus try to make him an Ameri- 
can. He has race peculiarities and 
will retain them to the last. Preach 
the gospel first, convert him and 
trust to the benign influence, 
which Christianity will have in 
civilizing him." Dr. Crawford was 



born in Kentucky and reared in 
Tennessee. He is now sixty-five, 
the best part of his life having 
been spent in this labor of love. 
He has lectured at a few places in 
the north and at many in the 
south. He shows what progress has 
been made in recent years and 
what the outlook now is. He will 
attend the Baptist Convention 
in April and then return to 

—Prof. W. B. Phillips is still at 
the School of Mines at Freiberg, 
Saxony. The trustees will furnish 
him with money to be used in the 
purchase of specimens and appa- 
ratus for his department. Mrs. 
Phillips will join her husband 
about March 1st. 

— Prof. Atkinson went to Dur- 
ham a few weeks ago to make 
some investigations in regard to 
the cigarette bug. The egg is laid 
in the leaf and can bear all the 
steaming necessary in the process 
of manufacture. When the cigar- 
ette is made, the bug bores out 
and the favorite of the small boy 
is ruined. The Professor thinks J 
he has found a remedy for the 
pest. Mr. Carr expressed himself 
as much pleased with the Profes- 
sor's methods of investigation. 

— In the recent death of Prof. 
Johannes DeBerniere Hooper the 
University has sustained a severe 
loss. He was a pure, noble, chris- \ 
tian gentleman. To know him I 

was to love him. In the class- 
room he was kind and gentle to 
his pupils. No harsh word ever fell 
from his lips as a reproof for a 
duty neglected ; but his reproofs 
had that fatherly kindness about 
them which endeared him to all. 
He was one of the most punctual 
men ever in the faculty. Even as 
late as last year he seldom missed 
morning prayers, often coming 
when the weather was too inclem- 
ent for him to be out, never de- 
sisting from it until requested by 
the President to do so. Such was 
his devotion to duty. Who will 
take his place in this respect ? He 
was, with two or three excep- 
tions, the last surviving mem- 
ber of the class of 1831. He 
was professor of Latin in the 
University fcr a long time be- 
fore the war. At the re-open- 
ing in 1875 he was teaching in the 
Wilson Collegiate Institute. He 
taught Greek and French for ten 
years and was forced through 
failing health to resign last Sep- 
tember. He has been very feeble 
since that time but his death was 
rather unexpected. He leaves us 
a rich legacy in his example which 
is worthy of being imitated by the 
best of us. He was " sustained in 
his last hours by an unfaltering 
trust and he went to take his 
chamber in the silent halls of 
death like one who wraps the rich 
drapery of his couch about him 
and lies down to pleasant dreams." 



-President Battle gives us some > name takes in different countries, 
interesting talks on Bible subjects j This is instructive and entertain- 

during his half hour on Sunday 
mornings. He has been giving 
short histories of the twelve apos- 
tles recently. One feature he 
brings out is the various forms a 

ing, and helps us on in a study of 
comparative philology too. We 
advise all to attend. fThe time 
could hardly be spent more profit- 

Among Our Exchanges. 

Comparatively few visitors have 
come to our table this year to tell 
us the oft repeated tale of noble 
resolves, lofty expectations, and 
flattering promises for the yet new 
year. As for us, we shall take the 
world as it comes, and go on "in 
the even tenor of our way," giv- 
ing and taking what is meted out 
to us. 

-X- -X- 

We are glad to again table the 
Southern University Monthly, from 
down in our Gulf-tempered, sister 
State, Alabama. It opens with 
a fairly spirited article, The Ex- 
cited Nation, which is of interest 
to such as love to ponder over the 
rise and fall of the chosen race. 
With nimble fingers it next plays 
on the "Harp of Life," till sud- 
denly it discloses new truths on 
"The Dignity of Labor" ; closing 
where it opened, on the Orient, 
with the "Seven Wonders of the 

World." A characteristic south- 
ern periodical, reflecting credit on 
the editors who get it up so tasti- 


Georgetown College, D. C, sends 
us the College Journal. Were we 
subject to lachrymal effusions, we 
could not desist from dropping a 
tear of sympathy for the editors of 
the Journal who seem to receive 
no exchange unworthy of a taunt 
from their unwieldly pen. Let us 
suggest that you look upon com- 
mon-place proverbs, "People who 
live in glass houses should not 

throw stones, " for instance. 
-x- -x- 

Although by no means cumber- 
some in size, or striking in ap- 
pearance, there is a general spici- 
ness about the Lewisburg, Pa., 
University Mirror that is agree- 
able. We might suggest that you 
give more space to the Literary 



Department, but fearing the often 
just epithet, busy bodies, we re- 
frain. Although not over-forcible 
in the presentation of points, we 
can but laud the author of "The 
South Twenty Years Ago, and 
the South To-day" as expressing 
the sentiments of many true 

The St. Mary's Sentinel comes 
to us somewhat improved by 
undergoing a series cf sarcastic 
hits by its contemporaries ; and in 
return throws in our teeth that we 
"would do well to add an enchange 
column !" Well dear Sentinel, we 
have been accustomed to devote 
one or two pages to "Among Our 
Exchanges," and we trust you 
would not subject us to the neces- 
sity of abandoning that title for 
more monotonous "Exchange 
Column" just to please your 
aesthetic tastes ; but perchance it 
was just a lapsus oculi, if you will 
pardon a newly coined expression, 
and passed over our exchanges 

No noticeable characteristics of 
any particular person's handwri- 
ting had ever stricken us forcibly 
except the generally accepted 
truth that "all great men write 
poorly, but all men who write 
poorly are net necessarily great," 
until we read an article in the 
Phrenological Journal on "Indica- 
tions of character in Handwriting" 

by George W. James. For exam- 
ple, the letter g : "When the down- 
stroke is long and sloping with a 
graceful curving return leading on 
to the next letter, such a form de- 
notes a sweet, sensitive, and ten- 
der nature, with easy sequence of 
ideas. If, on the contrary, it ter- 
minates angularly, it indicates 
penetration." A scientific treatise 
on "Biometry" and "The Christian 
Church — Its History and Divi- 
sions," deserve mention. 

We happen to notice on our 
table a little sheet which we took 
at first to be a catalogue of some 
clothing establishment. But lo ! 
it was the Niagara Index, with its 
usual amount of anathemas hurled 
at every periodical that deigned to 
give it even a passing notice. The 
little noisy wayward child sadly 
needs a cover to hide its nudity, 
and a "daddy" to spank it into 
silence, or at least into good be- 

The Occident is always a wel- 
come guest at our board. In issue 
of Jan. 22, it has an interesting 
article on "Slang." Thinking 
that it would interest our readers 
we clip the following: "Spoony" 
came from the noun spoon, and is 
applied as indicating the symp- 
toms belonging to the realm of 
courting, rather than the disease 
itself. The original use of the 
now vulgar phrase "let her rip," 



is as far from its present meaning 
as possible. In old churchyards 
in England on the tomb of some 
loved one appeared the words, but 

written, Let her R. I. P. — "Let 
her repose in peace." Perhaps it 
would have been better if they 
had not been so sparing of letters. 


We find on our table this week 
two volumes of Messrs. Harper's 
neat Handy Series : 

A Man of Hojiov, by J. S. Win- 
ter, a light, interesting study of 
the darker side of Alban Hastings, 
a trooper of the Black Horse Dra- 
goons, and of the bright side of 
his comrades, Urquhart and Lord 
Archie. Two young ladies in the 
case are rivals in the affections of 
the hero. He jilts one, courts the 
other, goes to India, gets wounded 
and is 'tended by his jilted sweet- 
heart. Upon recovery he throws 
off all conscience, tells Bessie (to 
whom he is bound by all honor 
and illicit love) that he can never 
marry her, and must return to 
England. Bessie falls dead at his 
rough words, and the tragedy is 
ended. The name, A Man of 
Honor, ironically given, befits him 
well. Price, 20 cents. 

Cabin and Gondola comes to us 
redolent with the perfume of 
Florida's flowers and German 
beer! It is a collection of short 
sketches, cleverly written by Char- 
lotte Dunning. Sketches of Flor- 

ida, Italy, Germany and France 
amuse as well as instruct. Humor, 
pathos and fine description are 
well blended, and the little vol- 
ume makes a most delightful com- 
panion during an idle hour. Price, 
20 cents. Read it. 

War and Peace, a historic novel, 
by Count Leo Tolstoi. Con- 
cerning this new book the New 
York Times has quite a lengthy 
article, from which we gain some 
information : 

" Count Leo Tolstoi's six-vol- 
ume historical romance, ' Voina i 
Mir,' (War and Peace,) the earlier 
installments of which were pub- 
lished in Russia as long ago as 
1867, has at length found its way 
across the Atlantic under the 
double disadvantage of having 
been translated from Russian into 
French and from French into En- 
glish. The version now before us 
comprises only the first and least 
successful portion of the work, 
which, treating as it does of Rus- 
sia's three successive struggles 
against Napoleon, naturally deep- 
ens in tragic grandeur in propor- 
tion as it nears its culminating 
point, the great national martyr- 
dom of 1812. 



"Our author divides with his 
namesake, Count A. K. Tolstoi, 
the foremost place in the present 
school of Russian historical fic- 
tion, of which Dmitri Zagoskin 
was among the first and most suc- 
cessful representatives. His work, 
however, marks a new phase in its' 
development. Zagoskin and A. 
K. Tolstoi were avowed and not 
unworthy imitators of Sir Walter 
Scott. Leo Tolstoi reminds us 
more of the earlier style of Lord 

"Along with Lord Lytton's 
tendency to philosophize, his Rus- 
sian disciple has imbibed in all its 
fullness the great sentimentalist's 
passion for making everything go 
wrong. One of the heroes of his 
present work gambles away a for- 
tune at cards. Another is reduced 
to ranks for some madcap esca- 
pade, and then all but killed in a 
duel. A third, having married a 
woman whom he detested, falls in 
battle just as he has satisfactorily 
got rid of her. A fourth, betrayed 
by his wife and cheated by his 
friends, is finally carried away 
among the other prisoners of the 
French army on its retreat from 
Moscow, and barely escapes with 
life after enduring unutterable 
hardships. Nor are the ladies a 
whit more fortunate than the gen- 
tlemen. Jealousies, disappoint- 
ments, misunderstandings, rejec- 
tions of the. right man in favor of 
the wrong one, family troubles, 
domestic bereavements, broken 
hearts, and sudden deaths encoun- 
ter us so incessantly that when 
the great doomsday of 1812 be- 
gins to darken over the closino 
scenes of the story, instead of re- 
garding it as a calamity, we hail 

it as a seasonable and very appro- 
priate climax, sent to cut short all 
these prolix serials of agony, and 
to make everybody heartily and 
1 comfortably miserable at once. 
"It would be unfair to Count 
Tolstoi, however, to regard him 
merely as one more exponent of 
that affected Byronism whose two 
great commandments were (as 
Macaulay pointedly said) ' to hate 
your neighbor and love your 
neighbor's wife.' When he does 
take the trouble to elaborate either 
a scene or a character his success 
is undeniable. The terrible Dolok- 
hoff, gambler, bully, duelist, 
profligate— with the untamed fe- 
rocity of a wild beast underlying 
the polished cynicism of a man ot 
fashion, yet at the same time ' the 
tenderest of sons and kindest of 
brothers' to the poor old mother 
and deformed sister who were so 
I proud of him— is a creation worthy 
of Lermontoff himself, and in 
many points closely akin to the 
leading figure in the hitter's fa- 
mous novel, 'A Hero of Our 
Time.' No one can fail to be 
struck with the vivid sketch of 
Prince Peter Bezoukhoff, the 
young millionaire, with his weak 
goodnature and better self-re- 
proach, his vague but passionate 
longings for something higher and 
purer than the endless round of 
fashionable dissipation, and his 
ultimate realization of the true 
significance of life just as he passes 
into the deepening gloom of ap- 
parently certain death. Nor would 
it be easy to find any battle piece 
in Russian literature, even among 
those of Karamzin himself, which 
can surpass the gloomy grandeur 
of the terrible description given in 



Vol. V. (one of those still untrans- 
lated) of the great military butch- 
ery at Borodino, where 100,000 j 
men perished in one day for the 
possession of a tiny hamlet of 23 
huts, which any passenger along 
the Mojaisk highroad might al 
most pass unnoticed were it not 
for the striking monument on the 
ridge just above it." 

Ccesar, by Allen & Greenough. 
This is the title of a neat, well 
bound volume, just issued from 
the presses of Messrs. Ginn & Co.. 
Boston, Mass. A finely engraved 
bust of Julius Caesar forms the 
frontispiece and it contains seven 
books, two more than generally 
appear in a text book De Bcllo 
Gallica. At the head of each 
chapter is a condensed statement 
of events described therein, thus: 
Orgetorix soon afterwards dies 
(line 2-4). These statements are 
in English— a great convenience 
to both teacher and pupil. A 
short life of Caesar and a map of 
Gaul, revised according to the 
latest investigations, are a credit 
to the work. Tne text is, with 
slight change, that of Nipperdey. 
Many references to the grammars 
of Allen & Greenough, Gilder- 
sleeve and Harkness afford abund- 
ant light on the syntax, while 
convenient notes give one a clear 
idea of the manners, morals and 
arms of the Romans. The "gol- 
den mean" seems to have been 
reached in the notes. They are 

not too full as in Anthon, a hind- 
rance rather than a help, nor yet 
too brief, as in the case of the 
Chase and Stuart text books. 
Never have we seen a classical 
text book with so few blemishes. 
One of its main features is a care- 
fully arranged description of 
Roman arms and armor, with 
handsome illustrations. The work 
is neatly printed, in good, large 
type, on excellent paper and con- 
tains a first class Caesarean vocabu- 
lary. We cordially recommend 
this book to all those beginning 
to read Latin, satisfied that no- 
where can a better text book be 
found. Price $1.25. Ginn & Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

Original Comic Operas, W. S. 
Gilbert, containing Mikado, Pirates 
of Penzance, The Sorcerer, H. M. 
S. Pinafcre and others. We are 
I sure that our readers who have 
heard so much of the talented 
composer of Pinafore would like 
some of his best plays for refer- 
ence. Mr. Gilbert's plays have 
met with peculiar favor from the 
American people and a perusal of 
this small volume proves that it is 
deserved. Mikado, the play about 
which there has recently been so 
much trouble in the courts, is 
alone worth the price of the 
volume— 20 cts. Harper & Bros., 
New York. 


University Magazine, 

Old Series Vol. XVIII. 
New Series Vol. V. 

March, 1886. 


No. 5. 

G. B. Patterson, 
Lewis J. Battle. 

Ed. B. Cline. 



James Thomas, 

Vernon W. Long, 

Stephen B. Weeks. 


The importance of the indus- 
tries and their promoters has too 
long been disregarded. The his- 
torian has paid more attention to 
the foibles, follies, vices and even 
to the crimes of men, than to 
those things which constitute the 
elements of human happiness 
and human progress in civilization. 
The deeds of the warrior who rode 
forth to pillage and to destroy 
have been blazoned to the world 
in history and monument and 
song, — while the true heroes in the 
cause of humanity, the patient in- 
ventors, the great captains of in- 
dustry, the promoters of the acts 
of peace, together with all their 
labors, have been too often ignored 

I and suffered to sink into unjust 
I oblivion. But, fortunately for our 
I age, this old condition of things 
I is passingaway, and new thoughts 
I and feelings are arousing the grpat 
I heart of humanity, as a just sense 
of appreciation and reward rises 
over the horizon of a progressive 
present. Men have begun to per- 
ceive that he who invents a ma- 
chine which lessens human toil 
and increases human comfort is a 
greater benefactor to his race than 
he who simply inherits a crown or 
receives the applause of the world 
for splendid military achieve- 
ments; that he is more truly great 
who has won a name from the 
temple of merit than he whose 



only claim to prominence or a title 
comes through the sepulchres of 
his ancestors. Yes we have begun 
to perceive that the arts of peace 
are the true sources of individual 
prosperity and national strength. 
We open our eyes in wonder at 
the varying and multiplying uses 
of simple vegetable productions, 
at the developing of the industries, 
at the new sources of invention, 
beauty and art, at the accumula- 
tion and power of private and 
national wealth, until we stand 
astonished at their magnitude and 
effects upon the commerce and 
happiness of the world. 

The healing hand of civilization 
is doing its work. The sciences 
and industries, as if by magic, 
have sent an electric thrill through 
the mighty agencies of universal 
advancement. We live in a fast 
age; we attempt to think of the 
Declaration of Independence, and 
we are almost lost in the twilight 
of history ; we attempt to think 
of yesterday, and it seems almost 
an age removed. We are rushing 
on, with ever increasing speed, on 
the high road of new wonders to 
unparelleled greatness— unable to 
brood over the past— scarcely 
heeding the present— everything 
lies in the future. We are lead- 
ing the vanguard of progress in 
sight of another century's mile- 
stone. In aiding us as a nation to 
reach this position, perhaps no 
one agency has been more marked 

and potent in its effects than the 
manufacture of cotton. To it and 
the inventors of its machinery is 
due the glory of one of the grand- 
est peace victories of the 19th 
century. To-day it stands out 
prominently among the century's 
achievements emitting bright rays 
of national greatness and indi- 
vidual comfort upon a proud and 
happy people — in striking con- 
trast to the dark clouds of igno- 
rance and lethargy that hung alike 
over the tottering thrones and 
the toiling and benighted millions 
of yesterday. 

It is this cotton industry that 
has made England what she is to- 
day. Spain was the first Euro- 
pean country to adopt it, and 
during the 15th century she led 
I Europe in commerce, the sciences 
, and arts; just so she led all the 
nations in power. 

At that time England was not 

■ recognized as one of the leading 
i powers of the world ; comparative- 
ly she was insignificant. It was 

■ not until the latter part of the 
! 1 8th century that England's in- 
| dustrial genius awoke ; and then 
i it was that she began to make 

' herself felt among the nationali- 
ties of the earth — at one stride 
distancing all competitors. It 
was the manufacture of cotton, 
the result of the inventions of 
Hargreaves, Arkwright, Compton 
and Cartwright, that awoke her 

I from her lethargy, gave a new 


impetus, to her commerce, and 
poured a steady stream of wealth 
into her coffers ; that trained her 
sailors, improved and enlarged 
her fleet, and started the wheels 
of progress that bore creation's 
rust. This is what made England 
prosperous in peace and invincible 
in war. In peace she has had a 
monopoly of the commerce of the 
world ; in war she uses her im- 
mense wealth to subsidize the land 
force of other nations, and with 
well trained sailors and a powerful 
fleet she can meet and scatter a 
second armada upon the sea. 
Then to these humble inventors 
is due the greatness of England. 
They are England's true heroes 
both in peace and in war. 

It .was not. Lord Nelson that 
defeated the French at Trafalgar. 
But it was Hargreaves, Arkwright, 
Compton and Cartwright, who 
gave Nelson the power, means 
and skill which no other admiral 
had ever had. It was they who, 
with an unseen hand, directed 
England's well-aimed blows, and 
threw consternation into the op- 
posing fleet. 

It was not Wellington who de- 
feated Napoleon at Waterloo. It 
was only the result of England's 
inventions, her improvements in 
manufacture and commerce that 
made Waterloo possible. The 
spirits of Hargreaves, Arkwright, 
Compton and Cartwright, as guar- 
dian angels, rode into that whirl- 


wind of destruction, and baffled 
the child of Destiny. It was they 
that wrecked the grandest army 
the sun ever shone upon, ajid 
swept from the face of France 
that historic Old Guard which 
never reeled in the shock of war 
before. It was they who did it, 
1 and it is they who deserve the 
glory ! 

The subtle, though powerful 
influence of these inventive geni- 
uses had been at work for more 
than a quarter of a century, but 
were scarcely noticed or felt until 
England proclaimed her greatness 
to the world in tones of thunder, 
and with tongues of living fire.' 
This was the first great triumph 
of mechanical genius over military 
genius. It was the vantage ground 
of a newborn civilization over the 
relics of barbarism, and a vantage 
ground which will never, never be 

Now these facts teach us as 
Americans an important lesson. 
We should recognize in Eli Whit- 
ney our true industrial hero,— the 
man who contributed to the res- 
cue of a strangling industry, the 
cotton gin—zx\ invention which 
has changed the history of Amer- 
ica, which has revolutionized mod- 
ern commerceand modern politics. 
It was not until the time of this 
invention that our starving and 
dying colonies, which the revolu- 
tion left stranded upon the shores 
of the Atlantic, were inspired to 



a new life and took their first 
giant step forward. 

But there is a more important 
lesson for us than this. We see that 
England did not become great by 
the simple production of raw ma- 
terials, but by the manufacturing 
of these raw materials for com- 
merce. Now comes the question, 
Can we become great by manu- 
facturing? In fact, what are the 
factors on which any country's 
prosperity depends ? They are 
its agricultural, commercial and 
manufacturing facilities. For ag- 
riculture is needed a good soil 
and a good climate. In these we 
surpass the remainder of the world. 
For commerce harbors and rail- 
road facilities are necessary. In 
these we are equalled by none. 

For Manufacturing there must 
be water power and coal. These 
we have— a great belt of coal, 
stretching from the lakes to the 
gulf, and water power in abun- 
dance. Even right here in our own 
State energy to the amount of 
3,000,000 horse-power is wasted 
every moment. In fact, right here 
in our own cluster of sister States 
these three great progressive fac- 
tors combine as they do in no 
other spot on the globe. 

Then let us as Americans no 
longer send our bales of raw cot- 
ton to the looms of England ; let 
us as Southerners no longer send 
our cotton to the Northern manu- 
facturer, for him to send back to 

us, while he reaps all the profits. 
Let us no longer send our ores to 
the northern furnace, nor our 
timber to the northern machines. 
Why should the South be simply 
the cotton-field and wood-shop of 
the United States? Shall it con- 
tinue to be so? No! The South's 
far-famed exhibits at Boston, Ral- 
eigh and New Orleans explode 
this idea with a thundering nega- 

What is needed in every South- 
ern State is immigration and cap- 
ital. We have everything neces- 
sary to create wealth and inde- 
pendence, except workers and 
money. Then let us make extra- 
ordinary efforts to secure immi- 
gration, and the most liberal con- 
cessions to capital. When? Let 
us do it now ! For there is a tide 
in the affairs of nations, as well as 
of men, which, taken at its flood, 
leads on to fortune and to fame. 
The tide of our future indepen- 
dence is at its flood. . We must 
take it ! This is the hours need. 
Then let us gain a double advan- 
tage and reap a double profit by 
manufacturing our cotton in the 
very best fields where it is grow- 
j ing. Let our wood be carved and 
, fitted for usefulness in the very 
! forest where it is felled. Let our 
ores be smelted, shaped and beau- 
tified by the dainty fingers of art 
for the channels of commerce in 
sight of the very mines where they 
are dug. When this is done, then 



the farmer at his plow will be in- 
spired by the song of the hum- 
ming spindle — a song whose stir- 
ring strains will sound in the ears 
of future millions the glad music 
of a peerless history. Then will 
our western hills echo with the 
blast of the furnace, and every 
fountain, rivulet and stream will 
chant the music of eternal pro- 
gress. Then the North— the world 
— will be our market-place, and its 
people our purchasers. Then the 
false antagonism between labor 
and capital will be silenced, and 
these twin giants of industry will 
stand before the world in holy 

union. Then the speculations on 
Southern distress will cease, and 
the doleful cry of northern tyran- 
ny will be hushed. Then our 
works of internal improvement 
will receive a new and ever accel- 
erating impetus — our drooping 
cities will be revived, and our 
creeping commerce winged. 

Then, and not until then, may 
we look for our future to rise ra- 
diant with hope and promise. 

The South can do this ! And 
God speed the day when the South 
will do this ! 

Marion Butler. 

Feb. \2th, 1886. 


This beautiful poem, which firm- 
ly established Goldsmith's claim 
to a place among the great Eng- 
lish poets, was published in 1770, 
when the author was in the forty- 
second year of his age. The lead- 
ing idea which this poem contains, 
that the accumlation of wealth in 
the country is the cause of all evils, 
including depopulation, though 
open to criticism from political 
economists, nevertheless detracts 
but little from its force and beauty. 

In the Traveller, which appear- 
ed five years before, Goldsmith 
had intimated in the following 
lines the leading idea of this poem : 

" Have we not seen round Britain's peopled 


Her useful sons exchanged for useless ore ? 

Have we not seen at pleasure's lordly call, 

The smiling, long-frequented village fall ?" 

The poem contains a charming 
description of a beautiful rural 
village, which, through the love of 
gain and self-aggrandizement of 
a rich man, or, as we would now 
call him, a monopolist, had been 
merged into one great estate, the 
town itself destroyed, and its citi- 
zens forced to leave the home of 
their ancestors and seek a new 
abode in the uninviting forests of 
the " western world." 

The " Sweet Auburn " of the 

1 62 


poem is, no doubt, the village of 
Lissoy, the home of Goldsmith's 
boyhood, as regarded with all the 
wistfulness and longing of a long- 
banished nation. Lord Macaulay 
says that the poem is hopelessly 
incongruous in that it " combines 
a description of a probably Kent- 
ish village with a description of an 
Irish ejectment. But it seems 
perfectly natural that Goldsmith 
should give a bright picture of his 
boyhood's home when looking at 
it through the softening influence 
of time. Sir Walter Scott, who 
does not agree with Macaulay 
about the incongruity of the poem, 
says that the natural features of the 
Irish village of Lissoy correspond 
to those described in the poem. 
But, whether it is a description of 
real or ideal village makes little 
difference in the effect of the poem. 
In his imaginary ramble through 
distant Lissoy the poet recalls 
his boyish sports and pleasures, 
makes a short review of his event- 
ful life — the life of an exile — and 
expresses the wish to spend his 
last moments in "Auburn,'* 

" I still had hopes, my latest hours to crown, 
Amidst these humble bowers to lay me 

down ; 
To husband out life's taper at the close. 
And keep the flame from wasting by repose ; 
I still had hopes, for pride attends us still, 
. Amidst the swains to show my book-learned 

skill, . 
Around my fire an evening group to draw, 
And tell of all I felt, and all I saw ; 
And, as a hare whom hounds and horns 


Pants to the place from whence at first he 

I still had hopes, my long vexations past, 
Here to return — and die at home at last." 

The picture of the Village 
Preacher is generally considered 
a beautiful and touching tribute 
to the memory of his pious and 
amiable father, Rev. Chas. Gold- 
smith. The wayward but brilliant 
son has, by his powers of delinea- 
tion of character, rendered the 
father immortal ; and as long as 
the English language shall be 
spoken or its classics understood, 
this picture of Goldsmith's father 
will be read and admired. In this 
day when there is a constant 
wrangling among many of our 
ministers for the best-paying and 
most fashionable churches, and 
a perpetual wire-pulling to gain 
promotion, the character of this 
plain and devoted pastor of a small 
village may be studied with pleas- 
ure and profit by all. What a 
contrast is there between the char- 
acter of some of the fashionable 
and sensational ministers of to- 
day and that of the man described 
in these lines : 

" A man he was to all the country dear. 
And passing rich on forty pounds a year ; 
Remote from town he ran his Godly race, 
Nor e'er had changed, nor wished to change 

his place ; 
Unpracticed he to fawn, or seek for power 
By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour; 
For other aims his heart had learned to 

prize — 
More skilled to raise the wretched than to 



Goldsmith, no doubt, intended, 
while offering this beautiful trib- 
ute to the memory of his father, 
to administer a well-deserved re- 
buke to the English clergy, who, 
at that time, were in a sad religious 

The description of the school- 
master is a good one, and a vein 
of dry humor running through it 
renders the effect of its introduc- 
tion all the more delightful. It is 
a true picture of the pedagogue of 
the olden day who was so proud 
of his proficiency in the three 
" R's," and who, though van- 
quished in argument, would still 
maintain his position with imper- 
turbable pertinacity, and attempt 
to overpower his antagonist and 
overawe the simple rustics by the 
fluent use of " words of learned 
length and thundering sound." 

The public house is one of the 
necessary institutions of an Eng- 
lish or Irish village, and any de- 
scription of such a village that ig- 
nored the inn would not be true 
to nature. It is at the inn that 
the people of these little hamlets 
meet and drink their beer and ale, 
crack their jokes, talk politics, and 
hear the newspaper read. Gold- 
smith, in lamenting the ruin that 
has befallen his " Auburn," gives 
a glimpse of these evening gath- 
erings : 

Low lies that house where nut-brown 

draughts inspired. 
Where grey-beard mirth and smiling toil 


Where village statesmen talked with looks 

And news much older than their ale went 


Thus far the poem seems so 
natural that one cannot fail to be- 
lieve in the reality of the village. 
But, when we read of the destruc- 
tion and depopulation of a whole 
village in order to add more to a 
wealthy man's estate, we are forced 
to think that the author has al- 
lowed his prejudices to lead him 
away from the truth : 

" The man of wealth and pride 

Takes up a space that many poor supplied; 
Space for his lake, his park's extended 

Space for his horses, equipage and hounds." 

There have been instances of 
this nature in England, but prob- 
ably not in sufficient number to 
support the theory that " wealth 
and luxury are inimical to the ex- 
istence of a hardy peasantry." 

But, whatever may be said of 
Goldsmith's theories of political 
economy, the pictures of those 
who have been forced to leave 
their homes are faithful to nature, 
and many such instances as he 
gives may still be seen both in our 
own country and in England. 
Where, he asks, is a poor exile to 
go, when every foot of ground has 
been seized by the rich ? To the 
large cities? 

" To see profusion that he must not share; 
To see ten thousand lawful arts combined 
To pamper luxury, and thin mankind." 



He then proceeds to give a pic- 
ture of the gorgeous splendor and 
pompous display made by the rich 
in the large cities. In contrast to 
this is a picture — only too true in 
our own age and country- — of the 
wretched female who has been 
flattered and ruined and betrayed, 
and has finally sunk too deep in 
wickedness to have much hope of 

But, says Goldsmith, the inhabi- 
tants of "Auburn" do not go to 
the cities ; but they go 

" To distant climes, a dreary scene. 

Where half the convex world intrudes be- 
Through torrid tracks with fainting steps 

they go, 
Where wild Altama murmurs to their woe." 

After giving a striking descrip- 
tion of the hardships to which 
emigrants to America would be 
exposed, he presents in a vivid 
manner the pathetic side of emi- 
gration, exclaiming: 

" Good Heaven ! what sorrows gloomed that 

parting day, 
That called them from their native walks 

When the poor exiles, every pleasure passed, 
Hung round their bowers and fondly looked 

their last — 
And took a long farewell, and wished in 

For seats like these beyond the western 

main — 

And shuddering still to face the distant 

Returned and wept, and still returned to 

In this imaginative departure 
the poet contemplates the " rural 
virtues" leaving the land; and, 
in the closing lines of the poem, 
bids departing Poetry a tender 
and passionate farewell. 

' ' And thou sweet Poetry, thou loveliest maid, 
Unfit in these degenerate times of shame 
To catch the heart, or strike for honest 

fame; — 
Thou guide by which the nobler arts excel, 
Thou nurse of every virtue, fare thee well !', 

Despite the objections of the 
political economists, the dispar- 
aging criticism of Macaulay, and 
the fluctuations of literary fashion, 
the position of this graceful, me- 
lodious and tender poem in Eng- 
lish literature has not been dis- 
turbed. There is something in 
this poem, with its vivid des- 
criptions of well-known objects, 
its fine delineations of certain 
moral characters, and its quaint 
and pathetic philosophizing about 
the accumulation of wealth and 
the depopulation of villages, that 
has made it a favorite with all 
classes of persons, and there is 
little doubt that it will long retain 
its well-deserved popularity. 

S. M. Gattis. 

Hertford, N. C, Feb. 2nd, '86. 




From Edinburgh to London-European Railroads. 

BY K. E. Y. 

It is a long and interesting ride 
from Edinburgh to London. We 
made the journey on an express 
and not on a "parliamentary" as 
are called the trains that stop at 
all stations. A word here about 
European railways may not be 
amiss. While the roads them- 
selves are heavier and stronger 
than most of ours, the rolling stock 
is lighter, and for this reason I 
should judge that the wear and 
tear is less than on American roads. 
Their engines are not built on 
such a uniform plan as ours, but 
can be seen in various shapes and 
of all models of construction. ! 
They are never provided with the I 
pilots or "cow-catchers" of our 
engines, since in a land where the 
roadways are all fenced or hedged ! 


in and cattle cannot therefore gain 
access to the track, such append- 
ages are unnecessary. In place of 
the pilots they are armed with 
two unsightly "bumpers." Instead 
of a train of five, six or more cars, 
as we see in America, their trains 
consist of a long string of many 
little carriages. Each carriage is 
divided into three parts or "com- 
partments" and each compartment 

has two rows of seats opposite, 
like the seats in an omnibus. Half 
of the passengers must ride back- 
wards. A first-class compartment 
seats three persons on each row or 
six in all, a second-class compart- 
ment seats eight persons and a 
third-class ten. Very often a 
second-class compartment and 
even a third-class furnishes every- 
thing that could be desired in 
point of comfort as well as com- 
pany, for very many of the best 
people travel second-class. There 
may be a first, second and third- 
class compartment to a single car- 
riage, or two seconds and a first, or 
two thirds and a first, and so forth 
indiscriminately. There are also 
first, second and third-class smok- 
ing compartments, so that on 
European railroads one must not 
necessarily seek disagreeable com- 
pany in order to enjoy the luxury 
of a cigar. There are, too, com- 
partments for ladies only, designed 
for the comfort and convenience 
of ladies travelling alone. The 
baggage carriage is in England 
called a van and the baggage is 
always called luggage. The com- 
plete system of through checking 

1 66 


of baggage as it exists to such 
.perfection and convenience in 
America is nearly unknown, 
though I believe they are now 
waking up a little to its good 
points. Generally, however, you 
put your luggage in the van and j 
claim it in person at the end of 
the journey. Sometimes a piece j 
of paper is stuck on the trunk 
with the point of destination and | 
a number printed thereon and a 
similar piece of paper is given to 
the traveller. This is their near- 
est approach to through checking. 
Pullman palace and sleeping cars 
are now being made in Europe 
and run on European roads, but 
they are built smaller than those 
in use with us. I recall an adver- 
tisement I noticed in a London 
paper, setting forth the advantages 
offered on the part of a certain 
line to Brighton by the use of an 
express train composed solely of 
Pullman cars. Special stress was 
laid on the fact, designated by 
italics, that passengers might pass 
from car to car ! The two doors of 
a compartment being on each side 
of the carriage and there being no 
opening between compartments 
or at the ends of the carriages, a 
collector of tickets cannot of 
course pass through the train. 
Tickets are given up at the station 
at which you leave the train, the 
depots being so constructed that 
you cannot pass out without pass- 
ing the collector. Sometimes the 

collector is on the train and ex- 
amines tickets by walking along 
outside the train on a narrow 
plank, clinging on much like street 
car conductors on our open street: 
cars, often also, at a station, an 
official will present himself at your 
windows and punch your ticket,, 
seemingly on general principles.. 
Every train is accompanied by a 
corps of "guards" who ride in the- 
"guard van" during the journey 
and at each station distribute 
themselves along the platform to 
open and close the doors. Fre- 
quently it happens that you are 
locked in your compartment until: 
the guard sees fit to release you, a 
practice little consistent with fa- 
cility of escape in case of accident. 
Many conveniences, such as water 
refreshments and other things,, 
that might be on the train can 
only be found at a station. No 
I bell rope runs through the train 
to the engine as a signal to the 
engineer, but the train is started 1 
by the guards blowing a series of 
little whistles from the rear of the 
train forward. The chief guard 
may be considered in the light of 
a conductor. 

Every station, where there are 
switches or sidings, is provided, as 
is the case now in our more 
wealthy roads, with a switch house. 
This is glass on every side and in 
it the switch master stands in 
front of an array of upright levers,, 
each one of which moves its proper 



switch, however far away. The 
most perfect system of signals 
exists along the line and at sta- 
tions. The American air brake is 
used, I believe, on all trains. Some 
of the carriages, instead of having 
three complete compartments 
with two rows of seats each, have 
two complete compartments, and, 
so to speak, two half-compart- 
ments, the latter being located at 
each end of the carriage and 
styled coupes. The speed of the 
English trains is greater on an 
average than that of American 
trains. On the continent the speed 
is not so great. Gentlemen trav- 
elling alone or together, or even 
with ladies where economy is a 
consideration, will find all they 
desire in a second-class compart- 
ment. The smaller stations are 
models of neatness, comfort and 
often elegance. Each one is pro- 
vided with a good restaurant and 
lunch and refreshment counter. 
The larger depots are magnifi- 
cent. The average European de- 
pot is far superior to the Ameri- 
can. The whistles of the locomo- 
tives are almost without excep- 
tion piercingly shrill. Very often 
the engineer or " driver" has no 
" cab" or covering over his head 
or at his side, and is only protect- 
ed from the weather by an upright 
wall in front of him pierced by 
two circular windows like port- 
holes. He has no chair, and is in 
no case allowed to sit down while 

at his post. Country roads never 
cross the railroad except by means 
of a substantial bridge built over 
the latter. Neither do the rail- 
roads cross each other on the same 
level. The road-beds are always 
in most beautiful order, and fre- 
quently the excavations and em- 
bankments, instead of presenting 
a surface of raw earth like ours, 
are turfed with beautiful grass, 
as green and as evenly mowed as 
a lawn. 

In some parts of Europe the 
telegraph lines, instead of running 
on poles, are supported on iron 
posts three or four feet from the 

1 will add that the compart- 
ments of the carriages are each lit 
by a single smoky oil lamp em- 
bedded in the ceiling over head 
and adjusted by a guard outside 
on top of the carriage. Sometimes 
there is present an electric button, 
which passengers are cautioned 
not to touch except in cases of 
absolute necessity. I had no 
means of observing the heating 
facilities, but believe they are im- 
perfect, and sometimes do not ex- 
ist at all. So much for European 
railroads. In my opinion the 
American system is in the majori- 
ty of points far superior. Certain- 
ly so in point of comfort. It is 
in use to a limited extent in parts 
of Europe. We found it in Swit- 
zerland, but the cars were very 

1 68 


Most of the way from Edin- 
burgh to London we had the good 
fortune to secure, through an ac- 
commodating guard, a compart- 
ment to ourselves. Not far from 
the railroad we pass old Melrose 
Abbey, the finest specimen of 
Gothic architecture in Scotland, j 
now ivy-covered and crumbling 
to decay. Not far away from 
Melrose is Abbotsford, the home j 
of Walter Scott, which I cannot j 
but regret that we did not stop j 
and visit. We only had a passing 
view of Sheffield and the smoke 
of its many factories, paused a 
half an hour for dinner at Nor- 
manton, and after that made but 
one more stop — Leicester — ere we 
reached the mighty metropolis. 
The latter part of our ride was 
through that part of England 
which seems to offer such an at- 
tractive subject for English land- 
scape paintings, a gently rolling 
country, beautifully green and 
checked, every inch under culti- 
vation. Now and then trees and 
shade appear as the extensive 
grounds of some wealthy land- 
holder glide by, the spires or tur- 
rets of his lordly residence peep- 
ing up from out the foliage. We 
pass over the Cheviot Hills, hard- 
ly worthy of the name, so low and 
undulating they are. Wide, shal- 
low streams of cold, clear water 
run by, with the trout fishers on 
their banks, and on every side the 
mowers are at work with scythe 

and blade. Ever and anon we see 
stone houses and thatched roofs, 
fine gardens, extensive orchards, 
deep canals, and a perfect net work 
of railroads. Sometimes ours 
would pass over another, under a 
second, and so on. Factories 
after factories, bearing testimony 
to the immense industries of this 
mighty kingdom, go by until the 
sight of them grows monotonous. 
As I approach London faith in 
my narrative fails. So great is 
the number of things to be seen, 
and which we did see there, so 
hard is it to know what to speak 
of and what to omit, so difficult 
is it to vary the style of continu- 
ous description that it does not 
grow tiresome and distasteful to 
the reader, that I approach Lon- 
| don with no little trepidation, and 
j with a firm resolve to make my 
i narrative as short as possible. 
! With this assurance perhaps I 
may entice you to read on. Did I 
dwell on the places of historic in- 
terest there to be found — as, for 
example, the tower — and try, as 
I describe, to recall for myself and 
my readers some of the tales of 
history connected therewith, it 
would protract this sketch far be- 
yond what I, and I daresay those 
who peruse these pages, expect or 
desire, and the task has already 
assumed proportions far beyond 
my intention or expectation at its 
inception. Consequently brevity 
shall be my aim. 


J. c^/~~i? 6- r-2«~ '**.■• »_, . _ 4i-» 

1 69 

A Memorial. 


The University must long con- 
tinue to deplore the death of Prof. 
Hooper. In him we have lost one 
of the most loyal and loving of 
our alumni, a valuable officer, a 
faithful and accomplished teacher, 
an exemplar in all duty and in the 
finest traits that distinguish the 
character of a Christian gentleman. 

While the University, through 
its officers, and trustees, and stu- 
dents, the public press generally, 
and the voice of private friend- 
ship have expressed in fitting 
terms their estimate of his worth 
and their sense of bereavement, I 
propose, in this memorial sketch 
of his life, to give a more extend- 
ed view of his family connections, 
obtained from an authentic source, 
and so to place on record for the 
first time genealogical details of 
the various branches and collat- 
erals, such as are always interest- 
ing, and may hereafter be of value. 
Too little attention is paid in this 
State to such family records. 

The Hooper family is one long 
and well known in North Caro- 
lina and other Southern States. 
Wherever known they are strongly 
marked by certain family traits ; 
a high-toned passionate sense of 
honor, a quick and generous sensi- 

bility, a love of letters combined 
with intellect of a fine and flexi- 
ble quality. In many of them 
these mental gifts are accompa- 
nied by a rare strain of subtle hu- 
mor, imparting to their conversa- 
tion and writings the real Attic fla- 
vor and salt. 

The first of the name known in 
this country was the Rev'd Wil- 
liam Hooper, a clergyman of the 
English Church, who came to 
Boston in the early part of the 
last century. Of his sons, three 
emigrated to North Carolina, Wil- 
liam, George, and Thomas. Wil- 
liam was a graduate of Harvard 
College, (1760), and had studied 
law under James Otis in Boston. 
He settled in Wilmington (1767), 
became prominent in politics, was 
a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress 177$- 77, and is now best 
known as one of the immortals who 
signed the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. His wife was Miss Ann 
Clarke of Wilmington/ He remov- 
ed with his~family to Hillsboro at 
the close of the Revolutionary 
straggle, and there he died in 1790, 
leaving two children, William and 
Elizabeth, afterwards Mrs. Eliz. 
Watters. His son William married 
Helen Hogg of Hillsboro, daugh- 

/ A^ u. 




ter of Jas. Hogg, a Scotch gentle- 
man who had emigrated from "John 
0' Groats House" the most north- 
ern habitable point of the island of 
Great Britain. Another daughter, 
Robina, became the wife of Judge 
Norwood of H., and her descend- 
ants are now among the Bing- 
hams, Webbs, Huskes, Norwoods, 
Mickles and others of our best 
citizens. Another daughter, Eliza- 
beth, married Mr. Huske of Fay- 
etteville. The Hoggs removed to 
Kentucky, changing their name 
to Alven: Mrs. Helen Hooper was 
early left a widow with three sons, 
William, James and Thomas. She 
removed to Chapel Hill soon after 
the establishment of the Univer- 
sity, to educate her sons, and set- 
tled in the house lately occupied 
by Prof. DeBerniere Hooper. Dr. 
Caldwell was then President of 
the University, and a widower. 
He married the young widow, and 
removed his residence from his 
own house (now occupied by Prof. 
Gore) to hers, where he lived long 
and usefully for the best interests 
of North Carolina, carrying the 
University successfully and hon- 
orably, and with increasing reputa- 
tion through its critical and hazard- 
ous first years. He died in 1833. 
Dr. and Mrs. Caldwell had 
no children, but he was a fath- 
er to her sons, whom he edu- 
cated and advanced in life to 
the best of his ability. Mrs. Cald- 
well's son William became one of 

the Professors here, and was wide- 
ly known through life and hon- 
ored in various Institutions of 
learning in both North and South 
Carolina — a scholar and writer of 
unusual depth and elegance, a 
distinguished Divine of the Bap- 
tist church, a very excellent and 
successful teacher. He married 
Frances Pollock Jones, a daughter 
of Col. Edward Jones, of Rock 
Rest in Chatham county, to whom 
we will presently refer more par- 
ticularly. James and Thomas 
Hooper settled in Fayetteville, 
James married a Miss Broadfoot, 
and Thomas married a Miss Don- 
aldson. Both were childless. 
George and Thomas Hooper who 
came with their brother Wm. from 
Boston, settled also in Wilming- 
ton. Thomas died without issue. 
George married Katharine Mac- 
laine, daughter of Archibald Mac- 
lain, ea man prominent in Wil- 
mington at tnat day among our 
Revolutionary patriots, and one 
of the first Trustees of the Uni- 
versity. A tablet to his memory 
is now in Memorial Hall. They 
had one son, Archibald Maclaine 
Hooper, who was the father of 
our late Professor and was a man of 
fine literary taste and ability, well 
known as a writer and valued con- 
tributor on historical subjects to 
various journals. He married 
Charlotte, daughter of Col. John 
DeBerniere, an English gentleman 
of noble French Huguenot des- 
cent who came to America in the 



latter part of the last century. 
We will trace his fortunes. 

Col. DeBerniere, a commission- 
ed officer in the English army, had 

receiving the sobriquet of the 
"elegant young Irishman," and 
making many friends among dis- 
tinguished men who adhered to 

married near Belfast, Ireland, Miss \ him through life. He also, as be- 

Ann Jones, daughter of Conway 
Jones, of Rosstrevorand sister of 
Edward Jones, who afterwards be- 

came a young Irishman, ran 
through all his money— besides 
making love to a beautiful girl, 

came State Solicitor for North | whose father on prudential 
Carolina. The Jones family de- ; ! grounds forbid the match, and 
rive in a direct line from the cele- \ who died, literally it was said, of 
brated English Bishop, Jeremy a broken heart. Jones and 'his 
Taylor, and many of them now ! brother-in-law 'removed to Wil- 
occupy places of honor in Eng- \ mington, N. C, and finally settled 
land - themselves in Chatham county. 

When Edward Jones resolved ! Jones turned lawyer and soon be- 
to come to America his brother- | came prominent, as all men of 

in-law and sister were also in 
fluenced to emigrate. He was 
then a gay young Irishman 
with perhaps no serious views 
as to his life in a new country, 
whereas Col. DeBerniere was the 
father of a family and had al- 
ready achieved distinction. The 
very day after he had resigned his 
commission in the army, (before 
it had been received at head- 

birth and breeding were apt to be, 
took a leading part at the bar, 
and became very popular, and as 
aforesaid, was for years Solicitor 
for the State. He married Mary, 
eldest daughter of Peter Mallett, 
of Fayetteville, and settled at 
"Rock-rest" a handsome residence 
in Chatham, which in his hands 
was renowned for hospitality and 
generous living. He had a large 

quarters) he was appointed by the , family, and besides undertook the 

English Government, Governorof 
Canada, his wish to come to 
America having been known. As 
his resignation had been made, he 
thought it would be dishonorable 
to accept this office. 

They came first, it appears, to 
Philadelphia, then the metropolis 
of America, and there Edward 
Jones engaging in business.achiev- 
ed a brilliant success in society, 

charge of a number of orphans, 
children of his friends, bringing 
them up as his own. Among 
these befriended ones were the 
gallant Captain Johnston Blakely 
who commanded the "Wasp" and 
was lost at sea in 1814. Another 
was the late E. J. Hale, of New 
York, formerly and for many years 
editor of the North Carolina Fay- 
etteville Observer, a man whose 



life and character would do honor 
to any State or City. Col. Jones' 
own children have all added honor 
to his name, all being distinguished 
for worth and intelligence. Of 
his sons Dr. J. B. Jones, now of 
Charlotte, but for years formerly 
resident in Chapel Hill, lived 
longest, and is now best known as 
one of the most successful and 
honored physicians in the State, 
who brought to his profession and 
concentrated on it a fine and dis- 
criminating genius, and acquire- 
ments that would have equally 
secured his pre-eminence in any 
other of the learned professions. 
Col. Jones' daughters were all 
women of rare virtue, beauty and 
accomplishments. Betsy married 
John Eccles, of Fayetteville. 
Charlotte married Edward Har- 
din, of Pittsboro. Frances mar- 
ried Dr. Wm. Hooper, of Chapel 
Hill, as aforesaid. Louisa mar- 
ried Hon. Abram Rencher, of 
Pittsboro. This lady, now residing 
in Chapel Hill, and her brother 
Dr. Jones, are sole survivors of 
Col. Jones' family. 

To turn to the DeBernieres, 
who fixed themselves on Deep 
River, not far from Rock-rest. It 
is easy to imagine how emigrants 
of gentle blood and easy circum- 
stances in the old world must 
have suffered when set down in 
the back-woods of America one 
hundred years ago. The family 
tradition is that Mrs. DeBerniere 

really pined away in her new home, 
unable to bear up under the pro- 
longed homesickness for " Ross- 
trevor " in Ireland, for the dear 
faces there, and for the luxuries 
and elegances to which she had 
been brought up. After her death 
their house was burned down, and 
with it were lost all the family 
furniture, relics, and valuables 
brought over with them. The sons 
died early ; the daughters married, 
and finally they all removed to 
Charleston, S. C, where the name 
DeBerniere is now lost in that of 
McCrady. One daughter only 
married in North Carolina, Char- 
lotte, who, as aforesaid, married 
A. Maclaine Hooper, of Wilming- 
ton ; and here we return to the 
immediate family of our late Pro- 
fessor. There were many children 
of this marriage — four dying in 
infancy or early youth — five sur- 
viving to maturity : 

George, the eldest, is yet living 
in Opelika, Ala., greatly beloved 
and honored. He married Caroline 
Mallett, sister of Dr. Wm. P. Mal- 
lett, of Chapel Hill — -a woman of 
singular beauty, and excellence of 

John DeBerniere, subject of 
this sketch. 

Louisa, deceased, married first 
to Rev. Daniel Cobia, of Charles- 
ton, S. C, and second to Rev. 
John Roberts, then a Professor in 
our University, and now of New 
York city. 


Johnston J., formerly editor of 
the Montgomery (Ala.) Mail, au- 
thor of Simon Suggs and other 
widely read humorous sketches — 
who died a member of President 
Davis' cabinet, in the second year 
of the late civil war — a man of 
decided genius and high character. 
Mary, who died at the age of 
i8--agirl of remarkable beauty, 
wit, grace, and goodness. 

Mr. A. M. Hooper and his wife 
began life in the possession of a 
good estate, which they lost while 
their children were still young. 
Turn over the pages of McRee's 
Life of Judge Iredell, and it is 
plain to see how fortunes were 
made and lost in North Carolina 
in the generation immediately 
succeeding the Revolution. The 
Hoopers and Maclaines were 
prominent in society in those days, 
and to be "in society" meant to 
live generously and profusely even ; 
while they felt their ground slip- 
ping from under their feet. Few j 
were the patriot families who 
emerged from that struggle with 
any but the remnants of their 
fortunes, and fewer still were the 
children of those patriots who 
were able to retrieve what had 
been lost. Chaos is no place to 
impress lessons of thrift, and 
steady industry. They are hap- 
piest at such epochs who have 
always lain low. 

"Qui jacet in terra, non habet 
unde cadat." 


Elizabeth, daughter of Wm. 
Hooper the signer and consequent- 
ly first cousin of A. Maclaine 
Hooper, was now the childless 
widow of Henry Watters, and in 
easy circumstances, residing in 
Hillsboro. She lived there many 
years honored and beloved for 
many virtues, but especially for 
her wide spread benevolence and 
acts of charity. She insisted on 
defraying the expenses at the 
University of her young kinsman, 
John Deberniere, who had already K $„ 
given proofs of talent and indus- 
try at school in Wilmington. He 
graduated here in 1831 with high- 
est honors, being assigned the 
Latin Salutatory. Among his 
classmates were many who after- 
wards became distinguished in 
their various walks in life: Hon. 
Chancellor Calvin Jones, of Ten- 
nessee ; Judge James Grant, of 
Iowa; Rev. William Spear, of 
Reading, Pa. ; Hon. Giles Mebane, 
of Caswell, Co., N. C. ; the late 
Rev. Thos. Owen, of North Caro- 
lina ; the late Hon. Jacob Thomp- 
son, of Memphis; the late Hon. 
James M. Williamson, of Mem- 

Mr. Hooper having chosen the 
profession of teaching, first'taught 
in "Trinity School," established 
mear Raleigh under the auspices of 
the Episcopal Diocese. In a few 
years he was elected to serve in 
the University, first as Tutor, then 
as Professor of Modern Lan- 



Rev. Dr. Wm. Hooper (son of 
Mrs. Caldwell) was then Profes'sor 
of Ancient Languages, with a fine 
family of children grown and grow- 
ing up around him. Among them 
his young relative soon found his 
life's partner, and marriedhis love- 
ly young kinswoman, Mary Eliza- 
beth Hooper, December 30, 1837. 
Forty-eight years of wedded hap- 
piness have, been theirs, secured 
by constant love, and by devotion 
to duty, and enhanced by all the 
charms that sympathetic tastes and 
principles in culture and religion 
can give to life. Four children of 
this union, with the widow, now 
survive : Helen, widow of the late 
Jas. Wills, of Chapel Hill ; Fanny, 
wife of Spier Whitaker, Esq., 
of Raleigh; Julia, wife of Profes- 
sor Graves, of the University, and 
Mr. Henry Hooper, of Edenton, 
who married Miss Jessie Wright, 
of that town. 

The life of a man of letters, and 
especially of one who devotes him- 
self to teaching, must ordinarily be 
uneventful. Prof. Hooper's was no 
exception. He remained at the 
University till .1848, when resign- 
ing his Professorship, which was 
then of the Latin Language and 
Literature, he removed to Warren 
county, where he opened a private 
school for boys. In i860 he took 
charge of the Fayetteville Female 
Academy. In 1866 he was solic- 
ited to be principal of the Wilson 
Female Institute, and there he re- 

mained nine years. On the reor- 
ganization of the University in 
1875, being elected to the chair of 
the Greek and French Languages, 
he returned to Chapel Hill, after 
an absence of twenty-seven years, 
rejoicing to assist in the rehabili- 
tation of his Alma Mater— devot- 
ing the last years of his life to her 
service with all the generous en- 
thusiasm of his early days. 

In all these changes Prof. Hoop- 
er's record will be found unchang- 
ing, except as he advanced with 
the times in the knowledge of his 
profession, and as his studies still 
further enlarged and refined his 

As a scholar, his fine and pene- 
trating intellect took great delight 
in thoroughness and accuracy of 
detail. Probably no man in North 
Carolina possessed such an inti- 
mate and critical acquaintance with 
the genius of the French language, 
its structure and peculiarities. His 
familial ity with French literature 
was unequalled. In the Greek and 
Latin he was nearly as well versed. 
His fine taste and sense of beauty 
prevented him ever from sinking 
into the mere scholastic pedant. 
He was a keen critic, a judicious 
commentator, a safe guide. Few 
men have equalled him as a judge 
of accurate and elegant English. 
He was often sought to deliver 
addresses on public occasions 
which his characteristic modesty 
induced him to shun. 



Among the young ladies of his 
schools he was regarded with en- 
thusiastic admiration and devotion. 
Always and everywhere the per- 
fect gentleman in his address, it 
was once said of him that he had 
probably never had a thought even 
that he needed to be ashamed of. 
His g. ntle and generou 5 manliness, 
his chivalrous courtesy and his 
delicate consideration for others 
rende/ed him peculiarly fit to be 
the guardian of young girls. 

Among men— by his colleagues 
in the University, and among the 
students, he was held in such rev- 
erent affection as men must ever 
pay to one who walks visibly in 
the footsteps of the Great Teacher. 
With all his courtesy and mildness 
he was an excellent disciplinarian, 
always firm and perfectly fearless 
in the discharge of duty. He was 
eminently a man to be relied upon. 
The delicacy and elegance of his 
personal appearance would have 
misled any man who presumed to 
infer anything of effeminacy or 
weakness in him. A flash of satiric 
wit, keen as a rapier, would occa- 
sionally show how strongly his 
high spirit and discernment of folly 
were kept in check by his charity. 
His sense of humor imparted a fine 
relish to his conversation— a trait 
still more marked in his gifted 
brother Johnston. 

Few appeals made to Professor 
Hooper for either public or private 
benefactions were disregarded, for 

his liberality was bounded only by 
his means. The poor and the 
sick were especially the objects of 
his compassion. One of the last 
times he was able to be out he 
made the occasion of c llingto see 
a sick colored neighbor, carrying 
him aid. 

"Perhaps no feature in his de- 
voted life was more to be honored, 
as an example to the young, than 
his pious care of his parents, who 
made their home with him for 
nearly 30 years." 

The crown of a life so devoted 
to duty, of a character so lovely 
was a lowly and ardent piety. Prof. 
Hooper was for many years a de- 
vout worshiper in the Episcopal 
Church, where his usefulness and 
liberality were very great, and 
where his punctual attendance and 
delight in her services were an ex- 

An end must come to all things. 
Our beloved and honored friend 
had passed his 74th .birthday, and 
anticipated the close of his work 
with an unfeigned composure. His 
health had been failing for a year 
or more. Last fall, finding him- 
self unable to perform his duties, 
he resigned his chair in the Uni- 
versity amid wide-spread regret. 
Surrounded by loving wife and 
daughters, he trod the common 
road, patient, cheerful and loving, 
to the last hour, sustained and 
soothed through all the pangs of 
dissolving nature by an unfaltering 



trust in the Redeemer of mankind. 
The end came towards daydawn 
on Saturday morning, January 23, 
and he passed out of life as he had 
lived, gently and calmly. 

A long procession of the stu- 
dents and Faculty of the Univer- 
sity, and citizens of Chapel Hill, 
formed at his late residence on 
Monday 25th, conducing his re- 
mains to the depot, whence they 
were conveyed to Raleigh. After 
the impressive services at Christ 
Church, by Rev. Robt. Strange, 

(in the absence of the rector,) 
the interment was made at 
Oakwood Cemetery, in a lot on 
"Chapel Hill Circle," adjoining 
that of Gov. Swain and not far 
from Judge Battle's. There these 
old friends and neighbors, col- 
leagues in office, and faithful ser- 
vants of North Caro'ina, now rest 
together, waiting for the resurrec- 
tion from the dead and the life of 
the world to come. 

Chapel Hill, Feb. 16, 1886. 


Everything betokens a glorious 
future for our country. Liberty 
and peace beam on us and smile 
upon us like the rays of a sum- 
mer's sun. The hum of machinery, 
the shriek of the engine, the clink 
of money all say progress and 
prosperity. The electric flash in 
the twinkling of an eye sends a 
message from ocean to ocean ; steel 
bands join our great metropolis, at 
whose wharfs and dockyards the 
tempestuous waves of the Atlantic 
" roll in perpetual flow," to the 
Queen of the Pacific, where the 
mighty billows of the great Pacific 
continuously beat on California's 

The World says onward and in 
the very madness of success car- 
ries a maelstrom threatening dis- 

memberment # and ruin. This is 
the Mormon question and its de- 
cision will decide whether man can 
worship God according to the dic- 
tates of his own conscience, and 
whether liberty amounts to any- 
thing even in this " land of the 
free and home of the brave." 

Did you ever think of it? Did 
you ever dream of what misrepre- 
sentation, persecution and cruelty 
they are subject to ? Oh, no. They 
are Mormons, and that is sufficient 
reason for their property being- 
confiscated, for their being exiled 
and finally being driven from the 
face of the earth. You read only 
their enemies' side of the question, 
never read a Mormon defense or 
even an appeal for justice towards 
them. Well, then you can't be ex- 



pected to regard them with other 
than an evil eye. The Edmunds 
bill has passed the Senate; it's go- 
ing to pass the House and the 
President is going to sign it. 

It prohibits the Mormons to es- 
tablish their religion; it prohibits 
the free exercise of their religion; 
it prohibits their assembling peace- 
ably even to worship God, and it 
prohibits them to vote; it places 
all their property, public and pri- 
vate, in the hands of commission- 
ers, thus virtually confiscating it, 
and it actually forbids marrying, 
even to the fourth cousin. Amend- 
ment one to the Constitution for- 
bids any restriction on religion, the 
free exercise thereof, or the free- 
dom of speech. It also forbids 
any restrictions on the right of the 
people peaceably to assemble. The 
fourth amendment guarantees the 
security of the people in their per- 
sons, houses, papers and effects, 
while the fifteenth amendment, 
section one, gives all people the 
right to vote. The Edmunds bill, 
however, pays no attention to all 
this; it runs rough-shod over the 
Constitution. This bill, not only 
unconstitutional, is the beginning j 
of class legislation, is a shame on 
liberty and an outrage on a free 
people. The objections against it 
would make volumes. It is just 
as reasonable, fair, honorable and 
right to crush the Roman Catho- 
lic, Episcopal or any other church, 
as to crush the Mormons. This is 

the beginning of religious bigotry 
j and persecutions, such as France 
witnessed under Louis XIV., such 
as the Christians suffered in the 
days of ancient Rome. The Mor- 
mons unite Church and State, but 
if you condemn them you must 
curse England with her established 
church, hurl to destruction Roman 
; Catholicism and the Greek church 
which have united them for hun- 
: dreds of years, and damn with 
eternal damnation the Jews who 
kept them united from the begin- 
ning of time till Rome crushed 
them forever. 
The Mormons are abused, berated 
1 and cursed for practising polygamy. 
The Jews practiced it — were they 
outcasts? Far from it, for they 
were God's own people, and handed 
down the grandest and noblest re- 
ligion ever given to the world. 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, David and 
Solomon practiced it, and David 
was a man after God's own heart, 
and Solomon was endowed with 
the greatest wisdom ever bestowed 
on man, and yet he had seven 
hundred wives. Brigham Young 
had only seventy, and were polyg- 
amy a sin and hell divided into 
grades, Solomon would to-day be 
suffering ten times the pangs of 
Brigham Young on this score 
alone. We pretend to venerate 
and love the prophets, when we 
denounce as brutal, sensual and 
degraded the very thing they and 
their people practiced? 

Does Christ say one word against 

1 7 8 


polygamy? Not one. St. Paul 
hints it's wrong, but St. Paul in 

dressed in fashionable indecency, 
fifty half naked ballet girls on the 

first Corinthians, fifth and sev- i stage. But it's the way of the 

enth chapters, writes directly 
against any marriage. This from ! 
the Bible is good evidence and I 
now let us compare this " centre 
of degradation " with the rest of 
the world. 

Nearly every day we read some 
sensational special of a young wo- 
man's fall, her desperation and 
despair; on to the bagnio, and 

then a merry march to hell. 

That's the history. In the next 
column we read a sensational ac- 
count of a forced marriage to a 
debauched woman of a gay se- 
dueer moved by the persuasive el- 
oquence of a cocked pistol in the 
hands of an irate father. Still 
.another: woman's lost honor 
avenged, seducer shot by a half- 
crazed brother; another and an- 
other, and so it goes. On the 
next page a glowing account of a 
French ball — women in tights, 
wine in plenty, crowd drunk, es- 
pecially the women, scores of ar- 
rests, whole thing a blot and dis- 
grace to a civilized people. But^ 
it's all right, it's the way of the 
world, and whisper it softly, it's 

world. Still one more from Wash- 
ington this time; grand reception 
at the Executive Mansion, "lady" 
of the legation with almost no 
clothing above her waist creates a 
sensation ; daughter of a promi- 
nent official with bust exposed 
and one limb protected only by a 
silk stocking. But it's the way of 
the world. 

Did you ever read of a seduc- 
tion, a divorce, an act of adultery, 
a row in a brothel, a Bacchanalian 
ball, indecent dressing of women 
in high life, in fine anything after 
this manner occurring in Salt Lake 
City? No you have not, for they 
do not occur. If they did you 
would hear of them; they would 
be scattered all over this country, 
for we hate them so cordially as to 
publish their evil deeds and none 
of their good ones. There is not 
even a brutliel in Salt Lake City, 
and when Governor Murray 
charged that the Mormons had 
hired prostitutes to seduce United 
States officials, he admitted that 
the Mormons had to send to San 
Francisco and Wyoming to get 
them, had to send to our ozvn peo- 

not in Utah. Again at the Met 

ropolitan Opera House or Acad- \ pie to hire them; and still our 
eray of Music, opera in full blast, | most outrageous society lifts loud- 
Astors, Vanderbilts, ■ Goelets, est it's hypocritical voice and 
Rhinelanders, Stewarts, Lorillards, | points longest it's trembling fin- 
et cetera, leaders of the " upper I ger, crying, Shame ! Shame ! 

ten " crowd the house, women 

"O, consistency, thou art a jewel." 



Sustain this bill, pursue this 
course, go on with your cruelty 
and persecution, follow in the 
wake of ancient Rome and be 
brought like the seven hilled city 
to desolation and woe. Stamp 
out the rights of man, destroy lib- 
erty, blot out religion, and some 
day a blackened desert will mark 
our ruins, our star-spangled ban- 
ner will be furled forever, the 

eagle pinions will no longer soar 
over the beautiful hills and valleys 
of America and Liberty's Goddess 
will fall on the grave that contains 
our remains and shriek, and her 
wail shall be heard from ocean to 
ocean, as, sobbing and weeping 
and weeping and sobbing, she 
mourns, Lost, Lost, forever. 

"Henry Howard." 


" This nineteenth century," says 
Victor Hugo, " belongs to wom- 
an." For ages, considered man's 
inferior and treated as his slave, 
she has within the last half cen- 
tury" garnered many priceless 
sheaves" — the right to be heard 
in her own defense ; the right to 
act as guardian for her children ; 
the right to higher education ; the 
right to the lecture room and the 
right to the profession of medi- 
cine. Unsatisfied with all these, 
she to-day knocks upon the doors 
of our Legislation Halls for ad- 
mission to the political arena. 

The ballot is a trust ; and each 
voter is a trustee. The greater 
the number of trustees, and the 
more enlightened they are the 
securer will be our institutions. 

Our country is to-day fifty-five 
millions strong. Thousands of 
the sons of Ham, who know as 
little about the sacredness of the 
ballot as they do about the He- 
brew language, are granted the 
right of suffrage, and yet nearly 
half of the enlightenment of the 
land is excluded from the ballot, 
because, forsooth, woman, as some 
men think, has no place in poli- 
tics. Shall we let ignorance and 
corruption reign, while enlighten- 
ment and virtue sit bound in chains 
forged by our own hands? No, the 
election of Grover Cleveland pro- 
claims to the world that fraud and 
corruption m u s t abdicate the 

Senator Hoar has said that no 
man can argue against this ques- 



tion ten minutes without arguing 
against the fundamental princi- 
ples of our government. Before 
the bloody scenes of the Revolu- 
tion, before we had drunk deep of 
liberty's cup, when our "Thirteen 
Colonies" felt sensibly the hand 
of British oppression, it was de- 
clared that taxation without repre- 
sentation was tyranny. It was for 
such principles as rhis that the 
sons of America gave up their 
best blood upon the field of bat- 
tle. And sp long as stone and 
marble shall last, monuments will 
proclaim to the traveller the glori- 
ous achievements of 1776. Yet, 
unmindful as it would seem of 
these facts, we close our ears to 
the cries of thousands of our 
property holders for representa- 

It is held that to admit woman 
to the ballot would unsex her, 
destroy her chastity and sever the 
family ties; furthermore, that the 
better class would not take part 
in the elections. Woman suffrage 
has been tried in Wyoming and 
parts of Canada and we quote a 
distinguished Judge of Wyoming 
on this subject. Says he : " A 
larger proportion of women vote 
than of men. We have no trouble 
from the presence of bad women 
about the polls. The women 
manifest a great deal of interest 
in their candidates and often de- 
feat bad nominations. And in no 
case have we known the family 

ties or domestic relations to be 

Others say that ladies would be 
insulted at the polls. Such has 
not been and would not be the 
case. Though we have many 
national vices which, like an adder 
seems to be poisoning the very 
life-blood of our body politic, 
though there may be some men 
who are fit subjects for a Satanic 
Majesty, yet American manhood 
has not, as yet, reached that stage 
of degradation in which it fails to 
respect the virtues of true woman- 
hood. Do the most rude men 
dare insult woman on the cars, at 
theatres, or in public hotels ? Then 
why claim that American men 
would allow women to be insulted 
at the polls ? If they were entitled 
to vote they would be protected 
there as elsewhere. The vilest 
ruffian, who, under the present sys- 
tem might give birth to a riot, 
would suffer his mother or sister 
to be insulted by no man. 

We live in an age of new inven- 
tions, new plans and new methods. 
The fact that we have never tried 
woman suffrage is no proof that it 
will not work well. Only a few 
decades ago and co-education had 
but few advocates, and doubtless 
they were regarded as innovaters 
on public opinion and common 
sense. Step by step it has gained 
supporters, and to-day numbers of 
the first colleges and universities 
of our land have opened their 



doors to both sexes. The plan 
works well. And we may expect 
that ere another half century has 
been recorded with the past, Car- 
olina's fair daughters will be per- 
mitted to grace these classic halls. 
Others talk of woman's emo- 
tional nature. "She would be too 
easily led into rash legislation." 
Would to God that men possessed 
more of the emotional or some- 
thing to make them more careful 
in the selection of candidates. 
They often sacrifice honor and 
• principle for power, and in their 
mad greed for gain, bring disgrace 
upon mother, sister, and wife. 
Woman, unlike man, when the 
wandering boy has fallen into the 
lowest depths of sin and degrada- i 
tion, when he stands uncared for, 
unrespected and unpitied, is ever 
ready to receive him to her bosom 
with a kiss of affection. Can it 
be that a being who has jeopard- | 
ized her life for her daughter, | 
who is filled with such pity, love 
and devotion even for her fallen 
boy, would dare legislate rashly? 
No ; that God-given law which 
exists between woman and her 
offspring would ever make her 
course in politics corrective. 

The questions presented to the 
statesmen of to-day are in a great 
measure moral, questions the right | 
solution of which requires the ex- 
ercise of conscience in determin- 
ing as to principle. Woman has 
been man's great helpmate in all 
the reforms of the past. 

'Twas woman's tender heart 
that first caught the inspiration 
from liberty's flame and urged 
man to deeds of daring. When a 
crusade was to be fought woman's 
hand placed the red cross upon 
his breast as she bade him fight 
for that sacred cause. In what- 
ever sphere we look for the good 
J deeds of men, there we find the 
j sun of woman's genius and good- 
j ness shedding its rays upon his 
J every effort. If woman's influence 
i has proved so beneficent in all 
; past reforms, why not let it be 
felt in the great political reform 
that is need to be made? 

Whatever has been attempted, 
by either sex alone, has in some 
degree failed ; and the sex thus 
attempting has, in some measure, 
deterioated. We have only to en- 
ter the field of Grecian art. It was 
the work of man's hands alone. 
And what modern lady of modern 
modesty could have walked the 
streets of some Grecian cities? 
We find the same deplorable con- 
dition of affairs in literature. Be- 
fore woman was permitted to 
wield the pen, when man alone 
was a laborer in this field, when 
woman was rarely allowed to at- 
tend the theatre, when but few 
women were readers, we find lit- 
erature filled with vulgar thoughts- 
which we dare not read in our par- 
lors to modern daughters. The 
best work that was ever done was 
where man and woman worked 



together. Behold society, the only 
sphere wherein woman's authori- 
ty may be considered equal to 
man's in every respect — the great 
school wherein character-forming 
principles are instilled — the cradle 
in which young thought is rocked 
until it is able to go forth upon 
the world. And who dares deny 
that at has done more to deter- 
mine the moral sense of the age 
than even the church? It would 
to-day spurn from its threshold 
men whom the church keeps as 
communicants in good standing. 
There are those in politics to-day 

considered great, whom you dare 
not invite into your parlors. 

So, we say, let woman enter the 
political arena. Let the star of 
her influence shed its light upon 
the dark and direful deeds of men. 
Give her an opportunity by the 
ballot, to close the dram-shops of 
our land, to dry the tears of bro- 
ken-hearted mothers, to restore 
peace in a thousand once happy 
homes, to clear our prisons of 
criminals, and to save from drunk- 
ard's graves thousands of the 
young men of our land. 

Woman's Friend. 


February 24, 1886. 
Editor University Magazine : • 

A great deal of comment and 
bitter criticism has been recently 
•called forth in the State press by 
some manly letters in the State 
Chronicle, from Mr. Walter Page, 
of New York. I am aware of the 
fact that perhaps nine out of ev- 
ery ten who may read this article 
will turn up their noses at the 
designation "manly." But with 
however much scorn they may 
treat it, I feel well assured of the 
tact that it did require a consider- 
able degree of courage to stand 
up and speak what he believed to 
be the truth, when he knew a large 
majority of his readers would not 

dwell long enough on what he 
said to see whether it was true or 
not. That he spoke from a feel- 
ing of spite I cannot believe, when 
I reflect that, he intends to spend 
the greater part of his life in this 
State, and for that reason would 
not be likely to say anything re- 
pulsive to its citizens, unless it was 
honest conviction. 

I am not by any means ready 
to subscribe to all that Mr. Page 
asserts, but I really believe there 
is more truth in what he says than 
' many of us are willing to admit. 
I think one would infer this from 
the character of the letters against 
him. We can't help thinking of 
; the old adage: "It's the truth 



that stings." The criticism against 
Mr. Page has, in a great measure 
been of a character that defends 
North Carolina because it is North 
Carolina, and not because of any 
inherent demerit in what he says. 
" Why, listen at this fellow! He 
ought to have more respect for 
our rulers. The traitor! I'll 
scortch him." This is the spirit that 
seems to animate them. Now if 
this man has made wild assertions, 
statements that will probably in- 
duce in the minds of the young 
people of the State an erroneous 
impression of the sentiments and 
principles that have ruled us in 
the past, why does not some level- 
headed man rise up and show us 
wherein he has erred? Let some 
person do this, not in the style of 
the man who has a weak case and 
feels the necessity of using thun- 
der where he has nothing more 
effective, but like a man who feels 
confident in the strength of his po- 
sition. Gentlemen, ridicule is not ! 
argument. If Mr. Page is wrong, 
don't ridicule him for it, don't en- 
deavor to make the people of his 
own State hate him simply be- 
cause he has the manhood to ex- 
press his honest opinions, but 
grant him the honesty of his con- 
victions, reply to him in a gener- 
ous manner, and not in such a 
way as will make us put our faith 
in the side that acts the fairer. 

It seems to me that the treat- ; 
ment Mr. Page has received vio- i 

lates a great axiom, viz. : that 
truth can be found only by an 
impartial hearing of all sides. How 
are we to determine the best 
method, if we do not allow a free 
I discussion of present ones? If 
science had never permitted wild 
' theories to be advanced, chemist- 
ry and astronomy would never 
have exceeded the limits of alche- 
my and astrology. If the tenets of 
■ Martin Luther had been crushed 
because, forsooth, they differed 
from those of his ancestors, the 
I religious world would be an au- 
tocracy and a farce. If the idea 
of government entertained by the 
revolutionary statesmen had been 
rejected because they ran in chan- 
nels widely divergent from the 
streams of English poetical 
thought, the United States would 
be a monarchy instead of a repub- 
lic. If the voice of Josiah Turner, 
had been silenced because it was 
directed against existing affairs, 
how would the work which he 
did have been accomplished? In- 
deed, how can anything be done if 
the facts of only one side are to 
be considered ? Not long ago a 
State editor drew upon himself 
the very harshest criticism, and 
was dubbed with most ungenerous 
epithets for simply publishing the 
condition of a department of the 
State government which he wished 
to be improved. Why, it looks 
like we are getting a sort of polit- 
ical aristocracy among us, if pub- 

1 84 


lie acts can't be criticised without 
creating all this uproar. If it is 
true that our leaders are dead to 
the important question of the day 

any yet made. He very properly 
accords Mr. Page entire sincerity 
in his views. Those who have 
beeh vilifying. Mr. P. would do 

we cannot find it out except some- | well to adopt this spirit. There 
body makes the charge ; and if it | is one section of the letter, how- 
is not true, it will cause no harm I ever, which he does not answer, 
for the charge to be made. On the j The following clause will repre- 
contrary, it will rather do good, \ sent that part referred to : "Since 
for a proper discussion of such ! time began no man nor woman 

matters adds another to the 
sources from which our youth may 
learn their State's history. 

When I had written this much, 
I came upon Rev. Jno. R. Brooks' 
reply to Mr. Page's letter. I am 
glad to see that he uses the very 
manner, of reply that the writer 
has been favoring. It is a more 
complete and successful reply than 

who lived there has ever written 
a book that has taken a place in 
the permanent literature of the 
country." This is a question that 
might occupy the attention of the 
press of the State with profit, no 
less to themselves than to their 
readers. Who denies the charge,, 
or who affirms it? 

F. Airplay. 



Perhaps it is natural for one 
who is sensibly deficient in any 
desirable quality or attribute, to 
magnify its excellency. It may 
be natural, also, for one's own de- 
ficiency to cause him to come to the 
unwarrantable conclusion that all 
others are like him in that respect. 
To use Dr. Talmage's figure, how 
the world looks depends upon the 
kind of spectacles a man wears. 
However these things may be, it 

seems to the writer that there is 
a marked lack of the poetic in the 
make-up of the average American 
citizen, or rather, that the poetic 
that is in every man's nature lies 
dormant in the American. By 
the poetic,. I do not mean simply 
a fondness for the jingle of meas- 
ured verse, but a love of the beau- 
tiful and sublime ; an apprecia- 
tion of all the emotions and pas- 
sions of the human heart, all the 



virtues of the human character. 
Whether there is a greater lack of 
it among us than other people of 
like advancement, I am not pre- 
pared to say. I am persuaded 
there is. At any rate, any one 
who gives the subject more than a 
moments thought, will see that 
we are not a poetic people. True, 
there are exceptions here and 
there, but why should they be the 
exceptions? Why should there be 
so few who are in deep sympathy 
with Nature, so few who are melt- 
ed by the tender or thrilled by the 
heroic in human character? This 
faculty is not the birthright of 
any particular class, not Fortune's 
gift to a favored few ; but like the 
light of the sun, the freshness of 
the morning air, the beauty of the 
flower, the majesty of the storm, 
is the common heritage of all. In 
every man's soul, it may lie deep, 
there is at least an incipient love 
of Nature, a gem of the poetic 
that, under proper care and cul- 
ture, will spring forth and bloom 
into beauteous flowers, shedding a 
sweet perfume and making glad 
all who come near— that will distil 
the very dews of heaven to 
strengthen the weak, cheer the 
despondent and revive the dying. 
Like all things that are of abiding 
worth, it belongs to all. 

But what is the worth of it after 
all? How much money is to be 
made by it? We should expect 
this question in America where 

the prevailing tendency is to 
measure everything by its worth 
in dollars and cents, to think of 
money as an evil, instead of a 
means to higher thinking, nobler 
living. John Stewart Mill is 
quoted as saying about a quarter \ 
of a century ago, that the chief 
aim of the American woman 
seemed to be to breed dollar get- 
ters. If he were living to-day, I 
fear he would have little cause to 
change his opinion. There are 
things that cannot be measured in 
the terms of things that perish by 
their using, and among them we 
may put love of Nature. It in- 
tensifies every other joy ten-fold, 
save that of a good conscience' 
and when all others are gone, it 
furnishes a joy of its own that no 
care can corrode, no reverses take 

" To him who in the love of Nature holds 

Communion with her visible forms, she 
A various language ; for his gayer hours 

She has a voice of gladness and a smile 
And eloquence of beauty, and she glides 

Into his darker musings with a mild 
And healing sympathy, that steals away 

Their sharpness, ere he is aware." 

Furthermore, love of Nature, 
communing with her, fills the 
imagination with pure images, the 
soul with noble emotions, driving 
out all that is sordid and base. 
God has lavished his beauty upon 
the earth beneath, upon the heav- 
ens above, and he intends it shall 
help us to a higher and better life. 

1 86 


Then let us live more with Na- 
ture ; let us go alone into the silent 
wood and along the winding 
stream; let us climb the majestic 
mountains," God's thoughts piled 
up," and be filled with emotions 
of their grandeur; let us stand by 
the "merry-sounding sea," "God's 
thoughts spread out," and be 
thrilled with the sublimity of its 
boundless expanse ; let us 

" Go forth under the open sky and list 

To Nature's teachings, while from all 
around — 

Earth and her waters and the depths of air — 
Comes a still voice." 

Nature, if importuned, will re- 
veal to us her marvelous treasures 
of beauty and gladness. She may 
be won, but, like a modest maiden, 
to be won she must be wooed. In 
your wooing, it will be well to 
take with you those to whom she 
has already made herself known ;. 
our great poets. Chiefest among 
Nature's poets is justly ranked 
Wordsworth, "the poets' poet." 

R. B. J. 


The Capital Club at Raleigh is 
going to be a source of injury to 
many of the young men of that 
place. Their club house, which 
is situated just in front of the 
capitol, is a large brick building, 
handsomely furnished. It con- 
tains, in addition to a parlor and 
other necessary apartments, bar 
and billiard rooms, where the mem- 
bers can drink and play billiards 
at pleasure. Is it right that temp- 
tations should thus be thrown in 
the paths of young men ? Suppose 
a young man of temperate habits 
should join this Club. He visits 
the Club house often. He sees 
his friends drinking around him. 
He becomes used to the sight, and 

begins to think that there is no 
harm in taking an occasional dram 
with a friend. Just such thoughts 
as these lead to drunkenness. 
Take for instance a young man,, 
inclined to be wild, whose parents 
are trying hard to keep from 
drinking. Would he dare keep 
intoxicating liquors at their house ? 
No. Would he dare go to the bar 
room for them? No, because he is 
too proud to visit such a degraded 
place, and moreover he would not 
like to drink in public because the 
report, that he has been dissipa- 
ting in this h on earth, might 

reach his parents. In a state of 
despair he asks what shall I do ? 
The answer comes, join the Club, 



drink, play billiards and be re- 
spected. The writer of the last 
article, which appeared in the 
News and Observer in defense of 
the Club, used this expression : 
"One touch of nature makes us all 
akin." (Shakespere ?) 

It is easy to imagine this writer 
at the head of a long table, around 

which are seated the other 
members of his club with glasses 
in their hands filled with sparkling 
wine, giving this toast: One 
touch of nature makes us all akin 
— now for it boys. 

* * * * 

Let the curtain drop. 

S. R. 



I sing of Alex— him alone- 
No shirts shall come into my song. 
Good taste I will not war against 

By talk 'bout coats and vests and pants 

Gents (I will not my gentle loons 

As I've not called pants pantaloons), 

If bargains fair and square you ask, 

Just seek the hero of this "Task." 

Be sure he'll want not more than twice 

The real worth, the honest price 

For goods that have grown old and worn 

By counter-contact. He, forlorn, 

Oft frets and fumes and frowns and sighs,, 

"Hard times, no sales, no sales!" he cries. 

This should not be. O fate unjust, 

That he who hardest tries should "bust"! 

About his goods. Nor rip nor tear 

Will they, unless you buy and wear 

Them for a day or two. He has 

New goods each seventh year, such as 

Collars and cuffs of paper made, 

Shoe-soles of pasteboard overlaid 


With leather— thin plated at that. 
Every description of hat 
He keeps, save good. Hats with low crown, 
Or beavers red, blue, black or brown ; 
Of any size, stunted or tall, 
Of color nat'ral or unnatural. 
Now comes my peroration 
Which is a recantation 
Of statements made upon this page 
Which roused up John in righteous rage- 
Statements all false as false can be : 
To prove them so, just go and see- 
See for yourself that John, despite 
All untrue charges, is all right. 
His goods are too. Suits, under-wear, 
Fine, in the fashion,. rich and rare! 
The moral now : A lad charming— 
John does the fair and proper thing. 




We wish to assure our friends 
that no labor will be spared to 
continue and increase the improve- 
ments already commenced upon 
the Magazine. We are ambitious 
for its success. We want it to be- 
come the leading literary organ of 
the South. We present quite a 
variety of matter in this issue and 
trust all will be pleased. The next 
will contain several features which 
ought to commend themselves to 
our readers and we hope to con- 
tinue presenting such as will re- 
tain and strengthen our general 
friendship and support. 

It is a pleasure to know that 
the birthday of Longfellow (Feb. 
27th,) dates the issue of the long 
expected biography of the great 
scholar and poet, written by his 
brother. The publishers are Tick- 
nor & Co., who celebrated the oc- 
casion in a fitting manner. This 
work will be a valuable addition 
to all libraries because it brings 
us nearer to the generous and 
sympathetic heart of the man 
who wrote stainless words perva- 
ding and purifying thousands of J 
souls. The bereaved, the dis- 
heartened, will ever lean upon him 
and to these his sweet lines will 
"come like the benediction that 
follows after prayer." His memo- 

iy is cherished by two hemis- 
pheres and England pronounced 
his death a national loss. 

At this writing the interesting 
Blair educational bill is again be- 
fore Congress. It is unnecessary 
to speak of its advantages or dis- 
advantages ; they are too well 
known to all. The people are 
everywhere interested in the cause 
of education, yet in carrying it out 
they wish to be sure that the 
means used do not invade the 
right of localities or States. It is 
sincerely hoped the question will 
be settled for the best interests of 
the country, for it would certain- 
ly be a matter for regret that time 
should prove the mistake in the 
decision of Congress, after so 
much time and money have been 
spent in an apparent search after 
facts. Our representatives must 
not forget that law-making be- 
comes a farce unless there are 
adequate means provided for 
properly carrying out the laws 
made. The bill distributes a good 
amount of funds for education in 
North Carolina, but if it is to be 
unfairly applied, or to arouse sec- 
tional prejudices and contentions, 
then we had far better continue to 
depend upon our own resources. 


Rapidly Passing Away. 

The rapidity with which the 
leading men in different circles are 
dropping away from earth has 
hardly failed to excite each one's 
earnest attention. 

For some months past the mor- 
tality among our most distinguish- 
ed public servants has been par- 
ticularly alarming. Tis true some 
of them had lived to a fair age, 
and to giant minds had added 
characters lofty yet simple, bril- 
liant yet stainless, worthy the 
praise and emulation of all. Here 
the confidence and trust of their 
fellow-countrymen were not mis- 
placed. They had thrown their 
influence into the affairs of the 
Union, and for the most part, we 
think, for good. We cannot wish 
them back in the turmoil ot the 
lives they lately led, but mature 
advice and stern integrity must 
always be missed when it has 


We would not attempt a eulogy 
upon any one, or a rehearsal of 
the noble comments of the public 
press. We would only call to the 
minds of young men the impor- 
tance of acquainting themselves 
well with the lives of these repre- 
sentative men who have passed 
away. This will furnish not mere- 
ly points of history, but valuable 
examples for us as individuals. 
Find what the distinguishing fea- 
ture of a truly successful life was^ 

what virtue raised the man above 
his fellows, a kingly freeman, 
ready to "smite down the armed 
frauds that would consecrate the 
wrong," and ask yourselves if those 
qualities are not worth cultivating. 
'Tis useless to look for a perfect 
model ; faults and mistakes meet 
us on every side ; yet these when 
they can be discerned can be 
shunned. Though the masses, 
even of intelligent people, are 
often wrong for a time in their 
judgment of a character, yet they 
are usually, right in the end, and 
when a nation bows over the tomb 
of a departed son, in recognition 
of victories won upon the fields 
of thought or of art instrument 

used to work out the good of a 
generation, he. is buried in gar- 
ments of glory justly woven for 
the years to come. 

An English Question. 

Of all the intricate questions 
which demand the attention of 
the leaders of England to-day, 
there is none of more vital impor- 
tance to the mother country or of 
greater interest to us, than that 
which involves the immediate fu- 
ture of the agricultural population. 
For several years the seasons have 
been such as to frighten even the 
most hopeful of this class. 

Floods and storms have swept 
; the land at the time of harvesting 


the grain or hay, or the ground 
has not yielded a fair increase. 
When great attention was turned 
to raising meats as a check to 
these losses, then the price of 
meat fell, and the result has been 
ruinous to many land owners and 
renters. Their only hope of suc- 
cessfully breasting these difficul- 
ties is by disposing of what little 
they have preserved at a fair price 
on the English markets. But all 
know that these markets are furn- 
ished with foreign food, which, by I 
reason of its amount, offers too. 
strong a competition for the En- ' 
glish producer. Hence he cries 
that the grand system of free-trade I 
be discontinued and some protec- I 
tion be afforded him. But the 
cities and towns are thronged with I 
an immense number of mechanics 
and other laborers who can scarce- 
ly pay the present price for food, 
and certainly would be injured by 
its rise. They form the leading 
factor in the constitution of the 
masses, and are so violent in the 
support of their interests that 
their claims cannot be ignored. 
They buy bread where they can 
get it cheapest, and a continuance 
of free-trade they say they must 
and will have. 

What the result will be cannot ' 
at present be foreseen. The two 
forces are directly opposed, and I 
the contest on both sides is for 
existence. The land "of little 
body with mighty heart" is agita- 


ted with the question. The agri- 
cultural people, long silent and 
quiet, are moving now. In Scot- 
land they are also wronged and 
enraged by unjust legislation. 
1 here ,s a demand for immediate 
action. Will the new cabinet be 
able to grasp the situation suc- 
cessfully and administer aid where 
it is most needed and deserved? 

•'Jedgesr "Wagers." "turned and Honor- 

North Carolina is overflowing 
with them. She has about 10 
000 "Jedges" ( heads are in- 
capable of containing a dozen 
Pages of law), 25,000 "Magers" 
(whose epaulets were won by their 
magnificent charges on whiskey) 
and fully 40,000 Yarboro House 
"Kurnels" (whose titles were gain- 
ed by their superb gallantry in 
j dodging every battle), and as for 
the Honorables there is no end of 
them. Every college graduate 
(brainless idiot though he may be) 
who can give a paraphrased re- 
hash of some great author's speech 
is immediately dubbed "Honor- 
able" by the various third rate 
patent sheets over the State 
whose editors are so stupid that 
they are unable to detect the 
plagiarism of the "brilliant young 
orators" speech. Commence- 
ments, Sunday school pic-nics, etc., 
are the places for these young 
"orators" to spout. 


"Immediately after one of these 
occasions the county paper looms 
up with something like the follow- 
ing: -Wednesday the commence- 
ment exercises of Skinflint Hol- 
low Academy came off. As is 
usual with the commencements of 
this splendid school, it was a bril- 
liant affair. 'Jedge' Snorter, 
<Mager' Blood and ' Kurnel 
Buster, the trustees of the school, 
honored the occasion with then- 
presence and added much to the 
enjoyment of all. 

» A large crowd of the gallantry 
and beauty of old Tom Green 
county was there and listened to 
the magnificent eloquence of the 
Hon. Windy W. Gasbag with 
rapt attention. This rising young 
orator held his audience spell- 
bound from beginning to end and 
as each grand flight of eloquence 
fell from the lips of this ' silver 
tongued orator,' the building 
shook with applause and as he 
closed his magnificent peroration 
the crowd seemed to go wild ; 
storms of applause greeted him, 
ladies waved their handkerchiefs, 
men hurled their hats in the air 
and pandemonium reigned su- 

I hope I have not infringed on 
the patent of the patented sheets 
by quoting the above. I put it in 
quotation marks so as to give 
them full credit. 

Let's smash some of our 

"Jedges," "Magers" and " Kur- 
nels," and above all let's smash our 
Hon. Windy W. Gasbags. 

"Henry Howard." 

"A Fair Showing" Again. 

We have been called upon to 
notice in these columns a question 
which is fast growing in import- 
ance among us and which is of 
great interest to every man in the 
University, directly or indirectly. 
Should the orations at com- 
mencement be delivered by a few 
speakers selected by a committee 
from the body of the graduating 
class? This is the present arrange- 
ment, if we except the valadicto- 
rian and the man who stands next 
in class rank. Is this right and 
I should it be continued? Has it 
! given and will it give satisfaction? 
' These and other questions the 
i boys are asking each other and 
! they must be faced fairly and set- 
! tied in whatever way will be right 
and at the same time most advan- 
tageous. It is not an easy road 
which leads to a college degree. 
The mental labor and close con- 
I finement from year to year are by 
I no means trifles. Yet many men 
plod on, never going into politics 
or seeking college honors in any 
way ; simply laying a firm founda- 
tion for usefulness in after life and 
looking toward their graduating 
speeches as means of showing 
their relations and friends that 



these last years have not been 
wasted. But their hopes must be 
blasted and they condemned to 
sit in gloomy silence, listening to 
their more favored class-mates. 
What an inducement to one to 
push on to the end is the thought 
that he may be refused participa- 
tion in that day which possibly of 
all others in life he feels supreme- 
ly his! What a reward for the 
father and mother who have toiled 
through unseasonable hours to 
give that son advantages he could 
not otherwise have enjoyed ! 
There is a certain part of com- 
mencement week set apart exclu- 
sively for the graduating class and 
we can not think that this time 

yet when the day came, he astonish- 
ed even his nearest friends and 
stood next in honorto the medalist. 
But " 'tis useless to multiply ex- 
amples." The leading question 
is one of right and privilege. 
There has been a request made 
that last year's arrangement be 
modified. As we write, no defi- 
nite result has been reached. To 
"a fair showing" all should be en- 
titled, and without it there can not 
be satisfaction. 

Caught Astray. 

And it came to pass in the time 
of their sojourn in the village of 
ought to be encroached upon by C . H. that Shadrach, Meshach 

I „!ff:- Wh r°. W,11 . h . aVe f imilar , 0pP0r " and Abednego journeyed toward 

the North for a short distance and 

tunities for airing their ideas in 
the future or who have had many 
such in the past. The Misses 
Mangum, of Orange, "offer in 
memoriam of their father, Willie 
P. Mangum, a gold medal as a 
prize for the best oration."' This 
intends, we believe, allowing all 
who so desire, to enter the contest 
and then who has most brains and 
exhibits at the time brightest 
gleams of oratory, secures a prize 
of which he may well feel proud. 
There is no harm in stating that 
the date is not far back when a 
class contained a man, who would 
certainly, on a competative speak- 
ing, have been dropped from the 

stopped in a place named Sa-loon, 
which being interpreted meaneth 
oyster shop. 

And on their way they met one, 
whose surname is "Groin," on the 
road to destruction. 

And he cried unto them saying,, 
whither go ye? And they an- 
swered him not, but went on their 

As they sat they became ahun- 
gered and they called unto the 
serving man with a loud voice say- 
ing — George, George, bring unto 
us that wherewithal we may re- 
fresh ourselves, yea three plates 
of oysters bring thou unto us and 

programme tor commencement • -n j ,i 1 

fa tcIlulL ' I we will reward thee three pieces 



of silver, which is equal to 75 

Then spake again Shadrach 
saying, Place thou also before us 
six measures of cider, that we may 
make merry over the return of 
Abednego, who was lost but is 
found again. 

But Abednego answered, Not 
so, for lo it is written that I shall 
not any more indulge while I 
dwell in these tents of wicked- 

And he groaned inwardly and 
was sore displeased. 

As they sat at meat, voices pro- 
ceeding from the room above were 
heard and laughter. 

And Meshach sayeth unto the 
other two, Lo that is very like 

unto the laughter of the Pres. Let 
us act circumspectly that we may 
find no evil in his sight. 

And again a voice was heard 
saying, Seven-up, which being in a 
foreign language they could not 

And they continued to speak 
and the voice was heard to say, 
High, Low, Jack up — and after 
hearing this Shadrach, Meshach 
and Abednego reasoned among 
themselves saying, Verily this can 
not be the Pres., for he does not 
speak this foreign language. 

And after this Shadrach, 
Meshach and Abednego being 
filled went on their way rejoicing, 
and of the fragments which were 
left there were taken up o baskets. 

College Record. 

T h e Mitchell Scientific 
SOCIETY. — The February meeting 
of this society was opened by Dr. 
Venable, who gave a sketch of the 
life of Lewis David Von Schwein- 
ty, one of the pioneers of Botany 
in this country. This man, who 
was characterized by his charity 
and love for mankind, was tender- 
ed the presidency of this univer- 
sity, but did not accept it. His 
portrait and biography will appear 
in the society's next journal. 

The next paper was by Prof. 

Atkinson. His subject was the 
" Cigarette Beetle." These bee- 
tles are night-fliers, and often en- 
ter warehouses where tobacco is 
kept. They injure cigarettes by 
perforating the paper. The scien- 
tific name of this insect is Lasio- 
dermia serricom. 

An account of the scientific 
work done by Dr. Ebenezer Em- 
mons was given by Prof. J. A. 

A paper by J. H. Manning was 
read by title. The meeting was 



closed with a few remarks by Dr. 
Venable on some of the effects of 
water in the development of the 

' * 
Woman's Influence. — Young 

lady to a post-graduate studying 
law: Mr. S., where are you going 
to " hang out your shingle" when 
you get your license? Mr. S. In 
Texas, I think. Young lady. 
That's where ail the no account 
North Carolina drift-wood floats. 
Mr. S. has decided to cast his for- 
tune with that of his State. 

The Reading Room.— The 
University Reading Room is not 
only a source of pleasure, but of 
instruction to professors and stu- 
dents. The room is conveniently 
located, and is open all day. It is 
comfortably heated by a coal stove. 
The following rules ought to be ! 
posted in a conspicuous place : 

r. When you enter the room, 
leave the door open and make all 
the noise you can. 

2. Hold one paper in your hand 
while you are reading another. 
One of the other boys might get 
it. Besides, politeness demands 

3, After you finish reading a 

paper, do not fold it properly and 

then throw the paper on the table, 

instead of putting it back in its 

* * 
Election of Editors. 


fill the vacancy caused by the res- 
ignation of Mr. J. F. Schenck. 
Mr. E. B. Cline has also been 
elected to fill the place of Mr. W. 
A. Self, who has not yet returned 
to the Hill. We welcome you, 
gentlemen, to the editorial staff. 

FOR the benefit of those stu- 
dents complaining of the difficul- 
ty of the study of conic sections, 
we give the following : 

" Mathematics are the study of 
a sluggish intellect."— /%'//y. 

" The cultivation afforded by 
mathematics is in the highest de- 
gree one-sided and contracted." 
— GoetJie. 

" It affords us no assistance in 
conquering the difficulties or in 
avoiding the dangers we encoun- 
ter in the great field of probabili- 
ties, wherein we live and move." 
— Sir William Hamilton. 

"When I understood the prin- 
ciples, I relinquished the pursuit 
of mathematics, nor can I lament 
that I desisted before my mind 
was hardened by the habit of rigid 
demonstration, so destructive of 
the finer feelings of moral evi- 
dence, which must however deter- 
mine the actions and opinions of 
our lives." — Gibbon. 

Once a month a public lecture 
is delivered in the chapel. The 
choice of a speaker for the third 
Saturday in February fell on our 
Latin professor, and his address 

j----~~~~.., ui.u 1110 auuitas 

L. J. Battle has been elected to proved that the selection was a 



good one. His subject was " Rem- 
iniscences of his Travels in Eu- 
rope," and he interspersed his ad- 
dress with that wit and humor for 
which he is noted. To say his 
lecture was an interesting one, 
would be doing Prof. Winston an 
injustice. It was more than in- 
teresting ; it was highly instruct- 
ive and full of thought. 

Washington's Birthday. — 
A bright and beautiful morning 
ushered in the twenty-second of 
February. The services in the 
chapel were appropriate to the 
occasion. At eleven o'clock a. m., 
professors, students, and a large 
number of ladies and gentlemen 
from the village gathered in the 
Philanthropic Society Hall to par- 
ticipate in the exercises of the 
day. Mr. John M. Morehead, in 
a few short but appropriate re- 
marks, introduced the orator of 
the occasion, Mr. L. B. Grandy, of 
Oxford, N'. C. Mr. Grandy spoke 
about thirty minutes. His man- 
ner of speaking is deliberate, and 

his speech contained both thought 
and humor. His description of 
colonial church-going as contrast- 
ed with the church-going of to- 
day, and of the colonial schools as 
compared with those of the present 
time, was good. At the close of 
his oration, he was complimented 
by Dr. Battle and congratulated 
by his friends. Messrs. A. C. 
Shaw and Henry Johnston acted 
as marshals and performed their 
duties creditably to themselves 
and their respective societies. 

The colored band of Raleigh 
furnished music for the occasion, 
and doubtless the good music and 
fair faces did much to inspire the 

THE following ball managers 
have been elected for commence- 
ment : John C Engelhard, Chief, 
J. W. Atkinson, Jr., Robert L. 
Holt, E. B. Borden, and L. M. 
Burne. Their names were inad- 
vertently left out of the last MAG- 


L. M. Bourne. 




— D. H. McNeill has gone to 

— "Ped" Mclver, '84, is a mer- 
chant at Sanford. 

— Francis Womack is a drug- 
gist at Smithfield, N. C. 

— M. R. Hamer, '84, has a flour- 
ishing school at Little Rock, S. C. 
— C. W. Smedes, '83, is in the 
Government employ at Washing- 
ton City. 

—Dan Miller, '84, is first assist- 
ant of the Graded school of Ral- 

—"Bonus" on the dogs and their 
tormenters: They should not in- 
jure their superiors. 

— E. A. DeScheinitz, '82, is 
still at work on his advanced 
chemistry course at Goettingen. 

—Query :— Which will finally 
triumph the necks of certain 
Sophs or the collars they wear? 

— Fred Skinner, '82, is study- 
ing Theology at the General 
Theological Seminary of New 
York City. 

Mr. L. to Prof. A., while standing 
near the stove in the chapel : "I 
say, professor, this cold weather 
gets away with our moustaches, 
don't it?" Prof, smiles and nods 

— Preston Stamps, '83, is pur 
ting his theoretical chemistry into 
practical agriculture in Caswell 

— S. H. McRae who was in col- 
lege during the Fall of '84, is now 
assistant engineer on the Seaboard 
& Roanoke Railroad. 

— I. T. Turlington, '83, has been 
elected County Superintendent of 
Johnston. He is thinking of erect- 
inga fine school buildingin Smith- 

— J. C. Roberts, '84, is agent for 
a company devoted to the manu- 
facture of paper from wood fibre 
and has his headquarters at New- 

— Alexander Mclntyre, a mem- 
ber of the class of '84, who did 
not graduate however, has recent- 
ly been elected cashier of a bank 
at Ocala, Fla. 

— E. G. Goodman, '85, is teach- 
ing at Centreville Academy. He 
is hard at work as usual and says 
he hopes to be up at commence- 

— T. C. Brooks, '80, has deter- 
mined to seek a home further 
South. He taught a year at Hor- 
ner's, Henderson, then in the 
Graded school of Fayetteville, and 
now he is in the mercantile busi- 
ness in Birmingham, Ala. 



—J. T. Strayhorn, '83, recently 
gained a great reputation at Lan- 
caster, S. C, by defending a man 
charged with murder. 

— "Bonus" says he has been ap- 
plying himself very diligently to 
his conies but he don't see how 
one can cut a pencil (harmonic 
pencil) with a straight line. 

— Scene between two professors 
at the post office. First Prof, to 
second. Why don't you have your 
life insured ? Second : Ugh, ugh, 
what good would that do me ? 

— Geo. Howard, '85, is managing 
a cotton seed oil mill at Tarboro. 
The clatter of machinery is so great 
that he is unable to cope with it 
in the fuss making line and he has 
for that reason become a quieted 
and a changed man. 

W. G. Randall, '84, has asso- 
ciated with him in his school, the 
accomplished Miss Mary Goodloe. 
We also hear that he has increased 
the population of McDowell coun- 
ty by one. Success to him in 
both undertakings. 

— Scene at the door of physics 
room. Fresh to Junior: What is 
that big machine up there in the 
corner? Junior: That is where 
Prof. G. gets his magnetism to 
entertain his classes with. Fresh: 
I move Prof. A. be supplied with 

— H. A. Latham, class '85, one 
of our former editors, is now pub- 

lishing a paper of his own. He is 
one of the proprietors and sole 
editor of the Gazette of Washing- 
ton, N. C. He seems to be a born 
newspaper man and has made an 
excellent beginning. We wish 
him much success. 

— Scene : — Among the mar- 
shals when selecting commence- 
ment tickets. Chief M. to sub S., 
how do you want your name put? 
S-, So and 'so. C. M. to H. (ab- 
sentminded Soph) how do you 
want youis? H. Gentlemen ! what 
sort of a cravat shall I wear ? 

—Sad havoc has been among 
our editors of late. Self and 
Schenck have allowed the edito- 
rial mantle to drop from their 

j shoulders and it now rests on 
Battle and Cline. We shed a tear 

j for the old, but welcome the new 

j ones with a smile and proceed to 
introduce them to the joys of 

j editorship. 

— W. T. Grimes, alias "Phillis" 
1 has no longer any desire to be- 
come a disciple of Aesculapius. 
1 Medicine has lost all claims on 
, him. He has been taking-in New 
York, Philadelphia and the rest of 
Yankeedom during the last few 
\ months. He is now thinking of 
going to the Lone Star State and 
I growing up among civilized In- 
1 dians and savage cow boys. Va- 
riety is the spice of life and Bill 
seems to be fond of a change. 


—Joel Hines has located his 
law office at Whiteville, and R. S. 
White is his partner. They report 
very good prospects and are in 
hopeful spirits as regards the fu- 
ture. White has taken unto him- 
self a partner for life and is now 
spending his honeymoon among 
singing b i r d s and springing 

— A. M. Rankin, another old 
University boy, is making fame 
for himself at Cheraw, S. C. He 
was recently counsel for a man 
tried for burglary and one tried 
for murder. He writes triumph- 
antly that a verdict of not guiltv 
was rendered in the first case and 
■one of manslaughter in the second. 
May he live long and prosper. 

— The Di. catalogue committee | 
showed us a letter recently, from 
Right Reverend W. M. Green, 
Bishop of Tennessee. He entered 
the University in 1814, and is now 
its oldest living alumnus. He is 
very feeble but is still in active 
service. His has been a long, use- 
ful and honored life, and the Uni- 
versity may proudly claim him as 
her son. 

—PETITION :— That the Senior 
class be furnished with Bibles be- 
fore commencement. Prof, of 
English to Mr. D., what is that 
fine passage in Romans, eighth 
chapter, in regard to the sympa- 
thy of nature with man in his fal- 
len condition ? Please repeat the 


verses. Mr. D. thoughtfully, yes 
I remember now: "The moun- 
tains skipped like rams and the 
little hills like lambs." 

—Rev. J. U. Newman, class of 
'85, has been promoted at Antioch 
College, Ohio. He is now acting as 
professor of Latin in the absence 
of die regular professor. His 
regular duties pertain to the Eng- 
lish department. This was his 
J specialty when here. One of our 
J ante-bellum alumni is President 
j of Antioch College — Rev. D. A. 
j Long, M. A., of Alamance coun- 
ty. He has been there about two 
I years and seems to be doing ex- 
cellent work. 

— Mr. P. B. C, now a dignified 
Senior, while out riding with 
several of his friends last summer, 
created quite a sensation. He, in 
his finest suit of clothes, was 
riding a banker pony, which had a 
peculiar fondness for bathing. 
Having watered our horses in a 
stream near by we were continu- 
ing our journey, when, missing 
Mr. C, we looked back and saw 
both pony and rider struggling in 
the water. It was hard to tell 
whether Mr. C. was ducking the 
pony, or whether the pony was 
ducking Mr. C. N. B.— Profit 
by the above experience and never 
attempt to water a pony in a 
stream, for ten to one he will turn 

the tables on the rider and water 



— In a private letter to President 
Battle, dated at Petropolis, Brazil, 
Jan'y 19, 1886, Minister Jarvis, a 
very warm friend of the Univer- 
sity, says: " I am now at Petrop- 
olis, the summer home of the 
court, with the diplomats and all 
others who are able to get away 
from the heat of Rio in January, 
February and March. It is a beau- 
tiful mountain town about thirty 
miles from Rio, but about three i 
thousand feet above it. From 
the top of the mountain we can 
see the city, and still further off 
in the distance the ocean. The 
prevailing wind is from the sea, 
and it deposits its moisture upon 
the mountains when it comes in 
contact with them. This tempers 
the heat and gives a rich abund- 
ance of vegetation and beautiful 
flowers. The elevation and mois- 
ture together give us a cool, en- 
durable atmosphere. It is here 
just about as it is at Chapel Hill 
in June, warm at midday in the 
sun, but pleasant in the shade and 
cool at night. I hear it is fear- 
fully hot in Rio, and that there is 
quite a good deal of fever. The 
city is never entirely free from the 
yellow fever, but in June, July, 
August, September and October 
it excites no fear and but little 
care. In Petropolis we are con- 
sidered absolutely free from all 
danger, even when it is at its worst 
in the city. We not only have a 

safe retreat from heat and fever, 
but we are in a beautiful little 
city. The summer home of the 
Emperor and Princess Imperial 
are respectively in well-kept parks, 
in which grow the most beautiful 
and lovely flowers. Many of the 
rich and titled men of the empire 
have their summer houses here,, 
and the yards and grounds at- 
tached to some of them are lovely. 
The world cannot beat this place 
for foliage and flowers of the rich- 
est hue- The streets and roads 
1 leading into the city are of the 
highest order of macadamized 
work, and hence afford many very 
beautiful drives * * *." 

—A Girl's Heroic Act. — 
Once upon a time in a certain lit- 
tle village of the South a young 
lady of about 18 summers lay se- 
riously ill in an up stairs room. 
She was the eldest daughter of a 
■ learned Professor and was fortu- 
nate in possessing many admira- 
ble qualities which distinguished 
her from the ordinary -'girl of the 


Among her distinguishing traits- 
her bravery was notable. She was- 
the happy possessor of a bold and 
fearless spirit by which she was 
able even to confront an unoffend- 
ing cow suddenly on the sidewalk 
without making the usual uncere- 
monious shy to the other side of 
the street— to the great mental 
bewilderment of the aforesaid 



•cow. And furthermore she could 
actually discover an innocent, 
playful, little mouse in a corner of 
the room and not feel the slight- 
est impulse to gain that position 
on the most convenient piece of 
furniture least accessible to the 
.mouse, without a thought of the 
manner or gracefulness of the act. 
However, there was one thing 
for which she had an insuperable 
terror — and that was burglars. 
The time, too, when this young 
lady was lying ill was the time 
when burglars do their bloody 
work. It was night. Every thing 
within the house was still as the 
grave but without a storm was 
raging. The heavy raindrops were 
pelting furiously the shingles on 
the roof, and the restless winds 
were whistling a mournful dirge 
between the slats of the well-fast- 
ened shutters. But, listen ! the 
young lady hears a sound in the 
direction of the window ! She 
starts! then cries: "Mamma! 
Mam Ma! O Mamma! Mamma, 
O Mamma!" A ghostlike form 
steals up the stairway three steps 
at a time, and in an instant is on 
the scene of action. 

"Mamma," she cried, "I think a 
mouse is gnawing my new hat. 

The exchange of words which 
followed is known only to the re- 
cording angel. Tatem. 

—Confederate Dead. — The 
two large tablets in Memorial 

Hall facing the main entrance 
show the names of 254 of our 
alumni who fell in the service of 
the Confederate States. They 
truly deserve a niche and that not 
a small one in the temple of fame. 
At their country's call they went 
and died in her defense. We are 
glad to present our readers with 
short sketches of some of them 
taken mostly from the materials 
collected by Mrs. C. P. Spencer 
for the Centennial Register of the 
Alumni of the University of North 
Carolina. We hope to continue 
the sketches from time to time. 

Joseph H. Adams, of Augusta, 
Ga., entered the University in 
i860. As soon as the tocsin of 
war was sounded he returned to 
his home and enlisted in the 
Clinch Rifles and was sent to 
Pensacola, Fla. He was killed at 
the battle of Santa Rosa in 1861. 
He was a youth of uncommon 
promise, mentally and morally, 
and was only 18 at the time of 
his death. He tried to do his 

Geo. B. Anderson, of Wilming- 
ton, after remaining at the Uni- 
versity a year or two, went to 
West Point and graduated there. 
He was appointed to the second 
dragoons and sent to New Mexico 
and then to California where he 
was on duty during the gold ex- 
citement. After returning to the 
east he was made adjutant of 
second dragoons under Gen. A. S. 



Johnston and was with him in his 
famous Utah expedition to Salt 
Lake City. When the war broke 
out he was first Lietenant in 
Johnston's regiment and was the 
first officer from North Carolina 
to resign his commission and ten- 
der his service to the Confederate 
Government. Gov. Ellis appoint- 
ed him Colonel of the fourth 
regular N. C. regiment and he 
went to Virginia in command. 
He was present at Manasses and 
at the seven days' fight around 
Richmond, was made Brigadier 
General soon after and was mor- 
tally wounded at Sharpsburg. He 
returned home to Raleigh and 
died there. A gallant young sol- 
dier and a noble man. 

Lawrence M. Anderson, of Tal- 
lahassee, Fla., volunteered early 
in the war, was made Lieutenant 
and fell at Shiloh while leading 
his soldiers to the attack. 

Robert Walker Anderson, of 
New Hanover county, graduated 
here with distinction. He was 
studying for the Episcopal minis- 
try, but felt it his duty to fight 
for the South and fell at the Wil- 

John B. Andrews, of Guilford 
county, taught school in Alamance 
county, and then in Wilmington, 
spent some time in travelling on 
the Continent. Was teaching in 
Statesville in 1861. Raised a com- 
pany and with rank of Captain 

joined the fourth North Carolina 
Volunteers, served with honor in 
the battles of Manasses, York- 
town, Williamsburg, Seven Pines,, 
and received his death wound be- 
fore Richmond in 1862. He had 
been a member of the Presbyte- 
rian church from his boyhood and 
during all his life was an amiable,, 
useful and excellent character. 

Archibald H. Arrington, of 
Montgomery, Ala., entered the 
Confederate service at 18 years of 
age. He was wounded at Mal- 
vern Hill, went home to recruit,, 
but his wound and disease con- 
tracted in the service cut his life 
short in a little while after. 

Isaac T. Atmore, of Newberne T 
joined company I, Second Regi- 
ment N. C. State troops and fell 
at Spotsylvania, C. H., May 12th,. 
1864. Was ever ready to do a 
kind act and thoroughly devoted 
to the cause for which he died. 

The name of Thomas P. Hodges, 
of Okolona, Miss., does not ap- 
pear on the Memorial Tablets. 

'. He entered t\\2 University in 
1859, but never graduated as he 

. was called to sterner duties. In 
a private letter W. A. Boden- 
hamer, Esq., Mayor of Okolona, 
says of him : "He was killed at 
the battle of Jonesboro near At- 
lanta, Ga., July 28th, 1864. He 
was Captain of Co. F, 41 Miss. 
Regiment. It affords me pleasure 

1 as his school-mate and comrade 



in arms to say that he was all that 
could be required of upright man- 
hood. Though the youngest 
Captain in the regiment he was 
one of the best. At the organiza- 

tion of his company he was elect- 
ed first Lieutenant and he be- 
came Captain by promotion. Had 
he lived the future would have- 
served him well." 

Among Our Exchanges. 

The exchange editor is indebted 
to Mr. Z. B. Walser, a former stu- 
dent of the University, for a copy 
of the Michigan Argonaut, con- 
taining an account of Senator 
Vance's address before the Law 
Class of the University of Michi- 

•x- # 

The Academy, Salem, N. C, 
sheds a very brilliant light in our 
sanctum. It is printed on heavy 
paper, in clear, bold type, but needs 
a cover. We would modestly sug- 
gest to our lady friends that it 
would be well to put on a spring 
cloak. In the January number of 
the paper the article entitled 
" English Grammar and Litera- 
ture/' was happily conceived and 
well written. Come again, Acad- 
emy, we enjoy you. 

The Collegian, of South Caro- 
lina College, has made its regular 
appearance. We welcome it as 
one of the many worthy exchanges 
that find their way to our table. 

The literary and editorial depart- 
ments are well conducted, while 
the " general make up" of the 
Collegian is par excellence. 

' #■ 
The Virginia University Maga- 
zine for February is before us. As 
usual, it contains sensible, well 
written and pointed articles. Un- 
like most college journals, it is 
read with pleasure by those be- 
yond its own walls. This maga- 
zine is too well and favorably 
known to need any commendation 
at our hands. 

The Student, a monthly journal 
devoted to the Society of Friends, 
Germantown, Pa. The Student is 
a unique little monthly, filled with 
much interesting and instructive 
matter. It surpasses some of our 
larger and more pretentious ex- 
changes. One especially notices 
the variety of its contents, in which 
the most fastidious reader may 
find something to his taste. 



The January number of the 
Muhlenburg Monthly makes it ap- 
pearance for the first time among 
our exchanges. We cordially 
welcome it and its like among us. 
It is handsomely and tastefully 

gotten up. The present issue is 
filled almost entirely with ad- 
dresses, which make the Monthly 
sadly lack variety. We hope in 
the future to be highly entertain- 
ed by its articles. 


(As Gathered from Exchanges^) 

— Yale College is exempted from 
taxes, while Harvard paid $28,000 
in taxes last year. 

— We learn from the Western 
Sentinel that Davidson College 
will soon issue a journal. 

— Among the Alumni of Yale 
are the two great lexicographers, 
Webster and Worcester. 

—The richest University in the 
world is that of Leyden, Holland. 
Its real estate alone is worth 

—A chair of matrimony is talked 
of at Vassar College. Of course 
it will be a big rocking chair— big 
enough for two. 

—Secretary Bayard is to deliver 
the commencement address at the 
University of Kansas. He has re- 
ceived the degree of LL. D. from 
Yale, Harvard and Dartmouth. 

— Prof, in Latin — Mr. G., what 
case does nubere (to marry) 
govern? Mr. G. "Dative." Prof. 
"What Dative?" Mr. G. "Dative 
of disadvantage, sir." 

— "John Blair," asked his room- 
mate, "what kind of a bear is a 
consecrated cross-eyed bear?" 
The latter replied that he had 
never heard of such an animal. 
John insisted that they sang about 
it at Sunday school. "No," said 
his room-mate, "it is a consecrated 
cross I bear.' " 

— The following is said to be a 
correct statement of the volumes 
that some of our College and 
University libraries have : Har- 
vard 184,000; Yale 1 1 5,000; Dart- 
mouth .60,000; Cornell 53,000; 
Brown 52,000; Columbia 51,000; 
Williams 19,000; Princeton 49,- 
000; Michigan 41,000 ; Iowa 18,- 
OOO; Oberlin 16,000; Minnesota 



— The following is said to be a 
correct statement of the denomi- 
national educational institutions 
in this country: The Protestant 
Episcopal church has 12 colleges 
with $8,790,000 endowment ; Con- 
gregationalism 28 colleges with 
$9,000,000 endowment ; Presbyte- 
rians, 41 colleges with $7,000,000 
endowment; Baptist, 46 colleges 
with $10,300,000 endowment ; 
Methodist, 52 colleges with $11,- 
000,000 endowment. 


My pony, 'tis of thee, 
Emblem of liberty, 

To thee I sing. 
Book of my Freshman days, 
Worthy of fondest praise, 
Worthy of poets lays, 

I'd tribute bring. 
Old joke, 'tis of thee, 
Emblem of eternity 

To thee I sing. 
Jest of everlasting days 
Unworthy of students praise, 
Worthy of flunker's lays 

Good-bye, old thing. 


niversity Magazine. 

April, 1S86. 

Old Series Vol. XVIII. 
New Series Vol. V. 



James Thomas, 

G. B. Patterson, 
Lewis J. Battle. 

Ed. B. Cline 

Vernon W. Long, 

Stephen B. Weeks. 


(AlR: '• Tramp, Tramp, Tramp.") 

To the busy morning light, 
To the slumbers of the night, 
To the labor and the lessons of the hour, 
With a ringing, rhythmic tone, 
Over hill and valley blown, 
Call the voices watching, waking in the tower. 
CHORUS: — Cling, clang, cling, the bell is ringing, 
Hope and help its chimings tell ; 
Through the halls of N. C. U., 
O'er the quiet village too, 
Float the melody and music of the bell. 

By our Otey's famed retreat, 

Where the loved and lover meet, 
By the laurel bank, and glen of dreaming flower, 

Where the groves are dark and grand, 

Where the oaks majestic stand, 
Come the voices, mellow voices of the tower, Cho. 



When the gentle hand that gave, 

Lies beneath the marble grave, 
And the daisies weep with drippings of the shower; 

! believe me brother dear, 

In the shadows we shall hear 
Guiding voices of our angel in the tower.— Cho. 

Not afraid to dare and do 

Let us rouse ourselves anew, 
With the " knowledge that is victory and power," 

And arrayed in every fight 

On the battle side of right, 
Gather glory for our angel in the tower. — Cho. 

[Adapted, by W. A. Betts, class of '79.] 


Some minds are lap-sided. One 
of the most unpractical, ill-balan- 
ced persons we have known was a 
brilliant mathematician. But 
would we thus make a point against 
the best mathematical training 
and its practical results? No; we 
mean that you must discipline the 
mind on every side. What we all 
need is a harmonious, well-sound- 
ed character and the finest edu- 
cation is that which secures it. 
We hope we'll never have teachers 
who know only what they are to 
teach, for then they will not even 
know that ; and what frightfully 
narrow souls their scholars would 

Go back of Jehosaphat and Asa, 
"when the teaching priest" had 
died out of the land, back of 
Moses and the engraved stone- 
book of the Law, and see the 
patriarch as priest, judge, teacher, 
book, all in one, — a rude inscrip- 
tion here and there, a rare set of 
leaves to which only a favored few 
could have access, his only aids. 
Think of Elijah in the School of 
the Prophets, without text-books; 
and, not far from his time, Homer 
wandering in quest of audiences 
and chanting his immortal epic. 
Sometimes the public games or 
festivals afforded the opportunity 
I for hearing inspiring truths and 



"comparing notes." The pagan 
temple or the divinity over- 
shadowed synagogue became the 
centre of influence for great peo- 
ple, but their literary stores were 
for a select few, the prophet and 
priest being the poet and the 
literary directorship falling to 
him. How difficult the work of 
moral and intellectual reform for 
a King like Judah's fifth ruler, with 
a few princes and priests holding 
conventions and peripatetic dis- 
cussions here and there in his 
realm, with only one book and 
that in manuscript, in the hands 
of this committee of instructors, 
and that book not equivalent to 
our present form of Pentateuch ! 
One printed book, a Luther's Bible 
in Germany, stirred the heart of a 
noble race and proved itself to be 
the germ of a great world-quick- 
ening literature. 

Milton's Sublimities are many 
of them "caviare to the general." 
Shakspere has indeed "tears and 
laughter for all time," but needs 
quite often an interpreter. In the 
common round, the daily task, the 
ordinary worker and fighter takes 
Longfellow as a companion and 
comforter. We know that he is a 
household word as much in Eng- 
land as in America, and it will be 
long ere the charming interiors, 
painted by his soft and delicate 
touch, shall fade out of the cham- 
bers of imaging, which are kept 

shaded and sacred in men's hearts 
and lives. His own life and words 
were in gracious harmony with 
each other. Was it not true of 
him that he wrote no line which 
" dying he would wish to blot "? 
He did not think that " the King " 
in the realm of mind " knows no 
law " and may live and write " as 
it him listeth." So they who 
come from "the troth of hell" 
which reeks in Byron or from the 
foul fascinations of Swinburne and 
your other aesthetical, non-ethical 
poets, with their doctrine that the. 
beautiful has nothing to do with 
morality, may well reject Long- 
fellow as too tame, too spiritually 
pure and sound for their jaded 

Some people still allude to lit- 
erature and the study of it, in the 
spirit of the old French phrase, 
belles lettres, as if they were good 
for the " extra polish," the fair- 
seeming veneering, which the hard, 
strong character may take after 
gaining its real discipline. But 
they run into serious error. For 
the effect of such studies on the 
essential character is far more per- 
vasive and influential than all the 
technical and systematic sciences 
and philosophies can be, for this 
reason, that the imagination is the 
source of the deepest and most 
lasting inspiration and from its 
relation to the emotions has the 
highest possible danger, or the 



highest possible potency of good 
in it. It rrfay seize the reader, 
" as tempests seize a ship and bear 
him on in a wild whirl of joy." 
The silent teacher which it uses, 
awakens no prejudices, but gains 
all the more fatal hold on the soul 
than the impure or eccentric per- 
son, who perhaps would excite 
only surprise or disgust. If the 
book which prophecies deceitfully 
will be admitted into the secret 
chambers of the heart and diffuse 
its impersonal, but subtle pollution 
over the sensitive and incautious 
victim, how great the need of 
teaching and de6nitely employing 
those noble masters who electrify 

the stagnant air in which we are 
only half breathing, who vitalize 
and sweeten the sources of moral 
action within the soul? Rely upon 
them to inculcate ethical lessons 
all the more effectually because 
they do it indirectly, by stealing 
into conscience and feeling by the 
way of the fancy and the imagina- 
tion. You might despair of Miss 
Lydia Languish or of the young 
man " who gives all his mind to 
his neck-tie," but not of the child 
of ignorance and poverty where 
he becomes conscious of his own 
soul under the potent and life- 
giving spell of a Shakspere. — T. H. 


It may be well to note certain 
weak points in this " Plea for the 
-Mormons." There is no doubt 
that the Edmunds' Bill is faulty, 
but what justification could it af- 
ford for discrimination against 
Roman Catholics and Episcopa- 
lians as the writer urges? The 
fact that the Episcopal Church is 
joined to the State in England, 
that the Roman and the Greek 
Communions are in other coun- 
tries allied with the government, 
is a singular argument with which 
t o ply Americans to induce them 

to wink at the union of church 
and State among the Mormons. 
It must be allowed that the case 
of the Jews is exceptional, and 
that it affords no parallel, unless 
the inspiration .of the Scriptures 
is rejected and the direct relation 
of Jehovah to his chosen people 
is ignored. Again, the defence of 
polygamy on the ground that this 
same elect nation practiced it, falls 
to the ground when we consider 
God's own statement that He 
looked with just disfavor and ab- 
horrence on their immoralities and 



peculiar usages, and that in the 
ignorant childhood of the race He 
sought to win them away from 
their sensual and low views of life 
and duty by gradual discipline. 
Their religion was ''the grandest 
and noblest," not because of po- 
lygamy and other such blots upon 
it, but in spite of them. Infinite 
wisdom and mercy dealt patiently 
with their propensity to idolatry 
and all manner of abomination, 
and turned their sins and errors 
into means of grace and higher 
culture. But where do we learn 
that in this nineteenth century of 
Christ we find the Holy and Just 
God thus specially presiding over 
the affairs of a besotted people 
who claim, as a revelation of His 
will, an absurd forgery palmed off 
on their too easy credulity by very 
poor imitators of the astute Ma- 
homet and the philosophic Swe- 
denborg? There is no condoning 
of the lustful, self-indulgence of 
Solomon in the Book of Heaven, 
but the successive experiences so 
dramatically presented in Ecclesi- 
astes are a solemn warning that 
knowledge alone cannot save a 
soul, and that the apples of Sodom 
always turn to ashes on the lips. 
Careless indeed is that reading of 
the majestic eloquence of Isaiah, 
and Ezekiel, and Jeremiah, which 
permits the writer to conclude that 
they practised sins that incur such 
fearful " woes " and " judgments " 
as they are ever denouncing upon 

the heads of a degenerate peo- 
ple. The positive affirmation that 
Christ uttered "not one" word 
against polygamy may be accepted 
by many, as they are really igno- 
rant of that Word of His. The 
number of Bills, their familiar ap- 
pearance, the frequent allusions to 
them, lead many into the delusion 
that they know somewhat of the 
teachings of Inspiration. We have 
only to ask that the Gospels be 
I read once that the pure Redeem- 
j er's own word may refute this dark 
| libel. 

How partial and therefore false 
: that interpretation of Paul's in- 
structions concerning marriage, 
which takes the caution against en- 
tering into the responsibilities in 
times of persecution and poverty 
for a final and authoritative for- 
biddal of it, when this same apos- 
tle declares " Marriage is honora- 
ble in all," and makes it the best 
symbol of the union between the 
believer and his Savior, between 
the Church and her Living Head ! 
The so called " good evidences " 
from the Bible are worth nothing. 
It is specfel pleading of the most 
perverted sort that justifies the 
flagrant corruptions of Mormon- 
dom by picturing the dance of 
death through which a professed 
Christian Society reels, and that 
can see no harm in the licentious- 
ness of a sleek "elder" of Salt 
Lake City, because forsooth the 
pampered votaries of fashion in. 



New York and Washington wear 
their dresses down to the lower 
edge of decorum. Finally, the 
glorification of the whited sepul- 
chre of .Utah on the score of the 
absence of all brothels in its so- 
ciety, is enough to excite the " in- 
extinguishable laughter" of the 
devils themselves, who look within 
and note the dead men's or rather 
women's bones and all manner of 

rottenness, and find nearly every 
Mormon's "home" itself a brothel. 
The force of your contributor's 
^protest against unspeakable social 
vices is sadly weakened by his un- 
tenable assertions concerning im- 
portant matters of fact. The solid 
grain of truth is in the brief pas- 
sage in which he suggests the un- 
constitutionality of the Edmunds' 
Bill. "T. WYATT." 


See the coy, sprightly maidens rush 

Into the water's verge ; 
See the clear dainty darlings blush, 

While waiting for the surge. 


See the brave sea-gods, ^-nymphs, boys, 

Eager with open arms, 
Upon the waves these dears to poise, 

And quell their oft alarms. 

Blushes now cease their rapid chase — 
Hearts calm and quiet beat — 

Swiftly the surf has come apace, 
And skirts and sea-foam meet. 

O Luna, thoughtful Luna, Hail ! 

Thy power is not miss-spent, 
Concealing with a watery veil 

Those in embraces blent. 

Expected accidents, how cute — 

What soft, round limbs, well-shapen ! 

But admiration must be mute, 
For accidents must happen. 

Of beauty and of modesty (?) 
Soft-eyed and rose-lipped queen, 

Divine, sweet offspring of the sea, 
Mistress of Gods and men, 

Look down from thy exalted height, 

See thy young devotees 
Lauding thy name — in reckless plight — 

With nude, not bended knees. 

Wild are their antics — " daisy," hum ! 

Merry this floating frolic. 
This watery gymnasium 

Cures pains and aches and colic. 

What of the waltz, the giddy waltz, 
Where youth and joy entwine, — 

Th' occasion of most grave assaults 
From layman and divine ? 

Deserted soon must be the halls 
Where Dance was wont to reign, 

No more you'll hear of hops and balls, 
But bathing in the main. 

The gods have from Olympus flown, 
No more their councils hold 

Aiound love's high and awful throne, 
On the proud mountain old. 

Venus and Neptune have conspired — 

His shaggy look aside, 
The sea-king won what he desired — 

A mate to rule the tide. 



These two, alone of all the host 
Which ruled the world of yore, 

Have not yet all their power lost, 
Their sceptres proud giv'n o'er. 

Cupid committed suicide, 
Alas, I don't know what for, 

Unless 'twas, as sweethearts decide, 
He couldn't stand salt water. 

But why attack this hurtless(?) sport 
With laugh and ridicule? 

Know you not folks of kindly sort 
Will brand you as a fool ? 

Know you not, in this goodly land, 

That custom makes all right, 
From gentle pressing of the hand, 

To squeezing the waist tight? 

Custom, not everywhere, I'm proud, 

But custom at the dance 
And custom 'neath that briny cloud 

Where bathing sea-sprites prance. 

But sure a swift reform must come 

On " wax " and on the sea, 
Down, down, with despotic custom, 

And long live modesty ! W. A. Self. 


Under the head of Socialism 
come all those disturbing elements 
which give life to Communism, 
Fourrierism, Nihilism or any other 
" ism " whose object is to break 
the bonds of law and order. 

This is fast becoming a serious 
question, not only in this country, 
but throughout the civilized world, 
and one which will soon demand 
some very vigorous legislation, if 
not an "international congress." 
This, and the Mormon question 
confront us with embarrassments 
so peculiar to each, that it is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to meet the 
danger without infringing upon 
some " inalienable right." 

The close of the Revolutionary 
war found our forefa.hers beset 
on all sides with all manner of ob- 
jections to their efforts to bring 
law, order and liberty out of chaos. 

The constitution was opposed by 
a considerable number, because it 
"centralized too much"; some 
objected to it because it did "not 
centralize enough," and it was 
still more bitterly opposed by a 
class of thriftless vagabonds, who 
objected to everything human 
and divine, merely for the sake of 
opposition. This latter class seized 
upon it as an excellent oppor- 
tunity to gratify their baser in- 
stincts and put out the lights of a 
civilization destined to revolu- 
tionize the whole world. It was 
this worthless class which formed 
the nucleus around which gath- 
ered the discontented, "clannish 
isms" of all countries. The op- 
pressive laws of European coun- 
tries, caste distinctions, the defi- 
ant, absurd cry of the nobility for 
their traditionary and divine 



rights (?) which were assumed by 
fraud, violence and the supersti- 
tion of the lower classes, kept the 
Old World more or less involved 
in all the possibilities of revolu- 

Owing to these pernicious in- 
fluences, our country at once be- 
came the asylum of those who 
were either exiled by their lawless 
actions at home, or the restless 
spirit which possessed them, to 
effect new conquests at the very 
shrine of liberty itself. For the 
last fifteen years the average for- 
eign immigration to the United 
States has reached the neighbor- 
hood of 450,000 per year, — a large 
percent of whom, true to their in- 
stincts and ignorant of how to use 
liberty, at once organize, to sub- 
vert what they are, in their devi- 
lish depravity, pleased to call the 
"unnatural order of nature." 
Their motto is : " Let the gover- 
ning classes face the inevitable 
downfall of decaying civilization 
without panic or hypocrisy." Such 
indeed is the text from which 
they preach, upon the rostrum, 
" in secret conclave assembled " 
and in the viler dens of infamy 
where the incendiary and mur- 
derer discuss their diabolical 
schemes. They kept the people 
of the United States deluded for 
a long time by open threats 
against other governments, but at 
last they threw aside their masks 
and have established in all our 

leading cities, organizations whose 
hellish intent is to assassinate any 
one brave enough to oppose them, 
burn the property of those they 
are otherwise unable to reach and 
by " infernal machines," arson and 
a thousand nameless crimes com- 
pel corporations and the judiciary 
of the nation to concede their hell- 
born demands. The attack re- 
cently made upon Judge Tree's 
residence in Chicago, the conspir- 
acy discovered in San Francisco, 
Justus Schwab's revolutionary ut- 
terances, the efforts to blow up 
private and public buildings all 
over the country, and the contin- 
ual disquietude throughout the 
iron and coal mining sections of 
Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, 
Illinois and Missouri, all justify 
the conclusion that these lawless 
scoundrels must be met with legis- 
lation, final and effective, before 
they touch and pollute our shores, 
! with their infamous crimes. 

It is estimated that there are 
now 500,000 of these contemptible 
assassins scattered over the coun- 
try, who are permanently organ- 
ized to secure means to carry out 
1 their foul, degraded blackmailing 
schemes. Russia needs Nihilism ; 
if she had a better government 
we would be in less danger, as her 
citizens would be more contented 
and less likely to leave their 
homes, but the arrogant assump- 
tions of her accursed rulers drive 
her subjects to despair and Nihi- 



lism is their only protection. And 
Germany, so long as such imper- 
ious tyrants as Bismarck dictate 
her policy will be the hot-bed of 
socialism ; and France, too, so 
long as her social condition re- 
mains what it is, — the classes 
vieing with each other, as it were, 
in all manner of folly, dissipation 
and wickedness will find a use for 
her commune; England, also, may 
well tremble in the presence of 
such opposition as is manifested 
against Gladstone, her greatest 
statesman, especially now that the 
balance of power there is in the 
hands of so wily a schemer as 
Parnell ; Austria, too, will soon 
receive the just condemnation of 
mankind for her interference in 
the affairs of other nations embroil- 
ing them in wars whose horrors 
she is unwilling to share. Read 
the history of the Old World for 
the last one hundred years, and 
you will not be surprised at the 
progress socialism is making, and 
you will not need the inspiration 
of prophecy to predict that before 
many years the smouldering fires 
of Nihilism will burst forth with 
such irresistible fury that every 
throne in Europe will be engulfed 
in a grand conflagration that 
shall rival the day of judgment. 
In a few years, at most, our own 
generation must grapple with this 
question ; let us study its charac- 
ter, that we may avoid its fatal 
results. We must educate and 

legislate its supporters out of our 
midst — must surround and so 
press the enemy that there will be 
no alternative left him except un- 
conditional surrender. With the 
lights before us, if there is not 
some well-matured plan adopted, 
we cannot hope to escape frequent 
riots, much bloodshed, destruction 
of property and a general revolu- 
tion of all the ties that charm the 
home-circle or make patriotism a 
virtue. The great majority of 
this lecherous element neither re- 
spects the rights of man, modesty 
of women, nor any of the laws of 
God ; they are dead to all the 
nobler impulses of the human 
heart and were it in their power, 
they would, with fiendish ferocity 
debauch the whole human family. 

Then if we would profit by the 
examples of history and avoid the 
fate of those nations whose decay 
began in the morning of indiffer- 
ence — of fancied security in the 
midst of lurking danger, we must 
guard well the forts of entry, and 1 
watch with "eternal vigilance" 
the enemy already in our midst. 
Unless our educators and legisla- 
tors pursue such a course, we dare 
say, the civilization of the nine- 
teenth century, the pride and 
boast over all the centuries gone 
must carry into the twentieth an 
element of increasing danger, 
fraught with all the possibilities of 
early decay, if not of final annihi- 
lation. O. C. O. 

Chapel Hill, March, 1886.. 





How dreamlike are the memo- 
ries of the Confederate war! As 
to countless sad and terrible scenes 
of the bloody four years, many a 
poor heart may well cry out, Oh 
that I could forget them! But 
that reign of agony, blighting and 
death — like all great chapters in 
human history — was crowded with 
illustrations of grand truths that 
cannot be too faithfully cherished 
or too earnestly inculcated. 

But it is not my purpose to 
paint a picture of any of the thrill- 
ing events that made the desper- 
ate struggle so awful and so mem- 
orable. I turn rather to a simple 
story of what happened in days 
of comparative quiet, and seek an 
unexciting but valuable lesson 
from a few days in the life of one 
of North Carolina's bravest and 
noblest sons. 

In the autumn of 1861 I was for 
a short time connected as chap- 
lain with the 6th Regiment of 
North Carolina Troops. The regi- 
ment was then encamped a few 
miles from the Potomac, on a road 
leading from Dumfries to Bacon 
Race. The heroic Col. Fisher hav- 
ing fallen at Manassas, W. D. Pen- 
der was appointed to the com- 
mand. His training at West Point 

and in the army had developed 
his natural thoughtfulness and 
love of system and devotion to 
duty. A strict disciplinarian, he 
taught obedience to orders by his 
own unswerving example as well 
as by a faithful exercise of his au- 
thority. Soon after I reached the 
regiment I was quite surprised by 
the Colonel's seeking a direct in- 
terview with me on the subject of 
personal religion. I found that he 
was deeply concerned about his 
spiritual condition, and that he 
was availing himself of the lull in 
the storm to examine the all im- 
portant question, and to secure, if 
possible, an assurance of his re- 
conciliation with his God. He 
knew what war was, and he evi- 
dently had serious convictions 
that he was approaching a tremen- 
dous conflict. He had fought the 
Indians in the far west. I remem- 
ber his stating that in one engage- 
ment with them the troops fired 
sixty rounds before the fight 
ended. He knew that hard fight- 
ing meant wounds and death ; and 
he knew that hard fighting was 
coming. He expected to be true 
to duty; and he was sure that that 
would lead him where death held 
high carnival. If need be, he was 



going to die for his country; and 
he wished to be ready to die. A 
more deliberate and concentrated 
spiritual effort I have never wit- 
nessed. I recall him now as he 
came to the door of my tent with 
his bible in his hand, or as he sat 
in his own tent and buried his 
thoughts in the words of eternal 
truth. He would seek with all his 
mind to find the meaning of the 
scriptures; and, with solicitude 
that embarrassed me in my con- 
scious need of knowledge and 
judgment, he would ask me to ex- 
plain what he could not under- 
stand. He evinced no want of 
moral courage — never seemed in 
the sligtest degree inclined to con- 
ceal his godly purpose and effort 
from his officers and men. Neither 
did he present the faintest sem- 
blance of ostentation. In this, as 
in all else, his whole soul was ab- 
sorbed in what he felt to be his 
duty — and he looked neither to 
the right nor to the left. Through 
repentance and faith he walked 
along "the new and living way" 
to the Father's pardoning love. 

Finally he became satisfied that 
he was ready to connect himself 
with the Church of God. He did 
not appear to have any decided 
preference for any denomination, 
but expressed himself in favor of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church 
because his wife belonged to it, — 
speaking touchingly of their at- 
tending the house of God to- 

gether. On a pleasant Saturday 
he ordered both his fine horses to 
be saddled, and invited me to ride 
with him to Hampton's Legion to 
see the Rev. A. Toomer Porter 
and get him to come next day to 
our camp and baptize him. That 
was an impressive fact — that rapid 
ride by the devoted Colonel, to a 
command miles away, to formally 
request a minister to come and 
induct him into the household of 
God. At the Legion I remember 
specially meeting the handsome 
and dashing Stephen D. Lee, af- 
terwards Lieutenant General, and 
hearing him rejoice over some fine 
English guns that had just been 
received for his battery. Col. Pen- 
der was genial and friendly, but 
addressed himself earnestly to the 
main object of his visit, and not 
only engaged the minister but also 
invited Lee to act as one of the 

The Sabbath dawned clear, 
beautiful and bracing. A rude 
pulpit was constructed in the edge 
of the forest. At the hour for 
divine service the regiment gath- 
ered and arranged themselves at 
will on the carpet of autumn 
leaves among the trees — some sit- 
ting, some leaning against the 
oaks. The spirit given the hour 
by the Colonel's self-offering to 
God may have made all those hun- 
dreds so respectful and attentive. 
The songs that perhaps many had 
often heard and sung in the peace- 



ful churches at home rang out 
through the wood and floated 
away with the kindly breeze. 
Next came the single voice of the 
chaplain in prayer, and then the 
sermon. The leading thought in 
the sermon was " The inconstancy 
of human fortune" ; or " The law 
of change." When the discourse 
was finished, the Rev. Mr. Porter 
took charge of the exercises and 
proceeded to administer the holy 
Rite. Captain Stephen D. Lee 
and Maj. Benjamin Alston were 
the witnesses. The eye of mem- 
ory still beholds the scene as the 
brave Colonel kneeled with un- 
covered head in the presence of 
the men to whom he owed the ex- 

ample of all fidelity, and taught 
them the first and greatest duty 
in times of war as in times of 

From that hour the ultimate 
basis of his unflinching courage 
was the sacred consciousness that 
he was a child of God — an heir of 
everlasting life. 

It may be well to add that it 
would have been far better, had 
an earlier period in his life been 
ennobled by this sublimest act of 
his brave career. 

Man is never prepared for duty 
till he becomes a willing, trusting,, 
loving servant of God. 

A. W. M„ 


" The moon on the leaf shines bright, love, 
The bird sings sweetly to the night, love, 
I ask no sadder delight, love, 

Than to sigh with the south winds to thee ! 
|:Could I but whisper as lowly, 
Or steal to the lattice as si >wly, 
I'd bathe with a spirit as holy 

That brow which is dearest to me. :|| 

Warm hearts were not made for the day; 

They pine when the stars fade away, love, 
Then feast on the night while we may, 

Who knows what the morrow may bring? 
|:Friends may be parted — the dearest,. 
Ties may be broken — the nearest, 
Cold death may come, which is drearest. 

And shatter the hopes where we cling. :||" 




I do not know of a more inter- 
esting country than the middle 
section of North Carolina. The 
land is not only full of all the 
bounties and beauties of nature 
but its history is equally full of 
romantic episodes of peace and 
war. The names of some of its 
■counties and towns and streams 
are associated with the great civil 
and military epochs of our annals. 
The names of others call to mind 
the Indians, whom we have driven 
from their homes. As this peo- 
ple passed away to the setting 
sun they have left their musical 
names well-nigh the sole relics 
-of their language; their sepulchral 
mounds and mouldering skele- 
tons and tawdry ornaments, the 
•ghastly mementoes of their stal- 
wart warriors and graceful mai- 
dens ; the arrow and tomahawk 
heads of flint, the harmless sur- 
vivors of their once dreaded war- 

We can change the verses writ- 
ten by a southern poet for Ala- 
bama's rivers to illustrate our own 

Yes ! Iho' they all have passed away— 

That noble race and brave — 
Tho' their light canoes have vanished 

From off the crested wave ; 
Tho' 'mid the forest where they roved, 

There rings no hunter's shout, 
Yet their names are on our waters, 

And we may not wash them out. 

Their memory liveth on our hills 

Their baptism on our shore, — 
Our everlasting rivers speak 

Their dialed of yore. 
'Tis heard where Swannanoa pours, 

His crystal tide along ; 
It sounds on Nantahaleh's shores, 

And Yadkin swells the song. 
Where lordly Roan-ok-e sweeps, 

The symphony remains, 
And swift Catawba proudly keeps, 

The echo of its strains. 
Where Tuckasee-ge's waters glide 

From rocky streams 'tis heard, 
And bright Watauga's winding tide 

Repeats the olden word ; 
Afar where nature brightly wreathed, 

Fit Eden for the free, 
Along Hiwassee's bank 'tis breathed 

And stately Tennessee : 
And then from where the clear, cold springs 

Flow fast the rolling Haw, 
The ancient melody still rings 

To Neuse and Waccamaw. 

While our sleep is undisturbed 
by fears of their horrible war- 
whoop and in our dreams we feel 
not their fingers, twined among 
our scalp-locks, let us not forget 
that they were the aborigines of 
our country, our predecessors on 
this soil, that they once loved and 
courted and married and raised 
children, played and danced and 
sang, raised crops and hunted and 
warred, aye! and held their legis- 
latures and made political speeches 
and worshipped their God in their 
humble savage way, on these beau- 
tiful hills and streams. And let 



us heed the awful lesson, that if 
we refuse to use rightly God's 
gifts' to his creatures, if we lag be- 
hind in the onward march of civi- 
lization, if we settle down in ig- 
norance and inglorious ease, not 
developing our resources or im- 
proving our mental and moral 
powers, we, too, will be over- 
whelmed by the resistless wave of 
progress. We : too, will give place 
to a stronger and wiser race, and 
antiquarians of the future will be 
digging up our bones and specu- 
lating on the habits and customs 
of another vanished race. God 
grant that no such fate shall over- 
take us, but that we may prove the 
truth of the eulogistic prophecy 
of Herbert Spencer, that America, 
composed of the most energetic 
elements of the Old World, work- 
ing in a land of vast resources, 
with the most favoring condi- 
tions of climate and soil, unfet- 
tered by the paralyzing political 
systems, which affect the nine- 
teenth century of Europe with 
many of the evils of the Middle 
Ages, will develop into the great- 
est people the world has yet seen. 
Two of the piedmont counties, 
Catawba and Yadkin, have rivers 
flowingby and through them, bear- 
ing their names, which bring to 
mind most thrilling incidents of 
the Revolutionary War. The gal- 
lant Morgan fighting in defiance of 
the prudential maxims of war, 
had humbled Tarleton at Cowpens 

and captured many prisoners and 
guns and amunition. Cornwallis, 
only 25 miles distant, with his 
trained army of veterans hastened 
to avenge the disgrace. It was in 
the dead of winter. The roads 
were softened by the continued 
rains. The Americans were mostly 
militia unaccustomed to rapid 
orderly marching. Escape would 
be easy if the prisoners should be 
released, but the stout old wagon- 
er-warrior determined to hurry 
them to the mountain fortresses- 
and hold them securely there. 
For twelve days the pursuit con- 
tinued. Nearer and nearer rushed 
on the pursuing foe. Success 
seemed almost in Corwallis' grasp. 
From the summit of every hill 
could be seen only a few miles off 
the retreating columns, foot-sore 
and weary, in front the luckless 
prisoners, in the rear the dauntless 
rearguards. Softly and pleasantly 
flowed the beautiful river over the 
pebbles of its Island Ford. Swiftly 
and easily through the waters the 
flying column passed. Up the 
steep hills they toiled, and then 
rested for the night, while the 
vengeful British only two hours 
behind waited until the morning 
light should direct their steps to 
sure and easy victory. 

Man proposes, God disposes ! 
The race is not always to the swift, 
nor the battle to the strong ! As 
the Red Sea Waves saved the 
trembling Israelites from boasting. 



Pharaoh's hordes, as Old Father 
Tiber drove back Lars Porsena of 
Clusium from the gates of Rome, 
where Horatius kept the bridge, 
so the mighty Catawba roused 
himself in his fury to thwart the 
exulting Briton. From the slopes 
of the Brushy and South and Lin- 
ville and the distant Blue Ridge 
Mountains poured the angry tor- 
rents, and when the gray light of 
morning broke, a yellow flood, 
swift and deep and strong, raged in 
his front. The Greeks or the 
Romans would have deified the 
protecting river, and in a lofty 
temple, with splendid architectural 
adornments, would have been a 
noble statue, carved with wonder- 
ful art, dedicated to Catawba Sal- 
vator, the protecting River God. 
After a short rest, Cornwallis, 
who was an active and able officer, 
in later years distinguished as 
Viceroy of Ireland and Governor- 
General of India, burnt the super- 
fluous baggage of his troops and 
hurried to overtake and destroy 
Greene's army,then being gathered 
out of the fragments of the forces 
of Gates, scattered at Camden. 
Small bodies of militia guarded 
the fords of the Catawba, now be- 
come passible. At Cowan's ford 
was a young officer, who had 
gained promotion under the eye 
of the great Washington at 
Brandywine, Germantown and 
Monmouth. He was in the place 
of Rutherford captured at Cam- 

den, Brigadier General of the 
Militia of the section. He was an 
active and able commander, who 
had infused his fiery energy and 
pluck into the people. Making a 
pretended attackat Beattie's Ford, 
Cornwallis directed all the force 
of his army at Cowan's Ford. A 
spirited resistance was made 
against the overwhelming odds, 
and the young General was left 
dead on the bloody field. The 
Continental Congress in grateful 
recognition of his services voted 
that a monument be erected to 
his memory, but a hundred re- 
volving years have not witnessed 
the inception of this worthy un- 
dertaking. North Carolina has 
erected a far more enduring monu- 
ment by giving the name of 
William Davidson t o one of 
her most prosperous counties. 

Forward in rapid retreat push 
the thin columns of Greene ; for- 
ward in rapid pursuit press the 
strong forces of Cornwallis. The 
fortunes of the entire Southern 
country tremble in the balance. 
If Greene's army shall be saved, 
he will rally around him the scat- 
tered patriots and soon confront 
his adversary, ready on more equal 
terms to contend for the mastery. 
If it shall be overtaken, nothing 
can save it from destruction, and 
from the James River to the Chat- 
tahoochee the standard of King 
George will be raised over a con- 
quered people. The eyes of all 



friends of liberty are turned with 
alarmed anxiety towards the un- 
equal contest. 

Again does the God of Battles, 
interpose to thwart the well-laid 
scheme. Again do the descend- 
ing floods dash their angry waters 
in front of the baffled Britons. 
Again does the flushed and fu- 
rious foe stand powerless. The no- 
ble Yadkin emulaces her sister, Ca- 
tawba, and interposes her swollen 

stream, fierce and deep, between 
him and the object of his ven- 
geance. And whenever we see 
the river's floods inundating our 
farms and sweeping away the fruit 
of our labors — the green corn or 
the golden wheat — let it be a com- 
fort that similar floods saved 
Greene's army, made possible the 
surrender at Yorktown and gained 
the Independence of America. 
Kemp P. Battle. 


To-night as I sit watching the 
fantastic motions of the fire, 
memories of a visit to the Queen 
city of the South steal over me 
like strains of distant music creep- 
ing upon the ear in a quiet sum- 
mer evening. 

It is morning in the great city 
of New Orleans, the city of 
palatial residences, regal wealth, 
lovely women, and — organ grind- 
ers. Everybody is busy, each 
man in this great seething mass 
upon the streets seems bending 
to some definite end every energy 
of his nature. Come, friend, since 
we occupy no place in the thoughts 
or interests of this ever-flowing 
river of humanity, suppose we 
take a quiet stroll together. 
Have'nt time, you say? Well, I 
will not detain you long, and you 

may leave me just as soon a? you 
wish, turn off at the next corner 
if you want to. I should regret 
it, however, if you were to desert 
me so soon, because I like you, 
you have a very interesting face. 
But before we set out, let us glance 
a moment at the town hall, there 
are some interesting memories, 
connected with that place. It 
was up this street the Federal en- 
voys marched when sent to de- 
mand the surrender of the city. 
Coolly and calmly they walked, 
although directly in front of them 
matches were blazing oVer cannon 
loaded and pointed at them by 
the defenders of the city. The 
crowd was defiant. Never should 
the flag be lowered which floated 
in triumph above the old hall, 
though they well knew that the 



fleet upon the river could in a 
short time destroy the city. Sud- 
denly the Mayor, knowing that 
the first shot will be the signal for 
■the destruction of the city and 
many of its inhabitants, steps out 
in front of the guns, and with 
head proudly thrown back, and 
• eyes that flash a noble, patriotic 
fire, tells his neighbors that, if 
they fire, he is their victim. Pass 
not the spot, comrade, without the 
tribute of a thought, for on this 
little stage the human soul stood 
forth in all its grandeur. But on, 
on we go, and now just over 
yonder is the Mississippi. Ah! 
see out there, where not many 
years ago the Federal fleet an- 
chored, the stars and stripes float- 
ing above the deck of a man-of- 
war. How the heart bounds as 
we stand upon its neat deck! It 
•causes one to have strangely 
buoyant feelings to be out upon 
the water, does it not my friend? 
Away we go to explore every 
nook and corner of the ship, our 
souls fired by the stirring music 
of the band. Everything is per- 
fectly clean and in exact order. 
The weapons are so bright they 
dazzle the eyes of the beholder. 
And here and there we find the 
form of a sailor crouched upon 
the floor writing to loved ones far 
away. Or, perhaps, we see some 
master of the needle engaged in 
improving the condition of his 
wardrobe. And over yonder in 

that corner, industriously flour- 
ishing his razor, a potentate of the 
brush is plying his art. But hark ! 
loud enough to startle the seven 
sleepers comes the cry, " man over- 
board !" " man overboard ! !" Up 
every one rushes to the poop, and 
we anxiously scan the river, ex- 
pecting to see a desperate swim- 
mer fighting with the waves. But 
no, it was a false alarm caused by 
one of the boats being washed by 
the waves from its fastenings, and 
we could now see it floating down 
the river. An officer seized a 
speaking trumpet and called out 
to the launch, then crossing the 
river, to catch the boat and bring 
it back. "Aye, aye sir," comes 
the answer across the rolling sur- 
face of the river, and with the 
regularity of a machine the duty 
is performed. 

Leaving the Tennessee, we go 
on board a small steamer which 
runs down the river to Chalmette, 
where the battle of New Orleans 
was fought. Chalmette is about 
three miles below New Orleans. 
Having arrived there we jump 
up on the bank and enter the en- 
closure. The cemetery is in the 
form of a rectangle, divided into 
two equal parts by a broad walk. 
In its centre is a very pretty 
monument, a plain marble column 
placed upon a square pedestal, 
about the base of which are heaped 
cannon and round shot. Flowers 
and evergreens are scattered here 



and there with elegance and taste. 
On either side of the central lane, 
extending out in regular rows, are 
the graves. Upon the small mar- 
ble tomb-stones we sometimes 
find no epitaph save this, " un- 
known" In a foreign land this 
" unknown" soldier fought and 
died and all he gained was this 
handful of earth, this little piece 
of marble ; by his side rests a cap- 
tain, he obtained no more. Un- 
known ? no, somewhere there were 
those who knew and loved him no 
matter what his life had been. 
Long and anxiously they watched 
for his return, as budding Spring 
blossomed into Summer, and as 
Summer grew into Autumn still 
they waited, but waited all in vain. 
Friend, have you never known a 
sweet hope, v/hich you cherished 
as the joy of your life, to slowly 
fade away as the flush of life van- 
ishes from the cheek of death? 
Marble slabs are fixed at different 
points, bearing inscriptions like 
the following: 

" The muffled drum's sad roll has beat 
The soldier's last tattoo ; 
No more on life's parade shall meet 
That brave and fallen few." 

An hour quickly passed, and 
again we are seated upon the deck 
of the Tilda M., slowly moving up 
the river. As we approach the 
city we pass vessels, above whose 
decks float the flags, of various 
nations. Arrived at Canal street 
we go a short distance and turn 

into St. Charles street, which 
brings us at last to Lee's statute. 
This monument nobly commemo- 
rates the South's greatest hero. It 
is placed upon an artificial mound, 
around which flowers are taste- 
fully arranged, while seats are 
fixed at intervals for the benefit 
of idlers. Calmly, majestically, 
the form of the great leader rises 
into the air, above the smoke and 
bustle of the city below, seeming 
to have more connection with 
heaven than with the earth. Above 
the din and rush of the world it 
towers, a noble prototype of our 
beloved South just emerging from 
the chaos that followed her long 

Come, comrade, let us take a 
seat among the loungers and study 
for a moment the varied throng. 
See yonder on the bench next to 
us, that vivacious Frenchman, 
wildly gesticulating. He is the 
happy man, sorrow rarely affects 
him, or, if it does, it sweeps over 
his soul like an April shower, 
and only leaves him the brighter 
afterward. Seldom is he too sad 
to sing the gay chanson which he 
learned on the pleasant banks of 
the Loire, or in the sunny regions 
of the Garonne. But notice that 
gloomy Spaniard, as he walks 
down the street with stately, sol- 
emn tread. Nothing would de- 
light him more than to sit down 
here and tell us some wild Span- 
ish romance, reciting the achieve- 



ments of the Cid, and relating 
many a thrilling story of the Moor- 
ish Vars. Surrounded with the 
evidences of his country's decline, 
he keeps alive his pride by think- 
ing upon what she was, forgetting 
what she is. That Englishman 
walking with the Spaniard is some- 
what like him in disposition. He 
would like to weary us by singing 
a long melancholy ditty, or by 
treating of some feudal hero, or 
famous outlaw of his distant 
island. And the German walking 
behind them there, with his pack 
upon his back, is well worth a 
moment of study. Notwithstand- 
ing his coarse features and appa- 
rently degraded condition, he is 
better educated than either of the 
two pompous gentlemen who pre- 
cede him. He goes at everything 
with system, chanting a doughty 
war song, or smacking his lips 
while he thinks of the vintage of 
the Rhine. Nor is the Chinaman 
wanting in this motley throng. 
Yonder he goes now, attempting 
to carry himself in an extremely 
dignified manner. Even flattery 
would be unable to discover the 
slightest resemblance between his 
complexion and the color of rice, 
while there is certainly nothing in 
his movements that would sug- 
gest the grace of the bamboo. 
Slowly and continuously the 
crowd drifts by, going— where? 
Each one is chasing his favorite 
phantom, but how many, when 

they sink into the cold grave, will 
be attended only by shattered 
hopes and disappointed expecta- 
tions — expectations which once 
budded like the rose, but long 
since had drooped as the willow? 
Did you ask me to go to the the- 
atre? Certainly, I will go with 
pleasure ; but first suppose we try 
the beneficent effect of a whole- 
some repast at some neighboring 
restaurant. This pleasant under- 
taking having been attended to, 
we arrive at the Academy of Music 
just as the crowd is rushing in. 
We purchase tickets, and happen 
to get very good seats. Scanlan 
plays " Friend and Foe" to-nio-ht, 
and we await with impatience the 
time for the curtain to rise. At 
last the play begins and all is ex- 
pectation, for Scanlan is a very 
popular actor. The parts are well 
acted, and the interest of the au- 
dience is constantly kept up. But 
far more interesting than the play 
are the songs which Scanlan sings. 
Some of them are: "Moonlight 
at Killarney," " Only to see you. 
my Darling," and a few pieces 
written by himself, among others, 
the celebrated " Peekaboo." It 
is impossible to describe the pecu- 
liar charm of his melodious voice ; 
the audience is spell-bound while 
he sings, and every one bends for- 
ward and holds his breath, attempt- 
ing to catch every syllable as it 
falls from his lips. The influence 
of music is supreme. Ah, music, 



thou art indeed powerful! The 
savage and the civilized alike ac- 
knowledge thy power, and thee 
alone of his mundane enjoyments 
has man deigned to transplant 
into his Beyond, whether he call 
that world of bliss Paradise, Wal- 
halla, or Nirwana. Not only does 
he desire thee to comfort him in 
his sorrow, but even in his joy he 
longs for thy sympathizing touch. 
Well has some one said, "The 
human soul is one vast harp, and 
every chord vibrates to the touch 
of music." Now the last scene is 
reached, and Scanlan comes upon 
the stage with a rose pinned on 
his coat and begins to sing a love 
song. See, while he is singing the 

"Take this rose, love, and keep it," 

he unpins the flower and tosses it 
among the ladies in the parquet, 
and immediately there ensues 
among the fair ones quite a strug- 
gle for the possession of the rose. 
The play is ended and the cur- 
tain falls, and rising we are borne 
out into the street by the moving 
crowd. Shall we take a run over 
to Spanish Fort to-morrow? Have 
an engagement? I shall be com- 
pelled to deny myself the pleas- 
ure of your company then ; I re- 
gret very much, however, that it 
is necessary, for chance never 
threw in my way a more pleasant 
acquaintance than you have been. 
You remind me of — of — it mat- 
ters not who. Au revoir, monsieur. 
M. W. E. 


[The following lines were written by the 
devoted missionary, Mrs. Rouse, wife of the 
Rev. G. H. Rouse, L.L.B., of the English 
Baptist Mission, Calcutta, during an illness 
in November of 1878. The writer died in 

Where Thou wilt, Lord Jesus, 
With my loved ones round, 

Or in lonely stillness, 
Not one friendly sound, 

Still beside me Thou wilt stand, 

Ever hold my trembling hand. 

How Thou wilt, Lord Jesus, 

Lingering sickness known, 
Or with sudden swiftness 

Called before Thy throne ; 
Freed from fear and cleansed from guilt, 
Send what messenger Thou wilt. 

When Thou wilt, Lord Jesus, 

Mid life's busy care, 
Or my day's work ended, 

Serving but by prayer ; 
When the chosen hour is come, 
Take me. Lord, to rest at home. 




To-day we tread the green vales 
of youth, and the flowers of pleas- 
ure bloom in rich profusion around 
our path. But the time of dreams 
is near a close. The chilling finger 
of the world is laid upon our brow, 
and we start from our dreamy 
stupor to find the fancy-reared 
castles of youth scattered to the 
winds. The stern problems of 
existence present a horrid front. 
We find in truth that life is no 
" empty dream," no, 

" Life is real, life is earnest, 
And the grave is not its goal." 

There is no room in this bust- 
ling world for drones, for 

" The busy world shoves angrily aside 
The man who stands with arms akimbo set 
Until occasion tells him what to do ; 
And he who waits to have his task mark- 
ed out 
Shall die, and leave his errand unfulfilled." 

This is a busy rushing world, 
woe to the man who stops to tie 
his shoes. Will the true man 
quail? Will he slug-like draw his 
form within a shell and idly sleep 
while the roar of the ever moving 
world rolls unheeded by? It is his 
duty to make a success of life, and 
hence a desire to succeed is plant- 
ed in his bosom. Our life is what 
we make it; either a burden as 
heavy as that borne by the brawny 
shoulders of the fabled Atlas of 
old, or a bright and shining path 

that closing casts its rays behind. 
When a sharp-shooter intends 
to hit a distant target, he aims 
above the mark; thus making an 
allowance for the fall of his mis- 
sile. So must man aim high, for 
he may be sure that the reality 
will never equal the ideal. As a 
general rule, the higher the ideal 
the higher the reality. 

A high aim ennobles man's 
character, sustains him in tempta- 
tions, and brings him out of trials, 
refined and purified. It prompts 
him to the right path, and wakes 
him when sluggishness would bid 
him sleep. Success is impossible 
without this exalted aim. And 
recorded facts seem to warrant 
the assertion. 

'Twas this ideal that led New- 
ton on, and bade him explore the 
mysteries of the starry seas. There 
he dropped his plummet and 
sounded the depths of constella- 
tions, and is to-day known as the 
"Columbus of the skies," 

Columbus saw that life in the 
Orient was nought but cruelty 
and oppression, and that a "new 
world would be called into being 
to redress the balance of the old." 
His lofty aim sustained him amid 
his murmuring crew, carried him 
across the blue Atlanticand show- 
ed him a world more plentiful 



than Canaan, and more beautiful 
than the fabled gardens of Hes- 

The high aim of Watt has made 
him the greatest benefactor of 
man. The smoke which clouds 
the busy scenes of industry is a 
sweet incense to his memory. 
And the electric thrill of thought, 
that flashes from continent to 
•continent, is more eloquent in 
eulogy of Morse, than could be 
given by the silver tongues of the 
world's most gifted orators. 

The shrill shriek of the freight- 
ed car is the clarion note that tells 
the world that Stephenson is yet 
alive. And the baffled winds of 
the stormy ocean, as they sing the 
mournful requiem of their depart- 
ed power, chant the praises of 
Robert Fulton. 

Thus it is seen that an exalted 
ideal is the pole-star of every truly 
successful life. 'Tis indeed the 
true philosopher's stone that trans- 
forms by Heavenly alchemy the 
trials, cares and troubles of this 
stormy journey into a life of peace 
and quiet, illumined by a radiance 
from the sweet beyond. Then let 
your aim be high. Work with an 
eye single to that ideal, and suc- 
cess, if deserved, will surely come. 
But there is another phase of 
this subject. The chief end of 
man is not worldly success. There 
is something higher to be gained. 
Young men, while you strive for 

honors here, look beyond the 
creature to the Creator. Choose 
your vocation and let that teach 
you to strive for more exalted 
things. Be a specialist. 

Should medicine be your choice, 
seek the remedy for human ail- 
ments. Be the guardian angel 
that averts and alleviates the pain 
and suffering of the human family. 
But do not stop there. Seek till 
you find the panacea for all dis- 
orders, the never failing catholicon 
dealt out by the Great Physician, 
who doctors men's souls. 

But should you choose the Law, 
then be the first in your profes- 
sion. But see that the counsel in 
your case is the Great Advocate 
who will plead your cause before 
the eternal Bar while cycles roll 
and ages go grinding on. 

If you like Geology, then be the 
best Geologist ; but pause not 
until your feet are free from the 
sinking clay, and you rest secure 
on the "Stone which the builders 
rejected," and the " Rock of Ages." 
If Botany be your favorite study, 
then excel in that branch. But 
look beyond the perishable flower 
that blooms in the vale to the re- 
splendent beauty and loveliness of 
the " Lilly of the valley," and the 
" Rose of Sharon." 

But if Astronomy be your incli- 
nation, search well the realms of 
constellations ; but cease not the 
telescopic survey until yOu can 
see with " faith's discerning eye" 
the Star of Bethlehem, the "Sun 
of Righteousness." 

P. R. Van Helaxyme. 




BY K. E. Y. 

Upon arriving in the largest city 

of Christendom, my friend C 

and I directed our cabman to 
drive us to a not very pretentious 
but quite a good hotel which had 
been recommended in Edinburgh 
to us as being of the first class. 
Upon applying there, we were in- 
formed that not an apartment, 
not even sleeping room for the 
night could be had, all the rooms 
being full. As we had dismissed 
our cab, we inquired if they could 
direct us to any other hotel near 
by where we could find quarters 
for the night. We were told that 
a short distance away on the other 
side of the street there was a ho- 
tel fairly good. I suppose comity 
of inn-keepers prevented him from 
expressing himself differently. At 
any rate, we hied us there and 
were told that the best moms were 
occupied, but that if we could put 
up with a room " in the old part 
of the house," it was at our ser- 
vice. Our decision was turned 
into almost refusal when we were 
shown the entrance to our apart- 
ment, but after considering the 
matter in all of its lights, we re- 
solved to take it for one night 
rather than prosecute farther 
search. It was our intention on 

the morrow to rent furnished 
apartments in that part of the city 
most convenient for the sight- 
seer, and on this plan to take our 
meals at the nearest restaurant to 
where we might happen at meal- 
times to be. The room before us 
was far from inviting. Dingy and 
miserable it was in all its appoint- 
ments, situated back "in the old 
part of the house" indeed, and 
with one gable window looking 
down into a narrow alley and 
across into a similar window over 
the way. Through the window 
over the way two fair(?) damsels 
were pleased next morning to 
carry on a conversation with us as 
we made our toilet, inquiring if 
we would not each like a nice 
" glarse" of porter this fine morn- 
ing. We declined with thanks. 
It was a question how, in case of 
acceptance, the porter was to reach 
us. Presumably on a plank placed 
between the windows, after the 
manner of an ice slide. Before re- 
tiring the night previous, we ex- 
amined the floor around the bed 
in search of the proverbial trap- 
door through which during the 
night we were to be let down to 
parts unknown and horrors un- 
told. Not finding any, we con- 



eluded that it was nevertheless 
there, but so cleverly arranged as 
to baffle detection. And so we 
retired, resigned to our fate. 

Next morning we gladly de- 
parted to seek permanent apart- 
ments. First, we wandered around 
in search of an agency. Some peo- 
ple doubtless feel important at all 
times and in all places, but as Ave 
walked here and there in our first 
tramp in that mighty town, we 
were each of us beset with a feel- 
ing of paramount insignificance 
and loneliness. This was only 
temporary, however, as it required 
not long, thanks to unstinted open 
air, consultation of our maps and 
guide-books, to " get our bear- 
ings," and find our way about 
with confidence and precision. 
The agency found, we decided on 
apartments on Regent street, W., 
and were soon in possession there 

The city of London is divided 
into eight postal districts — the 
Eastern, Northern, North West- 
ern, Western, South Western, 
South Eastern, East Central, and 
West Central, which are designa- 
ted by the capital letters E., N., 
N. W., W., S. W., S. E., E. C, and 
W. C. I state this because, before 
going there, I remember to have 
been often puzzled to know what 
was meant by " London, E. C," 
or " London, W." The city is 
also divided into two great divis- 
ions. The first is the City and the 

East End, lying to the east of the 
Temple (now a kind of law school), 
comprising the commercial and 
money-making quarters, and con- • 
taining the Docks, Bank, Ex- 
change, Times Office, Counting 
Houses, &c. The second is the 
West End, lying west of the Tem- 
ple, and being that quarter of 
London which "spends money, 
makes laws, regulates fashions, 
contains the Queen's palace, the 
mansions of the aristocracy, the 
clubs, museums, picture galleries,, 
theatres, barracks, government 
offices, houses of parliament, West- 
minster Abbey, and is the special 
locality for parks, squares and 
gardens, for gorgeous equipages 
and powdered lackeys." The West 
End, then, is the most convenient 
locality for the tourist, and hardly 
a better street than Regent could 
be found. 

A few statistics about London, 
which I have compiled, may prove 
of interest. A trustworthy esti- 
mate of the population of London 
cannot be obtained farther back 
than two hundred years. Once 
the "City within the Walls" com- 
prised all ; afterwards was added 
the "City without the Walls"; 
then in succession were embraced 
.the city and liberties of Westmin- 
ster, the borough of Southwark, 
south of the river, numerous par- 
ishes between the two cities and 
other parishes encircling the 
whole, all of which finally came 



to be embraced under the name 
of 'London.' In 1700 A. D., the 
population was about 700,000, in 
1800, 900,000, and in 1821, 1,300,- 
000. The original " city" of Lon- 
don covered less than one square 
mile. Now London is 14 miles 
in length, 8 miles in breadth, cov- 
ers an area of 122 square miles, 
and is constantly extending. On 
a rough estimate this area includes 
about seven thousand four hun- 
dred streets, or enough if placed 
end to end in a continuous line, 
to extend 2,600 miles. These 
streets are lighted by about one 
million gas-lamps, consuming daily 
about twenty-eight million cubic 
feet of gas. There are 528,794 
buildings, comprising 1,100 
churches, 7,500 public houses, 
1,700 coffee houses, 500 hotels and 
inns, and the remainder of various 
descriptions. The Metropolitan 
Police District extends from twelve 
to fifteen miles in every direction 
from Charing Cross, and may be 
considered really the extent of 
the true city considered as the to- 
tal aggregation of buildings. This 
contains 6,600 miles of streets. 
Thirteen years ago London prop- 
er had a population of 3,264,530 
souls, or within the Metropolitan 
Police District 3,810,744. Among 
these were 2,800 master-tailors, 
2,500 bakers, 2, 100 butchers, many 
thousands of men and women em- 
ployed by these, and 300,000 do- 
mestic servants. At present the 

Police District possesses a popu- 
lation of nearly if not quite 5,000,- 
000, or a population equal to the 
combined populations of New 
York, Philadelphia, Brooklyn, 
Chicago, Boston, Baltimore, St. 
Louis and Cincinnati, with near 
the half of San Francisco thrown 
in. Were the entire population 
of London drawn up as if on dress- 
parade, they would present a con- 
tinuous line with a frontage of 
near 2,000 miles. 

It is said that there are in Lon- 
don more Scotchmen than in Edin- 
burgh, more Irish than in Dublin, 
more Jews than in Palestine and 
more Roman Catholics than in 
Rome ! The statistics that I have 
consulted further state that, ap- 
proximately, the London folks 
keep soul and body together by 
consuming annually, 2,000,000 
quarters of wheat (16,000,000 
bushels), 400,000 oxen, 1,500,000 
sheep, 130,000 calves, 250,000 
hogs, 8,000,000 head of poultry 
and game, 400,000,000 lbs. of fish, 
500,000,000 oysters, 1,200,000 lob- 
sters, and 3,000,000 salmon. The 
butcher meat alone is valued at 
50,000,000 1, (about $250,000,- 
000). All this food they wash 
down with 180,000,000 quarts of 
porter and ale, 8,000,000 quarts of 
spirits, 31,000,000 quarts of wine, 
not to speak of a daily supply of 
150,000,000 gallons of water by 
nine water companies. About 
3,500,000 tons of coal are brought 



yearly to the city by boat and 3,- 
000,000 by rail. The money spent 
by the whole population annually 
is at least 200,000,000 1. (or about 
$1,000,000,000.) About 20,000 
vessels annually enter the port of 
London, and the average value of 
exports from the Thames is not 
less than 100,000,000 1. ($500, 

The above may give some idea 
of the mightiness of the city that 

my friend C and myself had 

determined to "do." We began 
by taking a stroll, during which 
we wandered through Pall Mall, 
the "centre of club-life and a 
street of modern palaces," to the 
strand ; then back, and up Regent 
street to Grosvenor, and finally 
took a turn in famous Hyde Park, 
which is perhaps the most fre- 
quented place in London, cover- 
ing 390 acres and surrounded by a 
handsome iron railing, the four 
carriage entrances to which are 
promptly closed at midnight. 
One may walk on strand, on 
Regent St. on Picadilly or on Ox- 
ford St. but on none will he find 
such a multitude and diversity of 
vehicles as on Broadway New 
York. The reason of this is ap- 
parent ; New York has only one 
Broadway, London has many, and 
her traffic is therefore more dis- 
tributed. Only on London Bridge 
is the traffic of Broadway excelled. 
The variegated and more showy 

store fronts of New York are in 
London replaced by store build- 
ings more subdued in color but 
much more massive and stately. 
New York is the city of brick, 
London of stone ; New York of 
light and small buildings ; London 
of massive piles. 

It was Friday, I think, that we 
had set aside for a visit to the 
historic old Tower. It is situated, 
as all know, on the river's bank, 
and is reached by a course east 
from Regent street, leading by 
St. Paul's, to which, of course, we 
shall return after a while, and the 
Bank of England. The latter 
building strikes the observer 
chiefly by its massiveness, its low- 
ness, being of only one story, 
and its consequent extent, cover- 
ing, as it does, about four acres. 
There is little in its architecture 
to strike or attract the eye, but, 
as you contemplate it, sugges- 
tions must present themselves of 
the stupendous amount of mone- 
tary transactions there carried on 
yearly, and the solidity of its 
credit you know to be as great as 
that of the building which cradles 
it. It is the only bank in London 
having the power to issue paper 
money. Its capital is perhaps 
upwards of seventy odd million 
dollars. Farther on we come to 
the monument, a tall, fluted 
column, surmounted by an urn 
with blazing flames, erected to 



commemorate the Great Fire 
which in 1666 wrought such des- 
truction to property in this quar- 
ter of London. Its height, about 
200 feet, is said to be equal to its 
distance from the spot where the 
fire originated. As its summit 
commands one of the best views 
of London to be had, we decided 
to ascend, and found ourselves at 
the top after toiling up 310 steps, 
by my count. 

From this elevation we viewed 
through an iron cage (placed there 
to put a stop to suicides from the 
monument) the mighty city be- 
low us, stretching on every side 
as far as the eye could reach, a 
vast ocean of compactly built 
houses, bristling spires, lordly 
domes, and busy life. We obtain- 
ed while in London several bird's- 
eye views of the city from differ- 
ent eminences, but at no time 
could we see at any point on the 
horizon the outlying country be- 
yond. This was due, however, 
perhaps partly to that smoky haze 
which overhangs the city almost 
at all times, as well as to the im- 
mensity of the city itself. After 
descending, it was only a short 
walk farther to the Tower. 

The outward appearance of the 
Tower of London is different from 
the mental picture I used to form 
of it in my studies of English 
history. It has the appearance 
more of a castle than of a tower 
proper. Instead of a single, im- 

mense, round tower, as my boy- 
ish imagination had pictured, it 
consists really of four principal 
towers at each corner of a square 
solid structure, the whole together 
comprising what is known as The 
Tower of London. It is undoubt- 
edly the most interesting spot, 
historically, in England. What 
was at first a royal palace and 
strong-hold, though best known 
in history as a prison, is now a 
government arsenal, still kept in 
repair as a fortress. Its external 
appearance has doubtless under- 
gone many changes during the 
long period of its existence. Its 
walls are in some places from 13 
to 15 feet thick. 

We cross the moat and enter. 
To our right is the Traitor's Gate 
through which in olden times 
many a miserable wretch or un- 
fortunate nobleman passed to their 
destruction or life-long imprison- 
ment. We notice officials here 
and there in quaint attire, who 
seem to be wardens or guides. 
These are all old soldiers who, for 
some meritorious service, find 
places here, and who are officially 
designated Yeomen of the Guard, 
but more commonly known as war- 
ders or beef-eaters (i. e. buffet iers). 
Passing on we enter the Armories, 
large rooms in which is arranged 
systematically, and with most 
striking effect, a complete collec- 
tion of all kinds of weapons of 
offense and defense from the most 



remote times to the present day. 
Twenty-two equestrian figures, in 
full equipment, all in the armor of 
their time, "afford a faithful pic- 
ture, in chronological order, of 
English war-array from the time 
of Edward I. (1272) down to 
James II. (1688)," when the armor 
was almost entirely abandoned. 
Some of the armor here on exhi- 
bition is that actually owned and 
worn by the old English kings and 
noblemen, notably among which 
was a complete suit of old Henry 
VIII. Farther on we notice an 
equestrian figure of Elizabeth as 
she rode to St. Paul's to give 
thanks for the destruction of the 
Spanish Armada, the figure being 
dressed, a guard informed us, in 
the actual dress worn by that 
greatest of female sovereigns on 
the occasion named. If the figure 
is intended to be a likeness of the 
great queen, one must lose much 
of his respect for her personal ap- 
pearance, before such a hideosity 
as is this reproduction. Next we 
see the identical block and decapi- 
tating axe by which Lord Lovat, 
the last person beheaded in Eng- 
land, lost his life; and, too, is 
shown the axe by which the Earl 
of Essex is said to have lost his 
head. Leaving the armories we 
pass up through St. John's Chapel 
into the old Banqueting Hall, now 
used as a store-room for modern 
gems. En route we ascend the stair 
case under which were found the 

bones of the two young princes 
murdered by their uncle Richard 
III. Subsequently we enter that 
part of Record Tower, where are 
kept the English Regalia and State 
Plate. On cushions of satin and 
velvet, under a casing of heavy 
plate glass, surrounded by a cage 
of solid iron bars, and guarded by 
wardens, it lay before us. Such a 
magnificent display it is, that it is 
worthy of an enumeration, as cat- 
alogued. " 1. St. Edward's crown 
executed for the coronation of 
Charles II, and used on all subse- 
quent coronations. 2. Queen Vic- 
toria's crown, made in 1838, a 
masterpiece of the modern gold- 
smith's art, adorned with 2,783, 
diamonds, a large ruby in front, 
once worn by Henry V, on his 
helmet at the Battle of Agincourt,. 
and a magnificent sapphire. 3.. 
The Prince of Wale's crown, pure 
gold, no precious stones. 4. 
Queen's consort's crown, solid 
gold, jewels. 5. Queen's crown, 
a golden circlet, with diamonds, 
and pearls, made for Maria d'Este, 
wife of James II. 6. St. Edwards' 
staff, pure gold, 4J feet long, 90 
lbs. in weight, the orb at the top 
claiming to contain a piece of the 
true cross. 7. The Sceptre with 
the cross pure gold, 2 feet 9 inches- 
in length, studded with precious 
stones. 8. Sceptre with the Dove, 
gold and gems. 9. Queen Vic- 
toria's sceptre, with richly gem- 
med cross. 10. Ivory Sceptre 



of Maria d'Este, with a dove of 
white onyx. 1 1. Sceptre of Queen 
Mary, wife of William III. 12. 
The gold and jewelled coronation 
Orbs of the King and Queen." 

We were too late to see the 
Koh-i-Noor (Mountain of Light), 
one of the largest diamonds known 
(weight 162 Karats), as it had been 
removed from the Tower to Wind- 
sor Castle, but I dare say our un- 
tutored eyes could not have dis- 
tinguished the original from the 
carefully made model that lay be- 
fore us among the above collec- 
tion. 13. The gold and jewelled 
swords of Mercy and of Justice. 
14. The Coronation Bracelets. 15. 
"Royal spurs. 16. The heavy, solid 
gold coronation oil vessel, or Am- 
pulla, and the spoon. 17. The 
solid gold Salt-cellar ot State. 
18. The Baptismal Font of the 
Royal children." In addition to 
these there were basins, maces, 
plates, dishes, badges and neck- 
laces of the different Orders, all 
in such magnificent profusion as 
to rivet the gaze at such a display 
of wealth. The total value of the 
regalia is estimated at 3,000.000 1. 
(about $15,000,000). 

Leaving the regalia room, we 
descend and next inspect some of 
the dungeons and keeps of the 
Tower. We were shown the holes 
in the stone floor where was fast- 
ened the rack on which were 
stretched so many unfortunates, 

to suffer the tortures of the 
damned. We saw, too, the place 
called " little-ease," — a space be- 
tween two iron doors, with the 
thickness of the wall between, 
where Guy Fawkes was imprisoned 
for forty-two days. The dimen- 
sions of this limited prison are 
about two feet by three feet and 
eight feet high ! Unfortunately, 
by reason of some repairs then 
going on, Elizabeth's room, the 
place where the old executions 
took place, and the old dungeons 
for State prisoners, were not ac- 
cessible to visitors, though we 
passed, with only an intervening 
wall, quite near to Sir Walter 
Raleigh's cell. To recall and enu- 
merate all the historic associations 
with which this gloomy old place 
is fraught would be to rewrite 
history again. Every flag-stone 
has its story, every turnand angle 
its tale. They are tales of woe 
and suffering, of the miserable 
end or bitter anguish to which de- 
scended many of those who once 
revelled in high places. They are 
tales of the downfall of Kings, the 
degradation of princes, the flowing 
of the traitor's blood. As we 
emerged from the gloomy pre- 
cincts of the Tower and breathed 
again the pure air of heaven, it 
was like coming back from the 
domain of thraldom to that of 
liberty; like recalling ourselves 
from the dark shadows of the 
long ago into the sunshine and 
life of the busy present. We had 
been bathed in sentiment ; we 
awoke to practicality! 




The subject I have taken is a 
plain and simple one, requiring no 
argument in this age of civiliza- 
tion to show the necessity of it. 
But suppose one of our learned 
Professors could transfer himself 
back to the time when the whole 
world was in ignorance, and had 
discussed to them the advantages 
of cultivating the ground with the 
proper tools, of establishing man- 
ufacturing shops, and of rearing 
up Literary Institutions. What 
would have been the results of his 
labor? They would have rejected 
him from among them as a vain, 
contemptible, fanatical theorist. 

This is to show, that what is 
valuable is not to be obtained in 
one generation or in two, but suc- 
cessive steps in successive genera- 
tions must be taken to add some- 
thing new to the primative dis- 
covery, in order that it may arrive 
to perfection. A fine example of 
this is the Steam Engine, which, 
according to a gentleman of tal- 
ents and extensive acquirements, 
is hardly second to the works of 
our Creator. 

The first question that arises in 
the mind, is what sort of Excel- 
lence is referred to. Though I 
think with Shakespeare that "age 
cannot wither her, nor custom 
stale her infinite variety," yet I 

shall be confined to physical and 
intellectual " Excellence." 

In the golden age, beautifully 
described by Ovid, and which is 
made mention of by Virgil in his. 
first Georgic, every thing was en- 
joyed in common ; the earth of 
herself produced spontaneously 
every necessary of life without 
solicitation ; and the inhabitants 
were then in a state of primeval 
happiness, secure from vice and all 
evil passions. Thus things went 
on through the silver and brazen 
ages exhibiting few marks of de- 

" Hard steel succeeded then, 
And stubborn as the metal were the men ; 
Truth, modesty and shame the world forsook, 
Fraud, avarice and force their places took ; 
Then sails were spread to carry wind that blew, 
Rare were the sailors, and the depths were 

new ; 
Trees rudely hollowed did the waves sustain,. 
'Ere ships in triumph ploughed the watery 


This is a brief sketch of the 
origin of labor, according to the 
ancients. However ludicrous it 
may appear to us, yet it cannot be 
denied that beneath this mist of fic- 
tion some traces of the true history 
and primeval world are discovera- 
ble. The true account of the origin 
of labor would commence with the 
origin of the world. We see it 
stated in the sacred volume that 



God, the wise and glorious Author 
of Nature, worked six days and 
rested on the seventh. Now the 
example that he sets, I hope, is not 
beneath the dignity of man to 
follow. Man, " poor pensioner on 
the bounties of an hour," having 
emerged from his savage state, 
began to consider the best means 
to accomplish the most productive 
ends. These he found to be labor 
and capital. His means of accom- 
plishing any piece of work in the 
early ages of the world were very 
defective ; but civilization ad- 
vanced, and as a necessity, which 
is the " mother of invention," call- 
ed forth his exertions; new ideas 
were suggested, which enabled 
him to discover and apply those 
natural agents which were put in 
his reach as aids to his muscular 
power. These, as we see, have in- 
creased as it were his capacity for 
work, stimulated to exertion, fa- 
cilitated him in the accumula- 
tion of wealth and in the gratifi- 
cation of his desires. Thus step 
after step has led man from his 
savage to his present state of 
physical excellence. 

The ordinary laborers in all the 
arts became by degrees a distinct 
class. In a refined community 
abounding in arts, this class must 
necessarily become numerous, and 
its condition should be a subject 
of solicitude to every philanthro- 
pist and to every economist and 
statesman. It seems to me that 

it is one of the most important 
maxims of policy to sustain the 
members of this class, not by giv- 
ing them the control and manage- 
ment of affairs,, for which of course 
they are not the best adapted, by 
using all possible means, whether 
by legislation or social influence, 
to give them education, good hab- 
its and good morals, to impose 
and maintain in them a respect for 
themselves and secure to them the 
respect of others. 

From this mythic and historic 
sketch of the origin and progress 
of physical labor, we are led by 
imperceptible gradations to, and,. 
I hope, through the more intricate 
parts of the subject. In order 
that it may be the more thor- 
oughly investigated, we propose 
to introduce a comparison be- 
tween the natural genius, one who 
trusts altogether or in great meas- 
ure to his gift, and a man of mod- 
erate natural abilities combined 
with labor. "The direction of 
Aristotle to those who are study- 
ing politics is first to investigate 
and understand what has been 
written by the ancients on gov- 
ernment, then to cast their eyes 
over the world and consider by 
what causes the prosperity of com 
munities is visibly influenced and 
why some are worse and others bet- 
ter administered." Now it looks 
to me that the same method 
should be pursued by him who 
wishes to become distinguished in 

2 3 8 


any other branch of human knowl- 
edge. His first task should be to 
examine books, then to contem- 
plate nature. He should possess 
himself of the intellectual investi- 
gations which have been accumu- 
lated by the care and diligence of 
the past generations, then increase 
these by his own ingenuity. How 
is it with some of the present 
generation? They despise the 
great authors of ancient wisdom, 
and, to all appearances/there is a 
disposition to rely upon unassisted 
■genius and natural sagacity. How 
is it with Wits? They have discov- 
ered the way to fame which our 
laborious old ancestors never 
thought of ; they cut Gordian knots 
which it took centuries to unite. 
They unravel riddles the Pedipus 
himself would have failed in ; they, 
Ozephus like, could, as it were, 
cause the wheel of Ixim, make 
old Zantalus, and " bring the iron 
tears" down Plato's cheek. And, 
to cap the climax, comprehend 
long processes of reasoning by 
immediate intuition. 

These fellows, who flatter them- 
selves in this opinion of their own 
abilities, scornfully ridicule those 
who waste their time over books ; 
they look upon them as the eagle 
does upon the insect that creeps 
upon the earth ; as a race of be- 
ings condemned by nature to 
study, and in vain attempting to 
remedy their barrenness by inces- 
sant cultivation. But what esti- 

mate do they put upon themselves. 
They, says Young, " think all men 
mortal but themselves." But alas ! 
Vanity, that bane of life, that 
damning principle to greatness, 
thus confirms in her dominion ; 
here, as Goldsmith says, "assumes 
her pert grimace, readily hearkens 
to idleness, and soothes by its Si- 
ren voice the slumber of life with 
continual dreams of excellence." 
The Genius-born, thus aroused by 
a confidence in their natural 
sprightliness of fancy, conclude 
that they have all that labor and 
methodic investigation can confer, 
listen with pleasure to the mild 
objections that folly has raised 
against the Common School Sys- 
tem for the education of the peo- 
ple ; talks about the " rudis indi- 
gesta que moles" of knowledge; 
tell of the injurious effects of en- 
thusiastic minds in various sorts 
of science ; and, in fine, give vent 
to their vanity by swearing that 
they owe nothing to preparatory 
schoolmasters and collegiate dis- 
cipline. Now let us look at a few 
of these pretensions, however con- 
fident, are very often vain. What 
does Homer say on the subject? 

" Frail as the leaves that quiver on the spray, 
Like their genius flourishes ; like them it 
quickly decays." 

What does Mr. Locke say? Sir, 
says he, " the laurels which super- 
ficial acuteness gains in triumph 
over ignorance unsupported by 
vivacity are lost, whenever real 



learning and rational diligence ap- 
pear against her." What does 
Sydney Smith say? He who wishes 
to know, let him turn to his "lec- 
ture on the conduct of the under- 
standing," and examine for him- 
self. What does Cicero say on 
the subject? "That not to know 
what has been transacted in former 
ages is to remain a child." If we 
make no use of the labors of past 
ages the world must remain in its 
primeval state, the inventions 
of every man must perish with 
himself, and the studies which the 
preceding generation have investi- 
gated and established the suc- 
ceeding generation has to re-inves- 
tigate and re-establish. 

We may with as little reproach 
borrow science as manufactories 
from our ancestors. And it would 
be just as reasonable for any one 
of us to attempt to make a crop 
with our hands, without the aid of 
tools, as to reject all knowledge of 
agriculture which our own under- 
standing will not supply. I hope 
that experience has shown to us 
that it is much easier to learn 
than invent. Where is the Genius 
here or elsewhere that flatters 
himself that he would be capable 
3f discovering and laying down 
:he principles of Hackley and Eu- 
:lid ? The method by which this 
s accomplished is not by one or 
wo Geniuses, not by one or two 
aborious students, but generation 
iter generation has added some- 

thing new to science, has investi- 
gated and established some new 
principle, and discovered some 
new phenomena. Thus we see by 
the emulous diligence of cotem- 
porary students and the gradual 
discoveries of one age improving 
on another, that the science has 
advanced from its rude and im- 
perfect state to its present state of 
perfection. Now it seems to me 
that a man of noble talents and 
good advantages for the acquisi- 
tion of knowledge would glory in 
the investigation of the present 
state of science ; that he may not 
invent what has before been in- 
vented, and not weary his atten- 
tion with experiments which the 
preceding generation has settled. 
But if he is ambitious of handing 
down his name as a benefactor 
of posterity, let him accumulate 
all the learning of the past, and 
add to this some valuable im- 
provement. Natural historians as- 
sert that whatever is formed for 
long duration arrives slowly to its 
maturity. As an example of this 
is the oak. Now the same obser- 
vation may with equal propriety 
be applied to the mind. Hasty 
compositions, however they may 
please at first with the Tropes and 
figures of Rhetoric, yet at the 
first flash of the critic's eye they 
appear loose, disjointed and super- 
ficial. No vanity can more justly 
incur contempt and indignation 
than that which boasts of negli- 



gence and hurry; for who can 
read with any degree of pleasure 
the writer, or hear the speaker 
with any feelings of emotion, who 
claims such superiority to the rest 
of his fellows as to imagine that 
mankind are at leisure to attend 
to his unprepared pieces, and that 
posterity will record and treasure 
up these in their archives, which 
are filled almost to overflowing 
with the elaborate articles of their 
laborious old ancestors. I admit 
with Dryden, that, 

" Time, place and action may with pains be 
But Genius must be born, and never can 
be bought." 

But it seems to me that it would 
be dangerous forany man to place 
himself in this rank of mire, and 
imagine that he is born to be emi- 
nent. Apelles, a painter in the 
age of Alexander the Great, ex- 
alted by the united testimony of 
all antiquity to the very highest 
rank in his profession, so that the 
art of painting is sometimes term- 
ed " Art Appellea," is in Pliny the 
synonym of unrivalled and unat- 
tainable excellence ; but the enu- 
meration of his works point out 
the modification which we ought 
to apply to that superiority. He 
never allowed a day to pass, how- 
ever much he might be occupied 
with other business, without draw- 
ing one line at least in the exer- 
cise of his art; and from this cir- 
cumstance arose the proverb "nulla 

dies sine lima." When this illus- 
trious painter was reproached with 
the paucity of his productions, 
and the incessant attention with 
which he retouched his pieces, he 
condescended to make no other 
answer than, "he painted for per- 
petuity." Nor did Statius, who 
gained many admirers at Rome 
by the great facility with which 
Nature had endowed him for com- 
posing verses on the spur of the 
moment, upon all kinds of sub- 
jects, think that twelve years was 
too little to employ upon his epic 
power entitled the Thebaid. "The- 
bais mult a cruciata lima tentat au- 
dacifide Mantuanaegaudiafamae. 
Ovid, famous as an orator 
and poet, apologizes in his ban- 
ishment for the imperfection of 
his letters, and mentions his want 
of time to polish them as an ad- 
dition to his calamities. As soon 
as he found out that he. was con- 
demned to banishment by Augus- 
tus, he threw his unfinished Meta- 
morphoses into the flame, lest he 
should be disgraced by a volume 
which had not received the neces- 
sary labor to render it complete. 
We see that what he wrote he did 
not venture, unthoughtedly, to 
thrust into the world ; but consid- 
ering the impropriety of sending 
forth inconsiderately what could 
not be recalled, delayed the pub- 
lication, if not " nine years accord- 
ing to the direction of Horace, 
yet till his fancy was cooled after 



the rapture of inventions, and the 
glow of novelty had ceased to daz- 
zle the judgment." There were 
in those days no weekly or diur- 
nal writers. There were no Ge- 
niuses then as there are in our day. 
Who can equal or excel by intui- 
tion the laboring degenerate born ? 
There were no wits then as now, 
who, with unexpected flashes of 
instruction, struck out by the for- 
tuitous collision of happy circum- 
stances, can charm an audience by 
their theatrical actions and super- 
ficial erudition, and triumphantly 
turn away and say with Caesar 
" vent, vidi, vici." All depended 
then, as we have seen, upon true 

" Beaulies in vain their pretty eyes may roll. 
Charms strike the sight, but merit wins the 

I have been, as you have seen, to 
the musty records of antiquity; 
there I find Homer, Herodotus, 
Xenophen and Demosthenes and 
a multitude of others, all illustri- 
ous men. Thence I come to Italy, 
there I find Cicero, Horace and 
Ovid, all of whose names and 
works have come to us. Thence 

I come to the land of our fore- 
fathers, there I find a Newton and 
a Locke in the Republic of Let- 
ters; a Chatham and a Burke in 
the British Parliament; a Dun- 
ning and a Mansfield at the Bar. 
Thence I come to the land of our 
birth ; here I find Fisher, Ames, 
Harper, Byard, Alfred Moore, Ab- 
ner Nash, Rutledge and William 
Pinkney, all of whom were either 
distinguished in Congress, in the 
Cabinet, in the Diplomatic De- 
partment, in the Judiciary or in 
the State Legislature ; and if nec- 
essary, I could enumerate living 
examples from our own State, who 
are now reaping the rewards of 
their incessant industry. All of 
these above mentioned distin- 
guished men, from the first to the 
last, paddled their canoes through 
this life always with this motto, 
before them: "Labor vincit om- 
nia" and all of whose names, if 
justice be done them, will in the 
language of Cicero " be preserved 
in the memory of every suc- 
ceeding age, be cherished by pos- 
terity, and defended by eternity 
itself." j 




The " boodle " Aldermen are 
almost caged. 

Jaehne (pronounce it) confes- 
ses to a $20,000 bribe. 

CONKLING has proven Jake 
Sharpe to be a liar and next will 
make him a felon. 

Jaehne made $20,000 in a mo- 
ment and now he will earn twenty 
years in the penitentiary. 

Miss Rose Cleveland de- 
nounces in unmeasured terms the 
indecent decollette dress. 

The "rabble" hissed Queen 
Victoria as she was going to open 
Parliament and again a few nights 
since at the Savoy theatre. As a 
result Snobdom is howling. We 
say " good for the rabble." 

LabOUCHERE'S motion to do 
away with the House of Lords 
was lost by a paltry majority of 
32. The handwriting is indeed 
on the wall. The royal vagrants 
and paupers must go. 

Pulitzer's New York World 
earns $2,500 per week for him. It 
goes to 230,000 readers every 
Sunday and 155,000 every day, 
and often contains one hundred 
and odd columns of advertising. 
Wonderful! And yet this man 
came to this country penniless, a 
wandering Bohemian. He blacked 

shoes and sold newspapers, finally 
got into the Dispatch office in St. 
Louis, saved money, bought the 
paper and made a name and a 

Mrs. Jas. Brown Potter cre- 
ated a sensation at Mrs. Secretary 
Whitney's reception by reciting 
" Ostler Joe," Geo. R. Sim's poem 
on a Phryne's grave. It's a gem, 
tender and beautiful, but rather 
inappropriate to recite before a 
crowd of ladies and gentlemen. 

The Senate's executive sessions 
ought to be done away with. 
Here is the secret of the Spoils 
System. Here is the place where 
the Republican bargains with the 
Democrats to kill good men and 
put in office each one's political 
heelers and henchmen. Abolish it. 

Blair's Centralization bill has 
received a decided set back in the 
House, and it is to be hoped that 
it will be finally beaten. Such 
men as Morgan, Coke, Carlisle, 
Morrison, Pulitzer and many 
others of equal prominence and 
ability are conspicuous in denounc- 
ing it. 

Mr. Josephus Daniels has 
brought endless denunciations 
upon himself for daring to criticise 



the Board of Agriculture. If we 
mistake not Martin Luther caused 
anathema after anathema to be 
hurled at him for daring to de- 
nounce the Pope. Another diet 
of Worms perhaps. We earnestly 
wish for a like result. 

A. 0. Babel, the cowboy pi- 
anist, has created a furore in New 
York. He does'nt know a note, 
never touched a piano until he 
was eighteen years old, still he can 
excel the most accomplished pi- 
anists in the city, so A. C. Wheeler, 
the great musical critic says. He 
is rough, uncouth, a herder of cat- 
tle, but a genius. 

IT Pays.— Joe Howard gets 
$150 a week to write for the World. 
Think of it! One hundred and 
fifty dollars per week for writing 
four or five columns for a news- 
paper. Why this is ridiculous. 
No it's not for it's so, and if any 
body can earn it Joe Howard can, 
for he is one of the most charm- 
ing, pleasing, alluring, seductive 
writers now living. While talking 
about newspaper correspondents 
let's see what Nordhoff of the 
Herald gets for writing a short 
letter to his paper from Wash- 
ington daily. Only $20,000 
per year. Nice little sum, ain't 
it? Geo. A. Townsend (Gath) 
get's fully as much from Jno. R. 
McLean's Cincinnati Enquirer 
and there's not a slushier writer 
in the country than Townsend. 
Henry Howard. 

The Army. 

We desire to inform the young 
men who read the Magazine that 
they need place no confidence in 
the report that our national army 
is altogether " a thing of the past." 
It is heard from again and there 
is still an opening for those whose 
inclinations take a military turn. 
In fact a measure is pending, the 
object of which is to increase the 
number of men and strengthen 
this department of the public ex- 
penditures. Of course no one an- 
ticipates any such thing as a war, 
the Indians are under very good 
control and we have but little 
frontier duty to do, but this is 
comparatively unimportant. On 
exhibition days the officers, at 
present, draw up but thin lines, 
and as they can attribute this to 
no hard fought battle won from 
a stubborn enemy, they naturally 
wish that the companies be en- 
larged and a better show be made. 
Again, pensioned soldiers do 
die sometimes and unless the 
army is enlarged there is great 
danger of the pension list contract- 
ing in time and tax-paying people 
being benefitted. 

These are by no means all the 
reasons given to support the 
change. We simply reproduce 
the most important in order to es- 
tablish the argument. What the 
Fathers will finally decide to be 
best can not be foretold with any 
degree of accuracy. 



Woman's Clubs. 

There is a good deal said of 
"Woman's Missionary Societies," 
"Woman's Right to the Ballot " 
etc., but it is hardly so well known 
that there are in our land quite a 
number of clubs for women. They 
appear to be varied in their organ- 
ization and aims. It is said that 
the New England states — and the 
city of Boston especially — are fer- 
tile in this respect. We know the 
Boston women are able to pile up 
marriages and divorces i n an 
alarming manner ; probably an 
outgrowth of their clubs. 

The temples of fashion are 
really being built and worshippers 
are gathering round the altars of 
the fickle goddess in a systematic 
manner. This will strengthen and 
extend her empire. Alas ! 

Our friends are certainly ambi- 
tious and it is but natural that 
they should desire to move in 
clubs and other special circles, 
like men. The higher walks of 
literature and art never led George 
Eliot or Charlotte Bronte to the 
club room, and Miss Murfree will 
hardly acknowledge that her 
charming productions owe any- 
thing to the inspiration of club 
life. Such women who have minds 
and ideas of their own, and those 
who have also homes and loved 
ones to care for, usually find, like 
all sensible men, that life is a busy, 
stirring reality, practical, yet not 

only bearable but really enjoyable 
without " the ordinary trivialities 
that make up the bustle and spirit 
of the average woman's club." 

Are we Right ? 

There is nothing so refining and 
elevating to young men as the 
society of ladies. The young 
ladies of to-day seem not to think 
of the responsibility which rests 
upon them in shaping, in a great 
measure, the future condition of 
society. No man can leave the 
society of a chaste, intellectual 
woman without feeling that he has 
derived incalculable benefit. It is 
here that he gains those very es- 
sential elements of success in life 
— polish and a pleasing address — 
which are to him what beauty is 
to woman. The fact that a man is 
judged to a very great extent by 
his manner and address, makes it 
important that he should cultivate, 
if not natural, pleasant and agree- 
able manners. Though "beauty 
is but skin deep," yet those of us 
who are not thus endowed claim 
that we have a good substitute in 
affable manners. 

This we repeat can be obtained 
nowhere as well as in the society 
of refined ladies. College boys, we 
believe, are as a rule considered 
rough and uncouth both in respect 
to words and actions ; but we say 
it is but natural since they are for 



so long a time deprived of ladies' 
society. We see the truth of the 
statement among our boys here at 
the University, and we have often 
thought how pleasant and im 

A Picture . 

Yes, boys, the Spring is here. 
We feel it in the air, we notice it 
in the class room, we see it in the 
proving it would be if the young little groups congregated about 

ladies of the village, of whom we 
have many and pretty ones, would 
meet and organize either a Read- 
ing or Social Club to meet at dif- 
ferent residences in the village, 
where the young men of college 
and the ladies of the village could 
assemble once a week and spend 
a pleasant and enjoyable evening. 
We would suggest that at these 
meetings there could be read and 
recited some select pieces from 
the best authors, or, which would 
be better, something original. We 
remark by way of persuasion to 
the ladies, that we have some 
young men in college, who could, 
with a little gentle insisting, be 

the College door-steps and on the 
springing grass. 

Unmistakable signs of it have 
been noticed for some time by 
his class-mates, in the Junior who 
goes to sleep upon the recitation 
which often turns upon " heat." 
The "Walking Thermometer" 
has announced that the warm 
weather is almost upon us and 
notifies each one to prepare him- 
self accordingly. 

We feel too lazy to study this 
evening, so we ensconce ourselves 
in a shady window to see who are 
stirring and what they are about. 

Out there under that splendid 
oak a few boys are reclining, and 

induced to exhibit their wonderful '■, beside that green and inviting 

musical talents. For instance we 
have in our mind's eye one who 
can sing to the accompaniment of 
the " Lyre " a solo called " Sweet 
Bird of Paradise " with a sweet- 
ness and pathos that cannot fail 
to charm even the most fastidious. 
There are others, also, whose in- 
strumental music would, we feel as- 
sured, be equally as entertaining. 
The weather from this on will be 
pleasant and we can see no reason 
why such a plan as we have sug- 
gested or some othershould not be 

terrace a few more. They seem 
to be dressed in uniform, the uni- 
form consisting of an old duster, 
last season's straw hat, run-down 
slippers and a "bandanna" hand- 
kerchief. Nearly all appear to be 
puffing long-stemmed pipes and 
glancing carelessly over novels, 
probably of the mountains or sea- 
shore. These are they who have 
not the time or health to stand 
the Spring Examinations, but are 
simply waiting to "do up "com- 
mencement, after which, their du- 
ties over, they hurry off to the 



mountains or springs to enjoy the 
vacation they so richly deserve 
and recuperate their over-strained 
systems. See! down by the chapel 
goes a young man through the 
campus hurrying to the" haunts of 
nature. He is one of the Society 
" Reps." His speech is at last 
written. This may possibly be 
his first appearance before the 
public and it must be a success. 
He feels that it is sure to be. He 
went yesterday and the day be- 
fore to practice it, but he must 
keep going fora long time to come. 
He will plunge into the depths of 
the forest and deliver it there, 
while the great trees nod their ap- 
proval and the timid flowers are 
thrown into consternation. But 
he has gone across the wall and 
we dare not follow. 

Just across that broken bough 
we can see into a window of the 
next building, where some one is 
resting his weary head upon a 
table. It is a Senior; but why 
this despondency ? The cause is 
evident : he has not made the best 
use of his time heretofore. His 
course is heavy, with Chemistry 
or Conies still to make up. And 
yet his Graduating Oration must 
be completed earlier than ever, 
this year. The inviting out-door 
weather has no joys for him. He 
must omit that delightful evening 
stroll with his chum. Now he 
lifts his head and turns his drowsy 
eyes upon his books. Let us no 
longer intrude. 

Down the stairs and out the 
door comes a measured tread. As 
the cause of it walks on, a strange 
expression gathers upon his face 
and his every step grinds a hole 
into the ground. 

We know the man at once ; he 
is the College bore, at present out 
upon some errand of mercy. The 
elections have just been held and 
unfortunately he has been de- 
feated by a stronger rival. Now 
he can ply his trade fearlessly. 
Every room is more comfortable 
than his own. His feet will soon 
be quietly reposing upon some 
one's bed, his fingers tripping 
lightly through some one's private 
papers, while he offers withering 
yet never-ending criticism upon 
every man in the institution. Oh 
horrors ! he comes this way. Let 
us jump down and escape before 
it be everlastingly too late. 

Gov. Murray and Mormonism. 

From time immemorial public 
men who have been true to them- 
selves and to the trusts of constit- 
uents have been followed in all 
their public and private actions by 
the poisoned shafts of the calum- 
niator. It has been practiced so 
persistently that men have come 
to regard it as a law of expectancy 
and believe, that if a man has no 
enemies to show up his frailties, 
he has very few qualities to re- 



commend him for usefulness ; and 
the more powerful and persistent 
his enemies, the more ground is 
there for believing him worthy of 
public trust. So a man now-a- 

of the marriage vow, by banishing 
the endearing name of father and 
mother and by crushing in the 
human heart every tender senti- 
ment which distinguishes mankind 
days is most often judged by the from the lowest orders of brute 
foul aspersions of his enemies. In creation. Her true nature was- 
this connection we would refer exhibited in the " Mountain 
the reader to Eli H. Murray, Gov- Meadow Massacre." Read its 
ernor of Utah. Governor Murray testimony and you will see the 
was appointed by a Republican fiendish spirit that originated and 
Administration and expected to still perpetuates this polygamous 

lose his commission as soon as 
President Cleveland could reach 
his case. According to the ac- 
counts given of him in the li pub- 
lic prints," he has made the best 
Governor Utah has ever had. If 
she had always had so faithful a 
man to enforce the law, she would 
not have been such a foul, infa- 
mous blot, as she is, upon the map 
of the United States. From the 

association of sin-steeped scoun- 
drels. This spirit prompts her to 
send her emissaries (we'll not 
further dignify them ) out over the 
world to destroy the firesides of 
innocence and contentment and 
to break the hearts of fond moth- 
ers, for the sake of fresh victims 
to sacrifice upon the altar of pol- 
lution. Such a people and such 
a church deserve for a season all 

first, he was assailed, or at least, the horrors of the Spanish Inqui- 
as soon as it became evident that sition, directed by the unrelenting 

he could not be cajoled into vio 
lating his oath, by every friend of 
Mormonism throughout the world. 
The saintly, hypocritical, detesta- 
ble church sent her so called El- 
ders everywhere, filling their 
mouths with malicious vitupera- 
tion of the foulest character. This 
Pharisaical, so called church makes 
it the fixed and unalterable duty 
of her adherents to assail the 
motives of any man conscientious 
enough to oppose her diabolical 

cruelty of a Domintian. Some peo- 
ple in apologizing for her wretched 
immorality, tell us, in exultant 
tones that in Salt Lake city there 
are no bagnios, no indecent ex 
posures on the stage and no resort 
where vice and folly triumph un- 
blushingly over the morals of the 
country as is seen in all our lead- 
ing cities and often in the " upper 
circles " of society. Well, to say 
the least of it, this is a poor apol- 
ogy and furnishes no argument 

teachings. She would pollute the 'whatever. Such things are too 
world by destroying the sanctity j tame for a country where every 



household is or may become a 
bagnio, where innocence may be 
debauched with perfect impunity 
under the sanction of law which 
they say. was sealed in heaven, by 
the authority delegated to a false, 
hypocritical and renegade prophet. 
Then fathers, brothers, sisters and 
mothers, watch the viper, and 
should he attempt to charm your 
sacred circle, salute the lecherous 
whelp with the contents of a 
double-barrel shot gun. The Mor- 
mon church since its organization 
has crouched beside the gates of 
our civilization with drawn dag- 
ger, to plunge into the heart of 
every man, woman or child that 
would pass from Oriental de- 
bauchery to a higher plane, whose 
shield is virtue and admiration for 
" the pure in heart." Governor 
Murray has been a perpetual thorn 
in the " Mormon bosom," and 
every imaginable device has been 
employed by these pious frauds 
to cripple his administration. The 
beloved " Elder" Cannon who re- 
cently forfeited a $25,000 bond 
and is now a fugitive from justice, 
has been one of his most invet- 
erate enemies. But Governor Mur- 
ray has triumphed over all the al- 
luring seduction of gold, has 
steered clear of all their villainous 
schemes to entrap him and with- 
out fear or favor has faithfully ex- 
ecuted the law. To judge from 
the despatches and other pub- 
lished accounts we must conclude 

that had he not been capable to 
control efficiently that Sodom 
" nestled among the far away 
hills," there is no telling what the 
result would have been in the re- 
cent threatened outbreak. At one 
time it seemed impossible to avoid 
a general conflict, in which there 
would have been another S t. 
Bartholomew day, for the Mor- 
mons keep a well organized force 
ready to assemble at a moment's 
warning, and woe betide the Gen- 
tile in her midst should the rebel- 
lion once break out. Though he has 
been an able and fearless execu- 
tive, and so far as the country 
knows his administration admira- 
ble in all its appointments, yet 
his enemies have prevailed, his 
resignation is demanded and mor- 
ality in Utah receives a stab from 
which it cannot soon recover. 
Governor Murray's action in tak- 
ing measures to suppress the re- 
volt and his veto of the "appropri- 
ation bill " have been magnified 
into a crime which demands a 
sacrifice, and nothing except a 
vigorous application of the politi- 
cal pruning knife will satisfy the 
requirements of the intriguers. If 
the people of the country had not 
believed in the sincerity of the mo- 
tives which prompted President 
Cleveland to use the veto power, 
he might never have been Presi- 
dent, and indeed, Governor Mur- 
ray's reasons for exercising the 
same power come to us with the 



same coloring of sincerity. The 
difference seems to be that the 
President's enemies were not be- 
lieved by the country, yet the 
President yields to the same pres- 
sure and takes from Utah the only 
•Governor she has ever had, who 

had courage and conscience 
enough to oppose this hydra- 
headed monster of centralized de- 

'' O, temporal O, Mores!" 

o. c. o. 

College Record. 

The senior class have chosen 
the Rev. Dr. Charles H. Hall, of 
Brooklyn, New York, to preach 
the baccalaureate sermon next 
June. Hon. Augustus Van Wyck, 
also of Brooklyn, will deliver the 
address before the two literary 

The exercises in the gymnasium 
•on March 16th, were of a most in- 
teresting character. A large crowd 
was present, and the morning 
passed off most pleasantly. Two 
•of the professors and three of the 
students acted as judges. The 
grace with which most of the 
feats were performed was admired 
by all, and the contestants were 
often cheered. The successful 
competitors were : 

1st. Horrizintal Bars — L. M. Bourne. 

2nd. Parallel Bars— J. B. Cox. 

3rd. Indian Clubs — J. D. Hedrick. 

4th. Ladders — G. L. Patrick. 

5th. Rings and Trapeze — L. M. Bourne. 

6th. One-tenth Mile Race— G. L. Patrick. 

7th. Throwing Hammer — C. F. Smith. 

The first prize was for general 
excellence. It was won by Mr. 
L. M. Bourne. The grace of his 
movements was especially compli- 

The second prize was for im- 
provement, and was awarded to 
Mr. E. P. Mangum. The music 
for the occasion was furnished by 
Messrs. Self, L. M. Little, and 
Woodson. These gentlemen de- 
serve much praise for the pleasure 
they gave the audience. 

The president of the gymnasium 
and his assistants are to be con- 
gratulated. To their efforts is due 
much of the success of the day. 

The Mitchell Scientific Society 
met the third Wednesday night in 
March. A larger number of pa- 
pers than usual were read, and 
great interest was manifested in 
the meeting by the professors who 
participated in the exercises. The 
audience was larger than it has 



been for the past few meetings. 
Prof. Graves, whose appearance 
before the public is always hailed 
with delight by the students, read 
the second paper of the evening. 
The exercises lasted about an 
hour and a half, and every body 
present seemed to enjoy them, 
•x- * 

The Philanthropic Society has 
purchased new curtains for its 
hall. The two society halls here 
are a source of pride to the stu- 
dents, and any improvement in 
them is marked with pleasure. 

•x- * 

The third Saturday night in 
March Prof. Walter D. Toy de- 
livered a lecture in the chapel on 
German Universities. Although 
the weather was bad a large crowd 
assembled to hear him. He gave 
a description of German Univer- 
sities, and contrasted them with 
those of our country. His lec- 
ture was very interesting and all 

enjoyed it. 

-x- * 

The Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation of North Carolina held 
their Annual State Convention 
here, March nth to 14th. By 
motion of Mr. T. P. Johnston, all 
members of the Y. M. C. A. of 
the University of North Carolina 
and the ministers at Chapel Hill 
were made delegates to the Con- 
vention. On Thursday afternoon 
an informal meeting was held in 
the Y. M. C. A. Hall. R. U. Gar- 

rett, of Asheville, was requested: 
to take the chair, and Rev. W_ 
W. D. Akers was requested to act 
as secretary. The following com- 
mittee on Permanent Organiza- 
tion was appointed : G. C. Worth, 
Bingham School ; T. P. Johnston,. 
Salisbury ; K. A. McLeod, David- 
son College; H. Parker, Chapel 
Hill, and W. W. Barnard, Ashe- 

Thursday evening at 8 o'clock 
the Convention met in Gerrard 

Religious exercises were con- 
ducted by Rev. A. W. Mangum,. 
D. D. Then an address of wel- 
come was delivered by Rev. Thos. 
Hume, D. D. This address was 
responded to by G. M. Smithdeal 
on behalf of the delegates. L. 
D. Wishard, of the Y. M. C. A.. 
International Committee, made a 
general talk on the work of the 
Young. Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. At the close of his remarks- 
which were exceedingly interest- 
ing, the speaker sung, by special 
request, the " Mother's Good-bye 
to her Boy." 

On Friday morning the Com- 
mittee on Permanent Organiza- 
tion made the following report,, 
which was adopted : President, 
Prof. J. W. Gore, Chapel Hill, N. 
C; 1st Vice President, K. A. Mc- 
Leod, Davidson College ; 2nd 
Vice President, D. P. Coleman, 
Bingham School ; Secretary, Rev. 
W. D. Akers, Asheville, N. C. At 



the president's request,Mr.Stephen 
B. Weeks, of Chapel Hill, acted as 
Assistant Secretary. The greater 
part of Friday morning was spent 
in hearing the reports of the dif- 
ferent associations in the State. 
In the afternoon, the topic, What 
special feature of our work needs 
emphasizing, was colloquially dis- 
cussed ; the State Executive Com- 
mittee for 1885 reported; the 
financial management of Y. M. C. 
A. was discussed by G. M. Smith- 
deal ; the Boys' Work was dis- 
cussed by W. H. G. Belt, of Bal- 
timore ; and the Business Com- 
mittee reported the programme 
for Friday evening. 

At 7.30 o'clock the Convention 
met again in Gerrard Hall. A 
large crowd of students and peo- 
ple from the village were present. 
The singing was led by Messrs. 
Garrett, Akers, Smith and Harris. 

The address of the evening was 
delivered by E. W. Watkins, of 
New York, on International Y. 
M. C. A. Work. He showed the 
very rapid growth of this work 
from the time of its first organi- 
zation in London by George Wil- 
liams, June 9, 1844. 

Can Associations become per- 
manent in small towns, was dis- 
cussed Saturday morning by Mr. 
Belt. Remarks were made on it 
by Drs. Hume and Mangum and 
Mr. E. W. Watkins. 

The following are the State 
Committee for the year to come: 

Dr. Thomas Hume, Prof. J. W. 
Gore, Haywood Parker, Stephen 
B. Weeks, Major Robert Bingham, 
Prof. G. M. Smithdeal, Prof. Geo. 
B. Hanna, Jas. H. Southgate, W. 
W. Barnard, Prof. W. J. Bingham, 
Edwin Shaver, and Eugene. L. 

At 12.40 o'clock the new Exec- 
utive Committee met and elected 
Rev. Thomas Hume, D. D., Presi- 
dent ; Prof. J. W. Gore, Secretary ; 
S. B. Weeks, Treasurer. 

At 11.30 the Convention retired 
from the Y. M. C. A. Hall to Ger- 
rard Hall to hear an address by 
Maj. Robert Bingham, on the 
"Armor of God." The lecture 
was highly instructive, and the 
large crowd who assembled to hear 
it went away feeling the truth of 
the passage in Ephesians, which 
relates to the Christian soldier. 

The afternoon exercises were 
conducted by E. L. Harris, of 
Raleigh, and L. D. Wishard. A 
large crowd gathered together at 
7.30 o'clock to hear Mr. Wishard's 
talk on Bible Training Classes. 

At the close of the meeting the 
following resolution was adopted: 
That the thanks of this Con- 
vention are hereby tendered to 
the citizens of Chapel Hill for the 
warm-hearted hospitality they 
have shown the members of the 
Convention, and to the several 
Railroad Companies in the State 
which so kindly gave reduced 
rates to and from the Convention. 



The Sunday meetings of the 
Convention were extremely inter- 
esting. In the Y. M. C. A. Hall, 
at 8.30 a. m., Mr. Wishard spoke 
on the Power of the Holy Spirit. 

At 11 a. m., Mr. E. W. Watkins, 
at the Methodist churh, talked of 
the growth of the influence of the 

In the afternoon, at the Baptist 
church, Mr. Watkins addressed 
the citizens of Chapel Hill, and 
at the Y. M. C. A. Hall, Mr. 
Wishard spoke for an hour on the 
claims Christ has on young men. 

Sunday evening the farewell 
meeting of the Convention was 
held in Gerrard Hall. There were 
no services in the village. The 
Hall was full. Mr. Wishard con- 
ducted the meeting, speaking of 
"Missions and their Claims." 

The delegates left for their res- 
pective homes Monday. 

A Valuable Present to our 
MUSEUM. — When Prof. Joseph A. 
Holmes was in Asheville on busi- 
ness connected with the State 
Geological Survey, he made the 
acquaintance of a very intelligent 
and public spirited gentleman, 
Col. Frank Coxe, formerly of Penn- 
sylvania, now of Western North 
Carolina. Learning of Prof. 
Holmes the needs of our museum, 
Col. Coxe generously offered to 
procure from his brother, Mr. E. 
B. Coxe, a core, cut by the dia- 
mond drill perpendicularly 

through the anthracite coal meas- 
ures of Pennsylvania. This core is 
round, about ij inches in diame- 
ter and is a section of all the strata 
from the surface downwords one 
thousand feet. It is an exceedingly 
valuable addition to our Museum. 
President Battle has received 
notice that it is ready for shipment. 
The students are looking forward 
to its arrival with great interest.. 

•x- * 

Prof. Holmes and the State 
Geological Report.— W hen 
the late lamented Prof. W. C. 
Kerr, State Geologist, was on his- 
death-bed, a few weeks before the 
end came, he sent for his old col- 
lege mate and friend, President 
Battle, and asked a favor which 
could not well be refused. He 
stated that he had many notes in 
his own short-hand on the Geology 
and Geography of our State; that 
no one without his instruction 
could understand them ; that he 
had confidence in Prof. jos. A.. 
Holmes as a learned and faithful 
geologist and requested that he 
should be allowed to learn from 
I him how to decipher these notes 
and prepare the 2nd volume of 
his Reports for publication. Presi- 
dent Battle obtained the consent 
of the Trustees of the University 
and of the Board of Agriculture 
to the arrangement and Prof. 
Holmes went to Asheville and 
stayed with Dr. Kerr until his 
death, receiving from him all his 



manuscripts and the key enabling 
him to understand them. He will 
not neglect his University duties, 
but all the time which can be 
spared from them, including all 
his vacation, will be devoted to 
this work. He hopes to finish it 
by the fall. This 2nd volume 

will be the work of Dr. Kerr, the 
duties of Prof. Holmes being to 
decipher, write out and prepare 
for publication his notes. The 
volume will be a most valuable 
addition to the scientific literature 
of our State.. 


— President Battle delivers the 
annual address before the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina, June 1. 

— Sterling Ruffin, a former 
member of the class of '86, has 
opened school a t Washington, 

N. C. 

—A. B. Hill, class '85, is teach- 
ing at Pittsboro. 

• — W. R. Bright, alias " hiberna- 
tor," Soph., '85-6, has begun mer- 
chandising at Washington, N. C. 

— C. U. Hill, class '83, has hung 
out his shingle in Washington, N. 
C, and is also an insurance agent. 

— The February number of the 
N. C. Teacher has a cut and a 
short biographical sketch of Rich- 
ard H. Lewis, of Kinston, class 
'52. He took A. M. here in '55 
and M. D. at the University of 
Pennsylvania in '56. Has been a 

teacher for a number of years. Is. 
President of Kinston College for 
Young Ladies and has been re- 
cently elected to the honorable 
position of President of the N. C. 
Teacher's Assembly. 

— "Josh" on Geometry: "The 
square on the hippopotamus 
equals the sum of the squares of 
the other two sides." Tableau. 

— A Senior's notes on French : 
"Sammie and Toy are two French 
dudes. Both are calculated to 
make mashes on the ladies." 

— M. R. Braswell, medical class 
'83-84, received his M. D. from, 
the University of Maryland in 
March. We acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of an invitation to attend 
the commencement exercises. 

— Prof, of Chemistry: Auti- 
mony is used for hardening " Bul- 
lets." Exit class with a grin.. 



— J. P. Fearington, medical 
class '84-85, is spending t h e 
vacation of the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Mary- 
land at home. He will probably re- 
turn to his work in June, and take 
a summer course in the hospital. 

Bob Stroud, formerly an eighty- 
sixer, is building a fine house on 
Prospect Hill, about half mile from 
the village. The work is being 
carried on rapidly as he is suffi- 
ciently convinced that it is not 
well for man to be alone. He 
will give a supper to the members 
of the class of '86 on the evening 
of May 31st, and don't you forget 
it. Bob is a fine fellow, and a 
lady friend tells us that he will 
make a splendid husband. 

— A recent issue of the Biblical 
Recorder contained a short autobi- 
ography of Rev. R. T. Bryan, class 
of '82, now a missionary to China. 
He was married last summer and 
sailed from San Francisco for his 
new home in December. H e 
spent a few days with us last fall 
and one could see from his relig- 
ious talks that he was enjoying 
the satisfaction of knowing that 
he was entering upon the Master's 
work in a way destined to bring 
the most good to needy mortals. 
His home is at Chinkiang, China. 
— The first game of that all in- 
spiring, elevating and ennobling 
game known as "Knucks" appeared 
March 27. It is ahead of time 

this year. It was participated in 
by one Junior and three Freshmen. 
" Bullet " was their trainer. 

— A gallant and dudish mem- 
ber of the class of '89 goes to see 
the ladies — or a lady. He says 
it is like eating soup with a fork- 
can never get enough. 

— The tree planting season has 
returned and Prof. Holmes may 
be seen with his elastic step 
hastening to beautify and adorn 
the Campus in any way possible. 
Some of the little trees have been 
removed from the rows on Oida 
Avenue and planted at random 
in various parts of the campus. 
"There is not enough of the 
' natural ' when trees stand in reg- 
ular rows," they say. 

—Rev. M. M. Marshall, D. D., 
class '63, now of Raleigh, preached 
some very interesting and instruc- 
tive sermons at the Episcopal 
church a few Sundays ago. 

— Prof, of English to Fresh : 
what are those mutes called which 
you pronounce with your lips? 
Fresh, who is running for the 
Math, medal : " Polygons, sir." 

— Collier Cobb who was in col- 
lege in '81 has been elected super- 
intendent of the graded school of 
Wilson. In a recent issue The 
Minor says of him : " We are very 
glad to know that the real worth 
and high merit of this excellent 



and highly cultivated young 
gentleman induced the trustees to 
make another offer, and we are 
glad to announce that he has ac- 
cepted. We nurse the highest 
admiration for this sterling young 
gentleman. Modest as a violet, 
retiring as a sensitive plant, yet 
nursing the healthy and thrifty 
and vigorous growth of the finest 
mental qualities, and already 
robed in the luxurant foliage of 
the greenest literary attainments, 
he is in our judgment one of the 
best equipped young men in the 

— Scene in the Old East. Visi- 
tor on entering: "I say, Jodie, 
what have you got that andiron 
hung up there in the window 
for?" "Smell of that middle 
flower " is the answer. He smells, 
loses half of his scalp when his 
head is raised and the mystery is 

— Pres. Battle exhibiting to 
class a bug two inches long and 
one inch wide — " Come up gentle- 
men and examine this most won- 
derful bug sent to me from 
Raleigh." The class is filled with 
enthusiastic wonder and "L, B." 
expresses his opinion as follows : 
" That is only a Raleigh hotelbug." 

— Prof. Winston was absent 
from the Hill a short time in 
March. He visited his father 
who was lying seriously ill at his 
home in Bertie county. 

Messrs. Watkins and Wishard 
of the International committee Of 
the Y. M. C. A., created a very 
favorable impression during their 
late visit to the Hill. They are 
very enthusiastic in their work, 
have a great deal of practice and 
know how to get acquainted with 
a student without all the long 
formality of mistering and such 
stuff indulged in by the average 
boy for want of a better 
method. They gave some very 
instructive talks, and Mr. Wishard 
deserves special thanks for his ex- 
cellent sincrinp-. 

— The thanks of the members 
of the Y. M. C. A„ and of all who 
are interested in its work is due 
to the ladies of the village for 
their great kindness in putting the 
hall in order for the late conven- 
tion. They came up and had the 
floor swept nicely, the lamps 
cleaned, oil cloth put on the table, 
the pictures and mottoes re-ar- 
ranged and when they found there 
were not enough of these to make 
the walls look neat furnished them 
themselves. Such acts of kindness 
as these are not easily forgotten. 
Please accept our thanks, ladies, 
and remember that we shall ever 
be grateful to you for such con- 
vincing proofs of your approba- 
tion of our work. 

-Rev.Charles H. Hall, D. D. 
Baccalaureate Sermon. — The 
Senior class have chosen to de- 



liver the sermon before the Grad- 
uating class on Wednesday after- 
noon, June 2nd, next, Rev. Dr. 
Charles H. Hall, of the church of 
the Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
one of the most eminent divines 
of the Episcopal church. He is 
rector of a parish of 750 communi- 
cants, one of the two largest Epis- 
copal parishes in the "city of 
churches." Connected with it is 
the chapel of the Holy Trinity 
with 207 communicants. Dr. Hall 
is the next in official rank to 
Bishop Littlejohn, being President 
of the Standing committee of the 
Diocese. He has several other 
ecclesiastical offices of high trust. 
He has spent several summers in 
Western North Carolina and about 
ten years ago visited Raleigh and 
perhaps other points in the State 
in company with Rev. Dr. Twing, 
Secretary of the Board of Missions. 
Dr. Hall has accepted the invi- 
tation of the class. We have heard 
good judges say, " he is one of the 
best preachers in the Episcopal 

— We have two gentlemen from 
New York state to address us at 
Commencement. W e consider 
ourselves fortunate in our selec- 

—Hon. Augustus Van W yck. 
Commencement Orator. — This 
distinguished gentleman has ac- 
cepted the invitation of the Dia- 
lectic Society to deliver the An- 

nual Address before the two Lit- 
erary Societies on Wednesday 
morning, June 2nd, next. He is 
a native of South Carolina, having 
been born in Pendleton, in that 
State about forty years ago. His 
father was from New York City, 
a descendant of the old Dutch set- 
tlers. His mother was a Mave- 
rick, one of the oldest and wealth- 
iest families of North Carolina. 
Her grandfather was a merchant 
of Charleston and as such sent to 
Europe for sale the first bale of 
cotton ever exported from that 
city. One of her brothers settled 
near Antonia, Texas, and became 
owner of such great landed pos- 
sessions and immense droves of 
cattle that certain kinds of stock 
are called " Maverick." 

Judge Van Wyck graduated 
with distinction at this University 
in 1864 in the same class with 
Judge Walter Clark. Embracing 
the study of the law, he settled in 
Brooklyn, having an office on 
Broadway in New York city. He 
rapidly rose to a large practice. 
In the last Presidential campaign 
he was made chairman of the 
democratic general committee of 
King's county and won distinc- 
tion by the energy and tact with 
which he organized his party. 
His portrait was published in the 
New York World among others of 
" Brooklyn's Big Bosses — The men 
who shape the destiny of a great 
city." He was afterwards elected 



Judge for the full term of ten 
years of the city court of Brook- 
lyn, at a salary of $10,000 per an- 
num, which office he now holds. 
Judge Van Wyck is a man of 
goodly presence, exceedingly 
frank and agreeable manners. His 
welcome to President Cleveland 
at the great banquet given to him 
in the Fall of 1884, at Brooklyn, 
and a recent address on Robert 
Burns, at a recent memorial fes- 
tival were fine specimens of ora- 

—Confederate Dead.— Jesse 
Sharpe Barnes of Wilson county 
entered college 1858. Killed at 
Seven Pines, May 31, 1862. Was 
a successful lawyer in Wilson at 
the outbreak of the war, was cap- 
tain of the first company from the 
county, Company F, 4th N. C. 
State Troops. Went to Fort 
Macon, N. C, in April, 1861, fell 
at the head of his men. 

— Charles Edward Bellamy, 
class '51, Marianna, Fla. died of 
camp fever in hospital at Ringold, 
Ga. July 27, 1864. He graduated 
in medicine at the University of 
Pennsylvania, in 1855, and prac- 
ticed for a short time in Colum- 
bus, Ga., then removed to Bolivar 
county, Miss. Was at first assis- 
tant surgeon in the 38th Alabama 
Infantry and was afterwards pro- 
moted to the position of surgeon. 

— John Avery Benbury of Eden- 
ton left the University, went to 

Princeton and graduated there. 
Was twice a member of the legis- 
lature from Tyrrell county ; Was 
opposed to secession ; but was the 
first man in Chowan county to 
volunteer for the war ; was first 
lieutenant of Albemarle Guards, 
Co. A, 1st N. C. State Troops. 
Promoted to rank of captain, — 
mortally wounded at Malvern Hill, 
July 1, 1862, died July 6. 

— Joel Clifton Blake entered 
college from Miccosukie, Fla., 
and fell at Gettysburg, July 2, 
1863; was 1st lieutenant, Co. K, 
5th Fla. Regiment ; was a wealthy, 
charitable and useful citizen. 

— Richard Bradford, class '55, 
Tallahasse, Fla., studied law at 
Chapel Hill and at University of 
Virginia; commanded the first 
company raised for 1st Florida 
Regiment ; killed at Santa Rosa, 
Oct. 9, 1861. Bradford county, 
Fla., is named in honor of his 

—George Pettigrew Bryan,, 
graduated with the highest dis- 
tinction of his class in i860, and 
was immediately appointed tutor 
of Latin. He entered the service 
as second, lieutenant, 2nd Reg. N. 
C. Cavalry, was at the battle of 
Newberne, and afterwards trans- 
ferred with his regiment to the 
Army of Northern Virginia ; was 
severely wounded in the head in 
the cavalry fight at Upperville 
and taken prisoner. He was im- 



prisoned for nine months on John- 
son's Island, and then exchanged. 
Before his wound was entirely 
healed he pressed again into the 
service' with the rank of captain. 
Was mortally wounded Aug. 16, 
1864, while leading his company 

was a book-keeper when the war 
broke out. He joined the 8th Texas 
cavalry regiment, and died June 
22, 1862. 

— George Mcintosh Clark, of 
Montgomery county, entered col- 
lege i860. He volunteered in the 

to an attack on the enemy's works ! early part of the war and was 
near Richmond, Va. : made second lieutenant of Co. K. 

—Joseph Henry Branch, Talla- 34th N. C. Troops. He was made 
hasse, Fla., volunteered as a pri- j captain, and in May '63 Major; 
vate and died of typhoid fever \ fell at Gettysburg, July 1, '63. 
contracted in the army, Aug. 13, ! — Thomas Cowan, of Wilming- 
1864. Was always cheerful and \ ton, died in the hospital at Wash- 
prompt, never shirking from ington city, Sept. 17, 1862. En- 
fatigue, he performed his whole j tered college in 1858; studied law 


Hutchins Goodloe Burton of 
Franklin county, Ala., quit the 
University and went to a commer- 
cial school at Cincinnati, Ohio, and 

under Judge Pearson. Entered 
the W. L. I. April 16, 1861 ; was 
afterwards in the third N. C. S. 
T., Co. B, as first lieutenant ; was 
mortally wounded at Sharpsburg. 

College News and Fun. 

(As Gathered from Exchanges) 

—In our three hundred colleges 
about three-eights are professed 

A student of Harvard carries 

a $15,000 insurance on the furni- 
ture of his room. 

—Cornell, Michigan, Harvard 
and Virginia have abolished com- 
pulsory chapel attendance. 

— The students of Amherst are 
required to attend to their gym- 
nasium duties before they can re- 
ceive a diploma. 

Prof. Turner, the distinguish- 
ed anatomist of Edinburg, receives 
a salary of $20,000 per year. This 
is the most remunerative profes- 
sorship in the world. 



— The Roman Catholic church 
is to establish a large university 
at Washington. 

— A Fresh, being asked the ori- 
gin of the word restaurant, replied 
that it came from res, a thing, and 
taurus, a bull — a bully thing. 

— Michigan University has nine- 
teen fraternities. University of 
Virginia comes next with eighteen. 
We are very well contented with 

— Grammar class. — Prof. Y. : 
" What is the plural of man ?" 
Mr. D. : " Men, sir." "And what 
is the plural of child?" Mr. D. : 
■•' Twins." 

— Italy has declared its seven- 
teen universities open to women, 
and Switzerland, Norway, Sweden 
and Denmark have taken similar 

— The University of Texas is 
the largest endowed institution in 
the South. It has $600,000 in- 
vested in bonds and lands. Its 
professors receive $4,000 salary. 

— "Do you think Johnny is con- 
tracting any bad habits at col- 
lege?" asked Mrs. Caution of her 
husband. " No, dear, I don't. I 
think he is expanding therein," 
was the reply. 

— Professor of Latin (to student 
at table): "Will you have some 
jam?" Student boarder: "Not 
any, thanks ; jam satis !" Profes- 
sor (turning pale) : " Are you ill, 

sir?" Student boarder (heartless- 
ly) : " Sic sum." The Professor 
is expected to recover damages. 


When the Freshman conies to college 
He comes in search of knowledge, 

Climbing up the college stair ; 
And he grinds out horse translations — 
Holds the Sophs, in veneration — 
Climbing up the college stair. 

He hears the bell a ringing, 

He says, " I do declare, 

I love to hear it ringing, 

Climbing up the college stair." 

With the Sophomore's duties, 
" Plugging" loses all its beauties, 

Climbing up the college stair ; 
Water is the Freshman's diet, 
And it keeps him good and quiet, 
Climbing up the college stair. 

He hears the bell a ringing, 

And says, " I do declare, 

'Tis hard to hear it ringing, 

Climbing up the college stair." 

But the Junior's year is brightest, 
And his cares are far the lightest, 
Climbing up the college stair ; 
And his heart is ever laden 
With the beauties of some maiden 
Fairer than the fairest fair. 

He hears the bell a ringing, 

And says, " I do declare, 

I will of love be singing, 

Climbing up the college stair." 

Lost in visions of the whenceness 
Climbing to the heights of thenceness 

Far above the college stair, 
Haughtily the Senior passes, 
Scorns derisively the classes 
Climbing up the college stair. 

He hears the bell a ringing,. 

And says, with careless air, 

" I care not for its ringing, 

I have climbed up the college stair. 



— Nearly 10,000 students have 
professed conversion during the 
last eight years. The greater 
number of these were brought to 
Christ through the instrumentality 
of the college Y. M. C. A. 

— Student : " Rex fugit — the 
king flees." Professor: " In what 
other form can that be made?" 
S. : " Perfet." " Yes ; and then 
how would you translate it?" 
Painful silence. Professor sug- 
gests "has." Student: "The 
king has fleas." 

— Japan has just settled the 
question of free popular educa- 
tion, and all children between the 
ages of six and fourteen are com- 
pelled to attend school from five 
to six hours per day for thirty-two 

— -Egypt has a college that was 
nine hundred years old when Ox- 
ford was founded, and in which 
ten thousand students are now 
being educated, who will some 
day go forth as missionaries to 
spread the Moslem faith. 

Among Our Exchanges. 

The College Student, a compara- 
tively new enterprise of Gaston 
College, comes to our table this 
week for the first time, and, from 
the neat and finished manner in 
which it is gotten up, and the se- 
lection of its articles, we predict 
for it a successful future. 

It has quite a number of short, 
live and well written articles, but 
is something of a new departure 
from the regular established col- 
lege magazine, partaking more of 
the character of an Educational 
Journal than a college record. 
However, it may not be any the 
worse on this account, since mo- 
notony seems to be its only fault, 
and might, for this reason, cause 

some readers to mistake at least 
two-thirds of its contents for a 
" patent paper." 

Of course, the little frisky, snarl- 
ing sheet, generally known as the 
Niagara Index comes back at us 
in its last issue discharging about 
two-thirds of a column of sense- 
less, pointless bosh. We cannot 
give it such prominence. But 
when we spoke of " clothes " didn't 
we touch a responsive chord in 
the heart of the exchange editor 
though? Pardon us, friend, we 
didn't mean to be very personal. 
But how could we think of any 
thing else while gazing on the 
handsome (?) exterior of the Index. 
No, thank you, keep your present, 



" Thy necessity is greater than 
ours." And in the future, when 
you are advised to improve, don't 
act the spoiled " child " so com- 
pletely as to throw away what you 
have already obtained. Do not 
criticise unless you could. But if 
you should attempt it again, make 
some point ; at least, let us have 
less of your vox et preterea nihil. 
Of all periodicals of all kinds, the 
one in question is the most con- 
ceited with the least reason for it 
that it has been our ;//z>fortune to 
be acquainted with. 

" Of all speculations the market holds forth, 
The best that we know, for a lover of 
Is to buy the Index at what it is worth, 
And then sell it at the price it sets on 

It is seldom that our dental ap- 
pendages are attacked by anyone, 
especially one who boasts of Ken- 
tucky blood. But such is our sad 
plight, for St. Marys Sentinel, dis- 
satisfied with the open, unpolished 
truth, hurls at us in the last issue 
more than a column of hollow in- 
vectives about "teeth." The 
manly editor has our heartfelt 
sympathy, if giving vent to pent 
up rage occasioned by a painful, 
decaying tooth, for we may thus 
have been trampling on delicate 
grounds, otherwise we must see 
that his rash assertions are suffi- 
ciently qualified. 

He says: "But it seems teeth, 
clay — and unadulterated mistate- 

ments — are the editors (referring 
to us) requsita ad argendum. Wit- 
ness the proof of the third. 1st. 
The Sentinel, October 30th, po- 
litely recommended you to open 
an exchange column because you 
then had none. 2nd. The Sentinel 
up to that time had received no 
' sarcastic hits.' 3rd. The Sentinel 
has had naught but praise from 
any of its exchanges except you, 
yourselves and another whom it 
now forbears, through kindness, to 

mention . 'There is not a 

student in College who is capable 
of writing a respectable critique 
on a distinguished author (quo- 
tation from us). Why thus de- 
fame yourself, friend?" 

Let us examine the "proof" in 
regard to the "unadulterated mis- 
statement." 1st. We had no ex- 
change column in the October 
No., it being the first issue of the 
collegiate year, and but few, if 
any exchanges had come in be- 
fore the publication pf that issue. 
With but this exception we do 
not remember to have ignored 
the exchange column. 2nd. We 
have only to refer to the exchange 
files of the prominet educational 
journals of the country to sub- 
stantiate our assertion that you 
had received " sarcastic hits." 
And lastly, we trust you are far 
from calling our honest attempts 
toward self-improvement "defam- 
ing ourselves." We were striving 
hard to extricate the troublesome 



mote from our eyes, and will you 
not, if for nothing else, for the 
good name of Kentucky, pluck 
out the burly beam which seems 
to distort your vision? Again, 
" you fellows don't have Latin and 
Greek taught every year, do you? 
Say, now be honest?" That's a 
stunner; may we not also say, 
" None but a gentleman, and that 
of the sharpest wit, could pen 

The Phrenological Journal is on 
our table. We receive it with 
much pleasure and read it with 
interest, it being among the most 
valuable of our exchanges. It is 
published by Fowler & Wells Co., 
N. Y., and is devoted to the ad- 
vancement of the science of Phre- 
nology. Those who are believing 
in this science will have their faith 
strengthened by reading it. There 
are many, no doubt, who believe 
it a farce, but these are the ones, 
as a rule, who have merely formed 
an opinion without having looked 
into its history and the important 
facts which support it. 

We predict that the science which 
this journal so ably advocates, 
will, within the next century, be 
taught by our leading institutions ; 
for the principles on which it is 
founded are true, we believe, and 

if true, it must eventually rise to 
the universal prominence it justly 

The Southern Bivouac, a literary 
and historical Magazine, published 
monthly at Louisville, Ky., by B. 
F. Avery and Sons, reached us 
this week. It is a magazine that 
comes up to the most critical stan- 
dard, in all its appointments. 

It has sixty-three pages brim 
full of historical sketches, war re- 
miniscences, literary criticisms, 
poetic dissertations — and other 
interesting subjects. 

It is needless for us to more 
than merely mention the names of 
the publishers, for the public has 
long since known that whatever 
they touch is turned into golden 
sands of double profit to their for- 
tunate readers. 

The Bivouac, if not the best is 
one of the best of its kind pub- 
lished in the United States, for 
its price. It is sent to subscribers,, 
postpaid at $2,00 per year, and we 
feel assured in saying that any 
student of the times would be 
paid manyfold in tracing its con- 
tents for a year. Its corps of con- 
tributors, its neat appearance and 
the reputation of its publishers re- 
commend it to even the most 
casual observer. 



New Publications. 

Compayne s History of Pedagogy. 
Translated with Introduction, 
Notes and Index, by W. H. Payne, 
A. M., Boston : D. C. Heath & Co.: 

A valuable book, and one which 
forms a part of every teacher's li- 
brary. The arrangement of the 
matter makes it a convenient text 
book, but there is entirely too 
much stress laid upon French Ped- 
agogy f° r our schools. Had Prof. 
Payne omitted about two-thirds of 
the part of the book relating to 
the work sought to be accom- 
plished by Mirabeau, Codillac, 
Candorcet and others in France, 
and substituted for it some chap- 
ters oh the work of Horace Mann, 
Page, Philbrick and others in 
America, the book would have 
been, so far, the very best for use 
in our Normal Schools. In treat- 
ing of education among the an- 
cients, and in presenting the va- 
rious educational theories of mod- 
ern times, the author is very 
happy. In fact, save the fact of 
containing too much of French 
Pedagogy, and none of American, 
we are much pleased with the 

Studies in General History : By 
Mary D. Sheldon, Boston : D. C. 
Heath & Co.: 

The book is well bound and 
well printed on good paper. The 

manner of treatment is thus ex- 
plained in the introduction : " This 
book is not a history but a collec- 
tion of historical materials ; it 
contains just the sort of materials 
that historians must deal with 
when they want to describe or 
judge any period of history, and 
just the kind of things, moreover, 
which we Americans must con- 
stantly attend to and think about. 
In Greek history it gives bare 
chronicles of deeds, pictures of 
buildings, statues, extracts from 
speeches, laws, poems ; from these 
materials you must form your own 
judgment of the Greeks," etc. 
The book is well calculated to 
make the pupil think, and is one 
of the best text books on the sub- 
jects we have seen. 

The Temperance Teachings of 
Science: Adapted to the use of 
teachers and pupils in the Public 
Schools : By A. B. Palmer, M. D., 
Boston : D. C. Heath & Co. 

A neat little book, in which the 
publishers seem to have done 
their part better than the author. 
It is certaLily sufficiently elemen- 
tary for use in the public schools, 
and it may be that the matter con- 
tained in it is of sufficient impor- 
tance to give the book a claim 
upon those schools. Let the 
reader send for a copy and exam- 
ine for himself. 



Latest Issues of the Frank- 

lin Square Library — Harper 

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The Leading Facts of English 
History is fresh from the presses 
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Its author, Mr. D. H. Montgomery, 
spent several years in England, 
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niversity Magazine. 

Old Series Vol. XVIII. 
New Series Vol. V. 

May, 1886. 


No. 7_ 


G. B. Patterson, 
Lewis J. Battle. 

Ed. B. Cltne. 



James Thomas, 

Vernon W, Long, 

Stephen B. Weeks. 

HORACE— Book 1st, Ode nth. 

Seek not to know the term of life, pure heart, 

That Heaven assigns to either thee or me ; 

Nor rashly tempt the false Chaldean's art ; 

Endure it well,— whate'er thy fate may be. 

If many winters more stern Jove decree, 

Or all thy round complete with this which breaks 

'Gainst crumbling rocks the spray of Tuscan Lea- 
Yet be thou wise, and drink thy wine, and square 
Thy hope with life's short span. E'en while one speaks, 
(Has fled) (the envious Time); seize on thine hour; nor dare 
To put thy faith in promised joys or fortune's freaks. 

T. H. 

University of N. C. 




The young men of our time who 
are about to step forth from home 
or college life and assume the du- 
ties of citizenship, will in all prob- 
ability soon find themselves in the 
midst of stormy times. From the 
indications of the present, and of 
the recent past, there is a crisis 
impending in both civil and social 
affairs. Indeed, we seem now to 
be in the very beginning of this 
crisis, if the disregard of law and 
the rights of property that are on 
every occasion and in every local- 
ity so forcibly illustrated, mean 
anything. There is apparent 
among the people a growing dis- 
regard for old and established 
rights, and an alarming lack of 
confidence in the statutes of the 
country. If this is not so, what 
significance must we attach to the 
portentous strikes that have been 
distracting society and confound- 
ing the guardians of the law ? 
Why this wholesale destruction of 
property, this indiscriminate clog- 
ging of the vehicles of public busi- 
ness, and the inconsiderate de- 
struction of the sources of domes- 
tic supplies? Have these em- 
ployees so little regard for the 
public weal that they must tram- 
ple upon the rights of all in order 
to secure a correction of their pe- 
culiar grievances ? Are their rights 

so transcendant as this ? I do not 
wish to be understood as defend- 
ing the actions of grasping mon- 
opolists, but merely to make the 
point that strikers, in the methods 
they pursue to obtain remedies 
for their wrongs, ruthlessly tram- 
ple upon the rights of the public. 
And if there is not a lack of 
confidence in our laws, why this 
unexampled increase in the mur- 
ders and lynchings of the day? 
Why cannot the members of so- 
ciety wait for the law to punish 
the authors of the violence done 
to it? In this last question lies a 
consideration that is important in 
the extreme. It is a palpable and 
deplorable fact that law is not al- 
lowed to take its legitimate course 
against many of the crimes com- 
mitted against society. The re- 
sponsibility for such a condition 
of affairs must rest somewhere. 
Where does it lie ? It is a serious 
and terrible one ! Are we, after 
centuries of development ; after 
we have embodied in our institu- 
tions the accumulated wisdom of 
the sages of antiquity, and had 
their thoughts best adapted to 
our needs by the great intellects 
of more recent times; after each 
generation has drawn from the 
mine of civil liberty what appear- 
ed to them jewels, and what have 



nevertheless proved but the ore 
out of which succeeding genera- 
tions have procured the virgin 
metal and fashioned it into most 
lovely models ; are we of America, 
when we have about solved the 
great problem of constitutional 
government, now to forsake all 
and revert to the customs of bar- 
barism ? Such appears to be the 
ultimate result of the practice of 
lynching. Have we gone to an 

extreme in striving to attain the 
maximum individual liberty, and 
now like a pendulum, about to 
swing to the other extreme? I 
cannot believe that we are. 

I have a strong faith in the in- 
stitutions of the country, and I 
beiieve that all we lack is the 
proper following of those institu- 
tions. Members of each of the 
literary societies in the University 
have doubtless seen occasions 
when a failure to properly execute 
their laws resulted in confusion 
and flagrant violation of them. I 
believe that it is just so with our 
State and National laws. We have 
good laws, the most of them are 
wise, and if properly executed will 
meet the needs of all our people 
from one end of this bioad land 
to the other. The main fault then 
lies in the execution of the laws. 
The people are to some extent 
justified in punishing criminals 
when they have good reason to 
believe that if given over to the 
law they will ultimately go un- 

punished, even after the expenses 
of a long trial have been defrayed 
by them. When a man in the 
quiet pursuit of his vocation is 
brutally murdered, his assassin 
deserves a speedy and complete 
punishment, and there is no ex- 
cuse for allowing them, through 
the instrumentality of some smart 
lawyer, to trifle with technicalities 
and finally rob justice of its due, 
I and society of its protection. 
I When innocence is outraged, and 
a beautiful woman slain by the 
1 coarse hand of her seducer, there 
i is a universal cry that the murderer 
reap the reward of his deed, and 
J it is neither wise nor safe to ignore 
j the demand. It is the inherent 
I law of order in man's nature, and 
I his desire for perfection, that has 
I evolved from the original wjldness 
[ of man the present fabrics of civil 
government. Under these organi- 
zations man has provided ade- 
quate means for the suppression 
of crime and for the regulation of 
society generally, and when the 
men appointed to execute these 
provisions fail in their duties, in 
simple obedience to this inherent 
principle the people take- the exe- 
cution into their own hands. 

I regard this as one of the great- 
est evils threatening us to-day. I 
mean not the practice of lynch- 
ing in itself, but the principle of 
attempting to administer justice 
by other than the appointed meth- 
ods. It is subversive of the pur-, 



poses for which government is 
formed, and must lead to a state 
of affairs in which safety will be 
assured to no man, either in his 
person, or in the possession and 
enjoyment of his property. The 
importance of preventing such a 
condition of things must be per- 
fectly apparent to every one. 

This will be one of the chief 
questions the young men of the 

present will be called upon to set- 
tle, as soon as they are invested 
with the duties of citizenship, and 
I take this method of attempting 
to impress upon them the duty 
they owe to themselves to be pre- 
pared to stand for the right, and 
to so live that when they declare 
an opinion it will carry a meaning 

with it. 

M. B. P. 


At this late day when the 
tragedy of the ancient and mod- 
ern stage has been carefully re- 
vised by critics eminently pos- 
sesed "both of learning and deli- 
cacy, it might not seem wise, 
within the limits of a brief article, 
to speak of the French classic 
drama. One can hardly hope to 
say anything new. But the fact 
is, not every body has the time to 
study, at first hands, the dramatic 
poetry of foreign nations; nay, 
but few can render even to Shak- 
speare his due. Is it not there- 
fore in season to say something 
about the French drama for those 
whose studies have led them far 
in other directions ; and might we 
not also help on some who are sit- 
ting weary, perhaps, by the way 

With this hope, we shall briefly 
call attention to the peculiarities 
of this species of composition, and 
if we do not now find the time to 
set forth the beauties of which 
the French are so proud, we in- 
vite our readers to satisfy them- 
selves by the best of all tests, — 
by diligent and careful reading. 

We shall illustrate our remarks 
by Corneille's Masterpiece, Le Cid, 
for while it bears the strong indi- 
vidual marks of its author, we shall 
find in it a great deal that is typi- 
cal of all. 

It is with Corneille that the 
French drama became classic, and 
Corneille's success began with the 
representation of the Cid (1636). 
When in 1629 Corneille, twenty- 
three years old, left the quiet of 
the province to come to the great 



Paris, he found the learned in a 
warm dispute about dramatic art. 
Some maintained (ultimately with 
success) that the great tragedy, 
simple but majestic and sublime, 
was the only model to follow. 
Then there were those other burn- 
ing questions : Can there be more 
than one action in a tragedy; 
must the scene always represent 
the same place ; can the action be 
represented as lasting more than 
twenty-four hours? 

Aristotle was the fancied sup- 
porter of those who maintained 
these Unities, but in reality he 
says but little about them (see 
Schlegel, Drama Art, Lecture 17). 
Corneille investigated these 
problems, and accepted, doubtless, 
what the best criticism of the day 
required. So we find that in the 
Cid the scene is laid chiefly in the 
palace of Don Ferdinand. But 
still the Unity of Place has not 
been strictly preserved, for the 
scene is sometimes clearly in Don 
Diegue's house, and there is no 
reason to suppose that his house 
was a part of the King's palace. 
Moreover, the scene in which 
Rodrigue meets his father, after 
the duel with the Count de Gor- 
mas, cannot be in the palace, as 
Rodrigue himself expressly says 
that he dared not show himself 
near the King. But no mention 
is made of these places of a 
change of scene. Perhaps Cor- 
neille hoped to escape the diffi- 

culty by judicious silence. In gen- 
eral, in reading the French trage- 
dy, we are aware of a certain jug- 
gling with persons and places, in 
order to meet this fancied neces- 
eity for Unity of Place, and we do 
not feel that the verisimilitude of 
the action is increased thereby, as 
we do not feel that it is impaired 
by a bold shifting of the scene in 
Shakspeare and the French dra- 
matists of the later Romantic 

Long before Corneille planned 
the Cid, Shakspeare had lived and 
given his masterpieces to the 
world. He did not concern him- 
self about the Unity of Place any 
more than Schiller minded the 
rules of the Meistersanger ; and we 
are not at all confused when we 
read him. What does it matter if 
the first Act is in Rome and the 
fifth on the Plains of Phillippi? 
We wish to follow the delineation 
of a good idea in life, not to be 
deceived by the actors on the 
stage. If perfect fidelity to na- 
ture were demanded of the stage, 
the Julius Caesar of Shakspeare 
would be impossible. For to be- 
gin with, we should all have to 
write and repeat the Latin of clas- 
sic Rome. 

Another bond that the French 
dramatists laid upon themselves, 
was the Unity of Time. It is not 
quite clear how a performance of 
three or four hours should neces- 
sarily represent the occurrences of 



twenty-four, unless it be that for 
practical reckoning in life, a day is 
in some sort a unit of time. But 
such was the law, and Corneille 
seems to us to follow in it the Cid. 
It is probable that the action be- 
gins one day near nightfall and 
closes the next day about the 
same time. The result is that the 
persons of the play scarcely have 
time enough to tell about the 
deeds that are being done, they 
are almost always out of breath ; 
and so far from being gratified, we 
are half inclined to doubt that 
such vast and far reaching events 
could spring forth, so to speak, 
full grown. 

Like the physicists, we feel that 
nothing can happen " unless time 
be allowed." 

When we come finally to speak 
of the action, we find the greatest 
divergence from the Shaksperian 
type, — a peculiarity so marked 
that it rises at once to a national 
characteristic. The fact is, there 
is scarcely any action at all ; it is 
chiefly description. The persons 
come on the stage to explain their 
struggles and their passions, to re- 
late what has happened, and to 
discuss the probabilities of the 
future. So. we constantly hear 
long soliloquies and dialogues. 
The actors are merely messengers 
who leave the scene of action long 
enough to bring tidings to the au- 
dience. But the audience does 
not always, like a general-in-chief, 

survey the battle field even from 

Two causes combined to banish 
the action from the eyes of the 
spectator : the mechanical arrange- 
ment of the stage, and the na- 
tional idea of propriety. 

Up to the time of Voltaire, 
the stage, already narrow, was oc- 
cupied on both sides by the seats 
of certain distinguished specta- 
tors. The little passage-way that 
remained was not 'large enough 
for free action and motions suffi- 
ciently exaggerated to tell at a 
distance, would have appeared su- 
premely ridiculous to those so near 
at hand. 

But the ideas of dramatic pro- 
priety were still more tyrannical. 
Almost all tragic situations were 
regarded as too horrible to be ex- 
posed to the eye. Hence they 
could only be described. In the 
opening of the Cid, Rodrigue is 
not allowed to fight with the 
Count on the stage ; — they meet, 
disappear quarreling, and after a 
while a messenger rushes in to 
tell that the Count is dead. The 
closing scenes of Hamlet and King 
Lear would have been, and doubt- 
less they would now be, altogether 
revolting at Paris. 

There was indeed grandeur and 
passion and suffering on this stage, 
but they were analyzed, described, 
painted with beautiful words, 
rather than shown to the eye. 

We have now said enough to 



show, at least, that this drama did 
not reach what seems to us the 
truest conception of the Art. It 
did, however, produce grand poe- 
try. These symmetrical rhyming 
Alexandrines may not be the ve- 
hicle of the strongest emotion, 
but they are still magnificent 

If we express in a word what 
impresses us most in reading Cid, 
it is the dignity and nobleness of 
the sentiment. What a splendid 
struggle between love and filial 
piety ! What a chaste and deli- 
cate expression ; It is indeed the 
poetry of the lordly age of the 
Grand Monarque. T. 


It is a fearful thing 
To love as I love thee ; to feel the world — ■ 
The bright, the beautiful, joy-giving world — 
A blank without thee. Never more to me 
Can hope, joy, fear, wear different seeming. Now 
I have no hope that does not dream for thee ; 
I have no joy that is not shared by thee ; 
I have no fear that does not dread for thee ; 
All that I once took pleasure in — my lute, 
Is only sweet when it repeats thy name ; 
My flowers, I only gather them for thee; 
The book drops listless down, I cannot read, 
Unless it is to thee ; my lonely hours 
Are spent in shaping forth our future lives, 
After my own romantic fantasies, 
He is the star around which my thoughts revolve 
Like satellites. 

— Miss Landows Poems. 
University of N. 6., April 16th, 1886. 




" Knowing that Nature never did betray the 
heart. that loved her." — Wordsworth. 

" Nature never does betray the 
heart that loves her." She speaks 
to him " a various language." By 
this is meant that at all times to 
those who love nature and can in- 
terpret her, she affords either 
pleasure or instruction, and often 

Just as we change as we grow 
older, and things seem to change 
too, just so are the lessons nature 
teaches us different in our maturer 
age from those that we received 
from her in our youth. We are 
able at one time to receive the 
pleasure and instruction that we 
are unable to receive at others. 
But it is always pleasure or in- 
struction, and what is more, owing 
to our nature, it is the pleasure or 
instruction that we want at that 

Also, these gifts seem to be dif- 
ferent in our different moods — 
gay, quiet, sombre. Bryant says: 

" For his gayer hours 
She has a voice of gladness and a smile 
And eloquence of beauty ; and she glides 
Into his darker musings with a mild 
And healing sympathy that steals away 
Their sharpness ere he is aware." 

There is hardly any sentiment 
of the mind, which is capable of 
affording either pleasure or in- 

struction, which may not be aided 
by the beautiful, or what some 
might call ugly, in nature. For 
instance, take love. We have this- 
from Burns : 

' ' Aft hae I rov'd by bonie Doon 
To see the rose and woodbine twine 
And ilka bird sang o' its luve 
And fondly sae did I mine." 

This last line was bound to come. 
Of course it couldn't be helped. 
In the same strain, Shelley says: 

" The fountains mingle with the river, 

And the rivers with the ocean ; 
The winds of heaven mix forever, 

With a sweet. emotion ; 
Nothing in the world is single, 

All things by a law divine, 
In one another's being mingle : 

Why not I with thine ?" 

I have heard those who know say 
that they can enjoy the company 
of their sweethearts better if they 
are out of doors in the midst of 
nature with all its beauty. 

Take veneration. Who can't 
worship better out urder the stars 
on a quiet night than when braced 
up in a close room ? Burns, 
" ^natures poet," goes on to state 
in his common-place book in what 
condition or what aspect nature 
must have for him to worship- 
well. He says : " There is scarce- 
ly any earthly object gives me 
more — I do not know if I should 
call it pleasure— but something 



which exalts me, something which 
enraptures me — than to walk in 
the sheltered side of a wood, or 
high plantation, in a cloudy winter 
day and hear the stormy wind 
howling among the trees, and rav- 
ing over the plain. It is my best 
season for devotion : my mind is 
wrapt up in a kind of enshusiasm 
to Him, who, in the pompous lan- 
guage of the Hebrew bard, ' walks 
on the wings of the wind.' " Un- 
der other conditions some other 
of his feelings would be aroused. 

So we might take the other sen- 
timents and illustrate. 

The*n we can obtain instruction 
from nature. What does the de- 
composing rock teach us? What 
does the "monumental oak," that 

was planted by our grandsire and 
sheltered our father in his boy- 
hood, teach us. It teaches us 
that yet a little while and our 
summons will come " to join that 
innumerable caravan." Also, do 
not the heavens declare the glory 
of God, and the firmament show 
his handiwork? Therefore nature- 
is ever ready to point you to her 

So in innumerable ways nature 
gives us pleasure and instruction: 
that raises and refines us, and gives 
us strength to work. From every 
communion with her we come 
away wiser and better. " Nature 
never deceives the heart that loves, 

Peter Snipper Highgrass. 


I mean by civilization mental 
development and social polish, as 
distinguished from religion and 

It is often argued erroneously 
that upon the education of the 
masses in the arts and sciences 
rests to a great extent the moral- 
ity of a people. In fact Infidelity 
claims that our system of religion 
has developed together withal 
other improvements. But moral- 

ity, in my opinion, is an independ- 
ent quality — separate and distinct,, 
except as other qualities are de- 
pendent upon it for existence.. 
Morality cannot be the outgrowth 
of mental or moral culture, or it 
does not in many instances in- 
crease in the same proportion as> 
do these qualities. 

To effect this proof, we have 
but show that morality does not 
necessarily keep pace with, civiliza- 



tion. I stand upon- the grounds 
of historical, observational, and 
philosophical proof. I refer to a 
nation and a country whose his- 
tory is a most fruitful source for 
instance's both of folly and wisdom. 
Greece was renowned for her in- 
tellectual giants and patriotic peo- 
ple. Her seats of knowledge were 
Sparta and Athens. As their in- 
habitants reveled more and more 
in the luxuries of civilization the 
baser became their morals. In 
Athens the people became more 
and more depraved, till truth and 
virtue were strangers. Her men 
became by degrees effeminate; 
her women became harlots. Sparta 
in all her much sung glory — with 
all her lauded patriotism and na- 
tional enlightenment and skill in 
military operations, gradually sank 
to the very low depths that fe- 
male virtue was forbidden by law. 
Remember, Greece was then the 
most civilized nation in the world. 
Roman youths came there to 
drink of her fountains of knowl- 
edge, and make themselves pro- 
found philosophers and elegant 
orators. She was the leading na- 
tion in literature, sculpture, and 
all the fine arts, yet her morals so 
decreased that even her advanced 
stage of civilization, with all the 
powers that mind and earth could 
afford could not sustain her, and 
the great edifice tottered and fell 
.and crumbled into insignificance. 
We cannot find another instance 

in history more strikingly illustra- 
tive of this truth than the rise and 
the fall of the Roman government. 
During the first few centuries 
there existed among the people 
great indignation toward vice. 
The seven thinly populated Hills 
of Rome echoed the songs of 
chaste Italian maidens, "soft as 
their clime and sunny as their 
sky." The Roman would rather 
die a martyr than to live a perjur- 
er. The husband had a perfect 
right to repudiate his wife, yet 
not one instance of divorce occur- 
red during the first six centuries. 
But as Rome grew more powerful 
and wiser, her morality began to 
decrease. Female virtue began to 
be outraged. Honor and truth 
began to wane. And coming on 
down to the days of Sulla and 
Caesar and Cataline, and to the 
days of the Imperium, the most 
enlightened period of her exist- 
ence — the age of her orators, poets 
and philosophers, and we witness 
the utmost depravity. Morality 
died, and civilization better pre- 
pared men to lay schemes, to de- 
ceive, to rob, and to cheat. These 
are the days which Juvenal satir- 
izes, when Cicero was made to 
exclaim, "Oh, Temporal Oh, 
Mores!" when Virginais was com- 
pelled to rob home of its brightest 
jewel to save her from disgrace ; 
when Cato, the only pure man in 
Rome, urged by an overwhelming 
tide of grief, put an end to his 



own life. These instances prove 
that it makes no difference what 
education may do, what science 
may attain, or to what state. of 
polish or refinement society may 
reach, morality may, in spite of 
them all, vanish and be forgotten, 
and its foot-prints be obliterated 
by vanity and corruption. 

We do not lack for instances of 
modern times. America has ad- 
vanced as much in knowledge, arts 
and science in the last hundred 
years as Europe has in the last 
one thousand years. I am certain 
there has not been such rapid 
progress in morality. In fact, I 
can have more confidence in the 
morality of a hundred years ago, 
when our fathers met in rude log 
ohurches to thank God for new- 
born liberty, than in the morality 
of the present day. 

I have a poor opinion of our 
present morals. We have an hon- 
est people, but I fear the greater 
part are honest through policy. 
Our fathers were free from the 
scourge of many of the national 
.sins which curse our age. In their 
day I doubt if Beecher could have 
continued to draw such large au- 
diences, or could have had so many 
ardent admirers after he broke the 
seventh commandment ; and I 
•doubt if Grover Cleveland could 
have been elected. We have made 
most wonderful progress in civili- 
sation during the last century. 

Have we made comparative ad- 
vancement in morality? 

Observation teaches us at the 
present day that civilization op- 

I poses morality about as much as 
it aids it. Science has aroused 

I many minds to the doctrine of 
evolution and infidelity, and a 
great part of our people are be- 

: coming tainted with infidel ideas. 

! We observe, furthermore, that 
people in the most civilized com- 
munities have less warm and de- 

I vout religion, and less reverence 
for it, than those in ruder portions 
of the land. You cannot find in 

! America two cities populated by 
a more civilized people than New 

j York and Brooklyn ; nor can you 

I find but few where the people of 
the highest ranks are less moral ; 
where they have so little rever- 
ence for the house of God as to 

I stamp their feet and clap their 

I hands in applause of their pastor's 

, rhetorical curl or sparkling wit. 
We still further observe that 

! the North is more cultured than 
the South, yet her morals cannot 
compare with ours. The clouds 
of Infidelicy are hovering over 
her horizon, and are beginning to 
shut out the sunlight of her Chris- 
tianity. The young have forgot- 
ten the God of their fathers, and 
worship theory, fashion and rum. 

Not considering history and 
observation, reason teaches us that 
it is not natural for morality 



necessarily to keep pace with civ- 
ilization. Extreme pride and 
vanity will create an extreme am- 
bition in a people to excel, and 
with this stimulant to urge them 
on they' reach the highest stage of 
civilization. Yet these same char- 
acteristics render men so conceit- 
ed they consider their knowledge 
too broad, their understanding too 
acute, and in their bigotedness 
what they cannot perceive with 
their own eye and grasp with their 
own perception they reject as 
false. They learn to despise hu- 
mility—so characteristic of a true 
christian — and the final result of 
enlightenment -is egotism and in- 
fidelity. I admit that civilization 
robs religion of some superstition, 

yet it more often robs it of the- 
fervor and earnestness which 
ought to attend it. Civilization 
is a great aid to morality as long 
as it serves to further the progress 
of morality, But when it leaps 
its bounds, in many instances it is 
made a substitute for morality. 
When it makes men vain and out- 
shines morals in the eyes of men, 
then it is a blasting curse to hu- 
manity. If civilization thus an- 
tagonizes religion, upon which 
depends all our morality, morality 
does not necessarily keep pace 
with civilization, nor can it be the 
offspring of that which can be an- 
tagonistic to its existence. 



In a certain little valley far back 
in the mountains of North Caro- 
lina there stands the remnant of 
an ancient mound which legend 
says is haunted by the spirit of an 
Indian maiden. The storm of cen- 
turies have nearly leveled it with 
the earth, but enough yet remains 
to show that it was a monument 
of much labor and time. 

The valley in which it stands is 
unusually beautiful, as well from 
the mild seasons that seem pecu- 
liar to it as from the majestic hills 
that rise on every hand. The In- 

dians called it Nantahala, " the 
valley of the noonday sun." Forso* 
high are the mountains around, 
and so steep the walls which en- 
close it, that only the beams of 
the midday sun can reach the 
level meadows. But the encircling 
hills shut out as well the blasts of 
Winter, and Nature has lavished 
upon it all those gifts that make 
one spot of earth more fair than 
another, and bind to it the hearts 
of a people with an indestructi- 
ble tie. 

Further up in the gorge a river 



rushes madly along its rocky chan- 
nel, leaping and sparkling among 
the great boulders like a wild 
spirit of the mountain. But no 
sooner does it enter this valley 
than its laughter and gambols 
cease, and, as awed by some mys- 
terious presence, it steals darkly 
under the sombre pines and creeps 
silently past the grey walls and 
ruined sepulcher, and then with a 
plunge and a roar, like a fright- 
ened thing, it bounds again on its 
way towards the ocean. 

Where the stream passes the 
ancient mound it is deep and si- 
lent, but often in the still twilight 
the mountaineer pauses there to 
listen at a mysterious voice which 
comes in musical cadence from 
the dark cliffs on the further side 
of the river. It is a voice of pass- 
ing sweetness, rising and falling as 
in passionate pleading, murmuring 
in tones of infinite tenderness, 
moaning, sighing! then breaking 
into a sob and dying away in a 
stifled wail that sounds as from a 
heart that is breaking. None who 
listens to it escapes the mysterious 
spell ; the shadows of twilight 
seem to press with a weight of 
sadness, and indefinable longing 
seizes the heart, and tears without 
a cause swell into the eyes of them 
who linger and listen there. Some 
say the sound is but the murmur- 
ing of the river in the cavities of 
the mountain wall, but the In- 
dians declare it to be the voice of 

a maiden who long ago perished 
in the river while searching for 
the body of her murdered lover, 
and that her spirit still haunts the 
spot continually seeking the war- 
rior, and ever bewailing their long 
separation. The mound was built 
over her body near the place 
where she perished. 

While resting upon the mound 
at the close of a summer day an 
Indian related the legend which 
for generations has been handed 
down among his people. And, 
listening to his story told there in 
the twilight, it was not difficult to 
fancy the form of the Indian mai- 
den seeking her lover among the 
dark shadows that wavered on the 
river and wringing her hands as 
she uttered those sorrowful tones 
of despair. 

Many years ago, so runs the le- 
gend, this valley of the Nanta- 
hala with others hidden in the 
shadow of these great mountains, 
was held by the Creek Indians. 
Who these people were or whence 
they came tradition does not tell. 
Buried in the depths of the Alle- 
ghanies for generations they re- 
mained secure from the incursions 
of hostile tribes. With long con- 
tinued peace they lost their war- 
like character. Their time was 
given to cultivating the valley and 
hunting the game which abounded 
in the great forests, or oftener still 
to the enjoyment of that idleness 
which the luxurious climate in- 


vited. With the decay of savage 
pastimes the arts of civilization 
increased. The little valley bloom- 
ed like a garden, and habitations 
substantial and neat arose in the 
midst of it. The men became 
peaceful and the women slowly 
emerged from the slavery of sav- 
age life, and developed under the 
influence of their genial climate 
into the beautiful type of woman- 
hood which is peculiar to some 
mountain countries. In this little 
cove where the mound remains 
the Chief of the Creeks had his 
home. And here every year at 
the time of the gathering of the 
first green corn the young men of 
the nation assembled for their an- 
nual games. From all the adja- 
cent valleys the braves gathered 
to measure strength with each 
other and to display their feats of 
prowess before the eager maidens 
and the old people of the tribe. 
All these festivities the youths 
assayed the feats of their legen- 
dary heroes and at the same time 
tried to excite the emulation of 
their younger brothers by deeds 
of strength and daring. Many a 
maiden's heart was lost by the 
manly beauty of the braves as 
they struggled with bared limbs 
in their fierce sports ; and many a 
youth was wounded then by dark 
eyes that watched him intently. 

But there came a time when 
among all the maideus who as- 
sembled at the summer games 

none could compare with Silolee.. 
Perhaps it was the noble spirit 
which she inherited from the old 
chief her father that shone in her 
face as added beauty, but certain 
it is that as year by year had giv- 
en height to her figure it had giv- 
en also charms to her person till 
none among her sisters could equal 
her in dignity and grace and 
beauty. Many a youth's eye rest- 
ed upon her tenderly as he paused 
in the contest, and when the as- 
sembled throng applauded a dar- 
ing deed Or feat of strength the 
actor turned to see if Silolee had 
observed him and was applaud- 
ing too. There was scarce one 
among them who was not her 
sui or, but as yet she had favored 
all alike. 

Upon a certain summer day 
while the young braves were strug- 
glin for the approval of the Chief- 
tain's daughter, a stranger was 
seen approaching from the hills. 
He carried upon his shoulder a 
huge buck which yet bled from an 
arrow wound near its heart. As 
he approached the revellers paus- 
ed to observe him, for a stranger 
in these parts was an unusual 
sight. As he came towards them 
they could not but observe his 
fine form and wonderfully devel- 
oped limbs. Sraight and wiry 
he was, and the muscles stood 
from the flesh like sinew alone 
made up the man. He bore the 
great buck as lightly upon his 



shoulders as it had been a brace 
of squirrels. The stranger carried 
his burden to where the old chief 
was seated and laid it before him. 
His language was unknown but 
by signs, that common language, 
he told them that his home was 
far beyond the mountains where 
the sun went down into the plain. 
That following the swift game he 
had crossed the hills alone and 
came now as a friend with an of- 
fering of peace. 

" Whoever comes in peace," said 
the old man, " is welcome. We 
accept your gitt and receive you 
as a friend." Then the young 
men returned to their games each 
anxious to display his strength 
before the unknown brave. But 
presently when the stranger en- 
tered the list the mightiest one 
among them was dwarfed into a 
pigmy. He hurled stones they 
could not lift and their most re- 
nowned wrestlers were thrown 
over his head like children. He 
broke their strongest bows and two 
of them together could not bend 
the bow which shot the deer he 
brought them. 

What passed in the hearts of 
the maidens as they watched the 
feats of the stranger the legend 
does not tell ; but he, it declares, 
had noted one among them whose 
dark eyes had watched him in- 
tently and whose voice had been 
first to applaud his feats of 
strength. When the day's sport 

was ended the hunter unobserved 
slipped away into the mountains. 
Days went by and brought a 
cloud upon the valley. A wild 
band of warriors who had come 
from no one knew where were on 
the warpath in the mountains.. 
Already they had made a raid 
upon the adjacent coves. There 
was a hurrying and gathering of 
Creek braves. The peaceful val- 
leys became alive with prepara- 
tions for war. But the mild Creeks, 
were no match for these vaga- 
bonds whose pastime was battle. 
They would sweep down like ea- 
gles from the mountain carrying, 
destruction with them and leaving 
death and terror in their train. 
Little by little as the months went 
past the tribe was cut off till the 
valley of the Nantahala held all 
that remained. For some reason 
the little cove remained unmo- 
lested. For some reason which 
the Creeks could not understand 
no raid had ever been attempted 
upon the home of the old Chief. 
Yet time and again rumor came 
that a Cherokee warrior had been 
seen at evening along the skirts of 
the forest. And those who ob- 
served closely declared that Silolee 
resorted thither often at twilight 

Had she been observed one 
evening she might have been seen 
to enter the forest and wait for 
the coming of a Cherokee brave. 
And. as he approached cautiously 



in the shadow his sinewy form 
■would have declared him the spy 
who had handled her brothers so 
roughly at the summer games, 
and had since proved more than a 
match for the bravest warriors of 
her tribe. She might have been 
seen listening half fearfullyto his 
entreaties to fly with him back to 
the mountain fastness. Long ^he 
hesitated, but at length overcome 
by his urging and the prompting 
•of her own heart half yielding, 
together they climbed the bluff 
that shadows the river. There 
she paused, and as her eye fell 
across the little valley which held 
her home and the kindred she was 
leaving, old affections swept over 
her heart like a flood, and she re- 
fused to follow him further. All 
that his fierce passion could sug- 
gest he said. Time and again she 
turned to follow, but as often 
■paused and looked back upon her 
home in the valley. If she would 
go with him, he would draw his 
warriors off and leave her father's 
people in peace. But she knew 
that never and never again would 
she see her native hills. She would 
go to a strange country, among a 
strange people, and be cursed for- 
ever by her kindred for wedding 
an alien and an enemy. She stood 
silent upon the cliff struggling 
with her heart, now turning in 
passionate love to the warrior by 
her side, and again looking back 
into the valley with infinite long- 

ing. Far below was the winding 
river aglow with the evening sky, 
the dark valley of the Nantahala 
dotted here and there by the 
watch-fires, and around it the tow- 
ering cliffs tinted in the soft light 
and mellowed by the hazy autumn- 
tide. Her life had been spent 
there, these scenes had become 
a part of her being; her father, 
her people and her home were 
there, yet still she hesitated, list- 
ening to the warrior entreating 
her to follow him into a strange 
land among a strange people. 

But while they wait they are 
startled by a sound. They are 
followed ! Now she no longer 
hesitates: father, kindred, home, 
all are forgotten in fear for her 
lover's safety. She urges him 
away ! She will fly with him to 
the setting sun : only away. But 
she is too late. A score of Creeks 
spring from behind the rocks and 
laurels. The Cherokee presses the 
maiden behind him and defends 
himself with a strength and brave- 
ry that his enemies had long since 
learned to fear. But he is felled 
by a blow. They drag the maiden 
from him and bind his hands. He 
will be taken into the valley and 
put to death. But he recovers, 
and suddenly gaining his feet, 
springs over the precipice. The 
maiden uttered a shriek as she saw 
her lover leap, and would have 
followed had they not held her 
back. The warriors peered over 



the cliff with drawn bows and 
spears, but the glow of daylight 
had faded from the river, and noth- 
ing could be seen of their enemy 
in the darkness below. There was 
a sound when he struck the water 
far, far beneath, then all had been 
silent again. They searched long 
about the river for the body, but 
it was never found. 

But it seems the maiden lost 
her mind through grief, for day 
after day she wandered along the 
river, continually calling to her 
lover to return to her from the 
shadow land, and bewailing their 
long separation. And often on 
moonlit nights she would be found 
swimming among the dark shad- 
ows on the river, ever calling in 
that sad voice of madness, paus- 
ing awhile to listen at the answer- 
ing pines or the sob of the gurg- 
ling water, then would be lured 
on again in her vain quest by some 
wavering shadow. Protected by 
the awe which Indians feel for 
such as she, the girl wandered 
where she would, unmolested. But 

her people no longer loved her, 
and when one winter's evening 
her body was found drifting down 
the river stiff and cold, with the 
ice frozen in her hair, none but 
the old father was found to mourn 
for her. He buried her there by 
the river, and over her grave erect- 
ed the mound which still remains 
a monument of love. But the 
spirit of Silolee yet lingers, and 
her voice is yet heard calling at 
evening to the lover that has never 
been found. 

After the death of the maiden, 
war was carried on by the Chero- 
kees more fiercely than ever. And 
often the semblance of the dead 
chief with a ghastly scar across 
his forehead struck terror into the 
hearts of the Creeks as he led his 
old followers into battle. The 
Nantahala was no longer free from 
attack, and in a fewjyears those 
who yet survived turned their 
backs upon the fair valley and left 
it forever to the rude conquerors. 
John W. Hays. 





My Classmates : — Time in his 
flight has borne away four years 
since we entered the University 
of North Carolina. Then, when 
we saw the four years of hard and 
tedious work before us ; when we 
saw the Greek roots we were to 
discover and bring to the light of 
day ; when we saw the number of 
problems in mathematics it would 
be our duty to solve ; when we 
beheld the intricacies of Latin 
syntax we were to unravel and 
translate into classic prose; when 
all these loomed up before us in 
their terrible grandeur, how could 
the time seem anything but long? 
Had an orator, possessing the 
hundred mouths and brazen lungs 
for which Homer prays, attempt- 
ed to convince us that the time 
would be short, his eloquence 
would have fallen on unheeding 
ears. Had even the Sweet Swan 
of Avon sung to us then and taken 
this as his theme, even his notes 
had been passed in silence by. 
But let the scene change. The 
four years are now passed, and 
who will say that they have not 
been short, very short? 

Time, when past, is but a spot or a mark 
On the boundless waste of eternity. 

Let us view ourselves as we ap- 
peared four years ago. August 
31st, 1882, is the starting point in 
the history of the class of '86. 
Then our connection with our 
Alma Mater began. We reached 
the Hill, and our greeting by the 
soph was cordial ; but we did not 
impress him very favorably. In 
the greatness of his wisdom he 
looked down upon us with infinite 
contempt, and called us green. 
Even the MAGAZINE spoke of us in 
a very disparaging way. " Fresh, 
fresh, seventy-five of them, some 
handsome, some un, mostly un ; 
some intelligent, some un, mostly 
un," is a paragraph copied from 
the personal department. Before 
this we had had a very exalted 
opinion of ourselves. We were 
perfection personified — in our own 
eyes. But who can stand before 
the eloquent and irresistible tor- 
rent of ridicule as it flows from 
sophomoric lips? We felt like 
some nineteenth century Hast- 
ings flayed alive by the two-edged 
tongue of another Burke. 

Then came that relic of barbar- 
ism known in college slang aS the 
" Fresh treat," more properly 
called the "Freshman's retreat.'' 



It was held in the new West Build- 
ing. The fresh were invited to 
" walk up and help themselves." 
They walked up and were helped. 
They did not walk away ; their 
gait was somewhat faster than a 
run. In five minutes from the time 
the signal for attack was given, 
there was not a fresh to be seen. 
They had taken unto themselves 
wings and were seeking rest, and 
the soph was left in the dim dis- 
tance behind, sighing that there 
were no more worlds to conquer. 
But all was not hopelessly lost ; 
there was still one bright spot on 
the dark horizon of our future, 
and that became the loadstar of 
our hopes. We were the pet of 
the faculty. The chastening rod 
was applied to the back of 
the humbled soph, and we be- 
gan to experience a turn in the 
tide of our fortunes. We were ac- 
knowledged by all the faculty to 
be the best looking, the most in- 
telligent and brassiest set of fresh- 
men who had appeared on the Hill 
since the re-opening. This surely 
was some comfort to us in our de- 
spondent hours. 

There ne'er was yet to worn and weary 
mortals given 
An hour so dark that did not light the way 
to heaven. 

The first months of our college 
course glided quickly by, and then 
the examination came. These 
were strange unheard of things to 
us, and our introduction to them 

was short, sudden and unceremo- 
nious. Then came " Sum ma dies 
et ineluctabile tempus." We were 
pronounced bad on Latin, com- 
mon on Greek, passable on English 
and tolerably good on Mathemat- 
ics. The faculty found that 

" All is not gold that glisters." 

The spring session opened with 
several additions to our number — 
men who swelled the ranks for 
awhile, then turned and fled from 
the scenes of college life to mingle 
in the great mass of humanity. 
But I must hasten. In the June 
examinations our former reputa- 
tion was somewhat retrieved, ex- 
cept in mathematics. Our pro- 
fessor found he had been too 
lenient at Christmas, so he deter- 
mined to make up for the past. 
The geometry class had sixty-six 
members. Of this number forty- 
one were engulfed by the over- 
whelming wave of " 69." Such is 
the fate of him who trusts too little 
to study, and too much to cram- 

The commencement has come 
and gone. We have visited our 
homes. The vacation is ended, 
the session is open, and we are 

A change has come over the 
spirit of our dreams. We no longer 
feel that deep-seated hatred of 
hazing which animated our breasts 
only a year before. How men 
can change when it best suits their 
purpose ! 



We greet the gentle fresh with 
more cordiality than we ever ex- 
perienced, and the inventive fac- 
ulties of the class of '86 are nigh 
used up in finding some new 
methods of torture. At last an 
idea strikes the mind of the mem- 
ber from the Indian Territory. A 
council of war is called. At first 
he suggests that the fresh be 
hitched to wagons and be required 
to draw the exulting sophs where 
it pleases them best. The propo- 
sition is rejected in scorn as too 
utterly tame and unworthy of the 
soph of '83-84. Then "Tuck" 
Harkins, our Apache chief, brings 
forward his ultimatum. It is ac- 
cepted, and the taurine element is 
immediately introduced. Hence- 
forth the riding of these bellow- 
ing beasts by fresh at midnight 
was to be our favorite amuse- 
ment. The fresh groaned from 
the bottom of his heart as he 
went flying through the air from 
the back of his infuriated steed, 
and silently ejaculated : 

" When shall we three meet again?" 

But alas, we have lost our place 
in the esteem of the faculty ! We 
are now lectured as others have 
been before us. Nor is lecturing 
all. Our leaders are caught. They 
are brought up before that awful- 
ly solemn body known as a fac- 
ulty meeting, tried, and expelled. 
But the societies came to the res- 
cue then : 

"The ruined Soph'more now no longer 

Claimed kindred there and had his claims 

By action of the societies 
hazing is suppressed, the faculty 
relent, and the sophs are saved. 

This finishes lis as Sophomores. 

Commencement and the vaca- 
tion passed away, and we drifted 
quietly into the harbor of 

Our paths of study began to di- 
verge. The year was uneventful. 
Each one pursued the even tenor 
of his way quietly and unnoticed 
by others. At last we reached 
that great goal forwhich we had 
been striving so well — that goal 
which excites the most intense 
longing of the fresh, commands 
the respect of even the soph, and 
rouses the envy of the junior, the 
goal of 

"Anticipation is greater than realization," 

say they. 

"'Tis distance lends enchantment to the 

says Campbell. 

In those earlier days, with us to 
be a senior was greater than to be 
a king. This was what time- 
honored custom had taught us ; 
but, oh how unlike the reality is 
this ideal. But it is now passed, 
and we gather to-day for the last 
time as the class of '86. What a 
throng of sweet memories come 
floating back as we turn and pause 
and turn again. How memory 
swells at our breasts and turns the 
past to pain, when we remember 



that this is our last meeting. Well 
has the poet-priest written : 

" When hands are linked 
That dread to part, 
And heart is met by throbbing heart, 
Oh bitter, bitter is the smart 
Of them that bid farewell." 

It is time for me to give some 
statistics of the class. We num- 
ber twenty-six, fifteen Di's, nine 
Phi's, two belonging to neither 
society. Cline, C. Grandy, H. and 

S. Jackson, Rice and Self joined 
us as sophs ; Dixon and Schenck 
came in as juniors. The class has 
numbered in all 104 members ; 
one-fourth alone have survived the 
four years of work. 

The following schedule will give 
their ages, professions, etc. In 
the denomination column an itali- 
cized letter indicates a church 
member : 

Name and Address. 

L. J. Battle, Raleigh 

O. C. Bynum, Bynum's ... 

W. H.Carroll. Magnolia 

E. B. Cline, Hickory 

P. B. Cox, Raleigh ... 

Frank Dixon, Shelby.. 

W. S. Dunston, Creswell. 

C. T. Grandy, Camden C. H 

L. B. Grandy, Oxford 

H.W.Jackson, Ashboro.. 

S. S. Jackson, Pittsboro 

J.J.Jenkins, Riggsbee's Store.. 

F. M. Little, Wadesboro .. 

P. B. Manning, Sunbury 

J. M. Morehead, Charlotte 

G. L. Patrick, Kinston 

G. B. Patierson, Shoe Heel 

H. W. Rice, Raleigh 

J. F. Schenck. Cleveland Mills.. 

W. A. Self, Hickory... 

M. McG. Shields, Carthage 

James Thomas, New Berne 

K. S. Uzzell, Goldsboro .. 

R. L. Uzzell, Goldsboro 

S. B. Weeks. Elizabeth City 

N. H. D. Wilson, Jr., Greensboro 


Aug. 6, 
May 10, 
Sep. 30, 

April 17, 
June 16, 
Feb. 9, 
May 6, 
Sep. 29, 
April 3, 
jFeb. 15, 
Jan. 3, 
;Oct. 6. 
Feb. 7, 
I April 16, 
ljuly 20, 
;Feb. 8, 
|May 29, 
Mar. 31, 
April 17, 
'Sep. 16, 
[Oct. 9, 
I April 23. 
iMay 10, 
jOct. 27, 
Feb. 2, 
'Jan. 26, 




5 9 


6 1 


6 2 


5 8-5 




6 2 


5 10 


5 8-5 


5 9 




5 11 


5 11 




5 11 


5 10 


5 8-5 


6 2-5 


5 " 


5 9 


5 9-5 


5 8 


5 8 




5 8 


5 11 


5 11 


« 2 ' 

o % I Profession. 

z z 



























";' ' ' 

Banking, - 1 '^m 
; Undecided. 
Law. j, 

Undecided. . &-b***~ 

Medicine and farming. . ^/"-co- t/A- < 
Law. 7c*iiit, 


Undecided. Vl^y-." ^ 
Undecided, fto^fa , 


Teaching. S L fy\. , _ /Win^i 

Civil Engineering. 

Undecided. iLo^w 

Undecided. /Wf'f 

Civil Engineering. 

Undecided. <s£a~>~ - ftl* - C . 

Undecided. Vt^ cA^~* 

Undecided., /Wf f . 


Undecided, /^^^j^u.*. 

Law. 'Pirvi^ft/k*-* 


English, ■gcfcw . 
.[English. ,A^,^-tr* w 
.[Teaching or- ) preaching_ 

One has taken unto himself a 
wife, and is now enjoying a honey- 
moon three days old. May he 
live long and always be as happy 
as he is to-day. I refer to Robert 
Lee Strowd, of Chatham county. 

Once has the grim monster 
whom we must all face visited 
our ranks, and removed from us 
ourbrother, George Wimberly Ar- 
rington. He had left college, it is 
true, but still he was our brother. 


He was kind and generous, and 
beloved by all. Nor can I finish 
this sketch without paying some 
tribute to that noble woman who 
was to have been his bride, and 
who during his long and painful 
illness watched him with that ten- 
der and sleepless vigilance which 
proclaims the depths of woman's 
love. But like Eloise, she was 
forced, in the midst of her tears, 
to exclaim : 

"' Oh, death, all eloquent, you only prove 
What dust we dote on, when 'tis man we 
love " 

Such, my classmates, is our his- 
tory. It is ended. We have agreed 

to meet again on some future oc- 
casion. How many of us shall see 
that day? How many shall have 
gone to that undiscovered country 
from whose bourne no traveller 
returns? How many shall have 
crossed the Rubicon of death to 
stand before the Righteous Judge? 
How many in that day can say 
that we have feared God and kept 
His commandments, for this is 
the whole duty of man. Let us 
take them as our guide. Obey 
them, my classmates, and there 
will be nothing to fear. 
April 30, 1886. 


The day was calm, a feeling strange 
Possessed me. A desire to range 
Alone into the woods and seek 
Some fitting theme on which to speak 
To you in verse to-day. I went 
Down through the campus. Then I bent 
My course south-eastward. 'Twas a road 
So dim and quaint, that to the abode 
Of humankind you'd ne'er suppose 
It led. Nor does it. There arose 
Within my breast a sort of fear 
To be alone. Nor far nor near 
Could danger be. The gentle breeze 
Seemed to affect no other trees 
Save the few pines which here and there 
Reared their green tops high in the air. 
Onward I strolled — musing and slow, 
Thinking of what, I do not know, 
'Till I was come to where I viewed 
An obscure op'ning in the crude 
Gigantran rocks which seemed the front 
Of some huge phalanx 'gainst the brunt 

Of nature's forces to do fight, 

Armed with almost eternal night. 

I looked about in vain to see, 

What nature in her fantasy, 

Had waywardly seen fit to rear — 

Nature now homely — and now fair. 

Grand images there were — so grand 

That on a smooth rock near at hand 

I sat me down to meditate 

In thoughts half wandering, half sedate. 

Soon to the echoing hillside old 

Rang " silver threads among the gold." 

Faintly the last few notes were dying — 

When lo, from out that crevice prying 

I saw a pair of great, gory eyes 

In steadfast, wandering surprise. 

Wild was the look, yet 'twas so weird 

That from its influence I feared 

To turn myself away. Anon 

A feeble voice was heard — " play on." 

It was obeyed — and mellow sound 

Greeted once more the rocks around. 



Then with a tenderness that swept 
Away all fear that could have crept 
Into my soul—as it had done — 
I heard the gentle voice say " come." 
Thither I went. And there, behold, 
A rock-hewn dwelling, which of old 
Dame nature builded as a home, 
From whence the Oreads might roam — 
For within and on the right, 
A sort of phosphorescent light 
Showed through a narrow entrance where 
Was a small room. The spirit here 
Came to a pause, and kindly bade 
Me rest upon the mossy pad 
Which had been laid with skill and care 
Upon a boulder bleak and bare ; 
He sat down near me, and I gazed 
Upon him, wandering — half amazed. 
His eyes alone shone bright and clear 
From out the long white, shaggy hair 
Which hung down low upon his face. 
Silence prevailed, a moment's space 
And he began. Slowly each word 
Came from him that all might be heard : — 
Strange youth, thou hast to-day been wan- 
dering forth 
Across these wooded hills and pleasant dales, 
In search of poesy, in search of thoughts 
Which leap about among th' unwieldy rocks. 
Thoughts which build palaces in mountain 

Unbar the granite gates of rEolus' home 
And ride upon his winged steeds. Now, boy, 
Give earnest heed, I will a tale unfold. 
'Tis not ' the creature of an idle brain,' 
The phantom of no 'vain imaginings.' 
Long, long ago within those college walls, 
By more than nine decades of rolling years 
Made sacred. I was then a happy lad. 
I studied earnestly that I might learn 
From those about me what this world is, 
What human nature is in all its forms. 
E'er since that time it has my privilege been 
By mental vision to view man's ways 
Through those who go out from this flowing 

Of knowledge. I have seen the noblest types 
Of human excellence go bravely forth 
Into life's battle, and I, too, have seen 

The lowest wretches that e'er breathed the 

Of being eternal, go forth as well. 
One mighty man held in his kingly hand 
Th' imperial scepter of this nation's power. 
Just now before " my mind's eye " do I see 
A noble youth whose destiny on earth 
Was not what men are want to call sublime — 
But in his bosom dwelt a wondrous soul. 
The spirit of an honest man. His heart 
E'er beat to the eternal harmony 
Of truth and right, of love, and joy, and 

peace — 
Happy he lived and happy died. He passed 
Into the great mysterious world beyond — 
No cares encompassed him — no doubts, no 

I see another — a more lucky man — 
A seeming " favorite of fate." His life 
Ne'er was a burden to him. He rejoiced 
In all the good which is to mortal giv'n — 
But " for a' that " no better man was he. 
Next I recall a poor weak erring lad 
Who, alas, early had begun t' apply 
" Hot and rebellious liquors in his blood." 
Poor soul, his was a luckless, awful doom — 
Drink, drink, drink, at last death came — 
Sadly it came — by his own mad right hand. 
Others I see who were the preferred heirs 
To all the faults and frailties of mankind — 
And as for these, my pity is sincere. 
I grieve that they were thus. But then to 

Harshly their lives, I cannot. They were 

I could for all the world pray endless bliss — 
A heaven beyond of perfect joy and peace, 
Wer't not that on the blackened side of life 
My thoughts force me to dwell. When I be- 
The inhuman wickedness, the awful crimes 
Of satan's offspring dressed in human forms — 
My heart grows hard as stone — no pity then, 
No pleas of weakness can affect my soul ! 
A profound pause then did he make, 
I durst not speak. He had flung back 
From off his brow stern as the rocks 
About him all his hoary locks. 
A scorching heat came, as it seemed 



From out those piercing eyes, undimed 
By father Time's slow-blinding breath. 
Thoughts black with meanness, woe and death 
Could I divine from that grim look 
Fixed on his face as thus he spoke : — 
I see that wretch, a wondrous will he had— 
A power of mind and words invincible. 
I see him plying his infernal arts 
Upon that beauteous unsuspecting girl. 
He woos and wins her. She — all his own, 
She loves him, all the deep intensity 
Of woman's unbounded affection 
She pours confidingly upon that man. 
His heart is cold as ice, his soul is dwarfed 
His spirit black as are the shades of Tar- 
tarus — 
He tempts the maiden — overcomes her fears — 
He leaves her then — his farewell is a sneer. 
Vainly she looks up to a haughty world 
And piteous begs forgiveness and mercy, 
She dies — no sigh is Dieathed above her grave. 
O fiends of Hades, O, eternal gods 
Of darkness and of terror haunt the path 
By day and night of that vile damned wretch 
Who to the breaking of his sacred vowsi 
Adds jest, and scorn, and mockery and hate ! 
More could I tell thee — inexperienced boy, 
Of men who scarce were worth to walk erect, 
So narrow was the spirit in their breasts — 
So like unto a demon's were their lives— 
But I forbear. No pleasure to me is 't 
To pause at length upon the sombre deeds — 
The ignoble records of the sons of men ! 
And here the man seemed wrapt in thought, 
Till hesitating, I besought 
That he his strange life's history — 
Which must be one of mystery — 
Would kindly deign to give to me. 
You'd ne'er surmise what it could be, 
Again he spoke — more mildly than before. 
These were the links he slowly counted o'er : 
Thrice thirty years within this rock-bound 

I've kept my dwelling-place. Ne'er until 

Has any mortal being come within 
From all the crowded world around. 
The woodman turns his course another way 
As he begins to near this spot. Ne'er borne 

Upon the night winds to my ready ear 

Is e'en the sounding of the hunter's horn. 

These rocks are haunted. Be thou not afraid. 

Supernal beings nightly revel here 

And weave their magic grim and ghostly 

spells — 
My life is nourished by a father's hand — 
I'm fed " by Him who doth the ravens feed." 
By what fate came I hither dost thou ask? 
I'll tell thee then, — one chill November's 

night — 
'Twas in the "old east" as it now is called — 
A youth, half-dreaming, by his chimney fire, 
Sat, reading some dark legend of times 
When our brave forefathers with dauntless 

Beat back the red man and the howling beasts 
Into their wooded thickets and their caves. 
He was aroused by hearing all at once 
The sounding of his name in accent quaint. 
So muffled, so unearthly did it seem, 
That he scarce knew that it was his own 

name — 
But he arose and left his quiet room. 
Next morn, a fellow-student — a dear friend 
Went to his room — found the unlatched door 
Somewhat ajar. Upon the table lay 
An open book with back upturned. A chair 
Sat by the fireside, and 'twas empty — 
He who last rested in't had disappeared — 
And no one ever knew where he had gone. 
No one has ever dreamed of how those fiends 
Lawless, and conscienceless bore him away — 
And made him swear by all the universe 
That if they spared his life he would con- 
To dwell within a dingy, dusky cave, 
And never more fourscore years and ten 
Look on a man's face, or listen to man's 

voice - 
Except those who might dare to his cell 
Make adventure. Nought he did for which 
To meet such a fate. No crime, no stain 
Of blackness here against him is set down 
Upon Jehovah's book of remembrance. 
But foul, suspicious, poisoner of beasts, 
Of envy and of green-eyed jealousy 
The dire offspring — adopted child of hell, 
On virtue paints a vicious tinge ; on good 



A line of evil, and in motives pure 

As angels — stainless as the glimmering stars, 

Sees a base prompting, unmanly and mean. 

But life is not sadness e'en to him 

Who has been banished from contact with 

Fate had decreed that as a sweet solace 
Unto his soul, a strange power, supernal 
Should be — to gain full knowledge of the 

Through blessed spirits — they whose winged 

Float on the whispering breezes — on the 

Which sigh and moan at midnight. Thus it was 
That he this power superendural 
Of viewing mankind and their ways 
Was kindly given, — who this strange fated 


Was, no one who is now alive can tell, 
Even his name has long since been for- 
got : 
Behold that being now before your eyes. 
My stringed companion then he took 
From off the granite floor, a look 
Of joy was on his face, and much 
I wondered. Then with such a touch — 
With such perfection of chord and tone 
He drew the notes of " Home sweet home," 
That I well knew no mortal hand 
Did e'er such wondrous power command : 
I looked around, no longer shone 
The dim light, and the spirit was gone : 
Oft have I sought, time and again 
To woo it back — but all in vain : — 
Thanks for your kind heed to my lay ; 
I humbly bid you all good-day. 

W. A. Self- 


The accession of Valens of the 
East, in the year 364, brought 
with it great trouble for the 
church. The death of Julian the 
apostate restored to their sees the 
Bishops who had been expelled 
during his reign. The succeeding 
reign of Jovian, short though it 
was, enabled the Catholic doc- 
trines to be once more promul- 
gated without fear of persecution. 
It is true the Arians were still 
numerous; but without the Court 
influence they were powerless to 
do much harm. But Valens was a 
thorough Arian, and determined 
to root out the Orthodox Clergy, 
and supply their places with 
Priests and Bishops of his own 

stamp of churchmanship. Fortu- 
nately there appeared another ac- 
tor about the same time, whose 
influence was to be directly op- 
posed to that of the Emperor; 
and upon whom had fallen the 
mantle of the great Athanasins. 
This was none other than S. Basil, 
the leader of church thought, the 
staunch supporter of the Ortho- 
dox Faith, and, afterwards, Arch- 
bishop of Caesarea and Primate 
of the Provinces of Pontus, Paph- 
lagonia, and Armenia. 

I. Early Training. 

His early training had fitted S.. 
Basil for the duties which fell 
upon him. Trained at the best 



schools in Caesarea, Constanti- 
nople and Athens, he was, before 
his ordination, famed for intellec- 
tual ability and attainments, espe- 
cially in rhetoric, philosophy and 
literature. In Egypt he had be- 
come acquainted with the monas- 
tic life; and saw that it could be 
made very useful in helping for- 
ward the growth of the church. 

II. Ministerial Life. 

S. Basil's ministerial life, proper, 
began in 364, when he was or- 
dained to the Priesthood. He im- 
mediately took a prominent posi- 
tion in church affairs., and became 
so influential that his Bishop, Eu- 
sebius, was rather jealous of his 
superior qualities. To prevent a 
schism in the church at Csesarea, 
S. Basil retired from the city for a 
season, and carried into execution 
the plan he had adopted for mo- 
nastic life. Later, when the church 
in Caesarea was threatened with 
persecution, all differences be- 
tween his Bishop and himself were 
healed, and he returned to Cae- 
sarea, and became again the trust- 
ed counsellor and commissary of 
Eusebius. A lull in the persecu- 
tion gave S. Basil ample opportu- 
nity for great religious activity. 
Speaking of this period of his life, 
his friend, S. Gregory Nazienzen 
says: "He was engaged in the 
care of the poor, of strangers, of 
virgins, in giving laws orally, and 
in writing to monasteries, and in 

the ordering of public prayers and 
devout worship of the sanctuary ; 
indeed, in whatever a man of God, 
working with God, could be prof- 
itable to the people." In his 
charity he was unwearied ; the 
greatest part of his private prop- 
erty was bestowed in good works. 
And especially was he unsparing 
in liberality and personal labors in 
the time of the great and terrible 
dearth and drouth, which afflicted 
Caesarea in 368. Two years later, 
Eusebius died, and Basil was elect- 
ed to succed him, though with a 
great deal of opposition. His 
merits were so great that they 
formed a hindrance to his election. 
His orthodoxy was too definite, 
his discipline too rigid to suit some 
of those in whose hands rested 
the appointing power. With this 
lack of symyathy in his corps of 
clergy, it was not to be expected 
that his would be a Bishopric of 
ease and tranquility. From the 
very beginning, there was great 
dissatisfaction among those who 
should have supported him in all 
his undertakings. The clergy were 
factious, ungenerous, suspicious. 
S. Basil wished to do all in his 
power to aid and excite the devo- 
tions of his people. He was great 
in special services, in psalmody, in 
vigils, in the decencies of the Al- 
tar. All this caused his clergy to 
look upon him as an innovator, 
one who had advanced beyond 
the "good old times," and who 



•consequently was to be watched 
closely, and hindered as much as 
possible. His Bishops took ex- 
ceptions to his doctrines. They 
thought he was too lax towards 
the Semi-Arians, and too anxious 
to conciliate all honest differences. 
Anion" other thing's, his former 
intimacy with Eustathius, Bishop 
of Sebaste, whose disciples had 
become very extravagant in some 
of their views, was made one of 
the principal charges against Basil. 
These Eustathians were excessive 
in theirdisparagement of marriage, 
in their asceticism of all kinds. 
That they were condemned by 
the council of Gaugra, which was 
thought to be largely under S. 
Basil's influence, removed from 
him all obloquy which he other- 
wise might have incurred from his 
connection with Eustathius. An- 
other great cause of complaint 
against S. Basil was that he issued 
such severe laws against the laxity 
which prevailed in the Provinces 
with regard to ordination. Many 
unworthy persons had been ad- 
mitted into the ministry for 
worldly reasons ; and this abuse 
of the ministry he sought to cor- 
rect. S. Basil was also accused of 
denying the Divinity of the Holy 
Ghost. His declaration on the 
article of Faith anticipated the 
action of the next General Coun- 
cil. He affirms in an Epistle, about 
this time, that he adheres to the 

Faith of Nicaea;.but, that on ac- 
count of the Macedonian heresy, 
another article should be added to 
this creed, declaring the divinty of 
the Holy Spirit. 

But there was great need of a 
leader in the whole Eastern 
Church. Persecution was raging 
against it; heresy was rampant; 
the church torn by divisions. Ac- 
cordingly, Basil tried to enlist the 
sympathies of Rome and the 
West, to get counsel and aid from 
them in restoring the unity of the 
East ; to join the East and West 
together against Arianism, and in 
maintaining the Faith of Nicaea. 
But he appealed to Rome in vain. 
The Western Church either held 
aloof, or interfered in such a way 
as to promote disunion rather 
than unity. From Ambrose, alas, 
Bishop of Milan, did he get that 
sympathy which he had elsewhere 
in the West sought in vain. In 
372, Basil gained the good will of 
the Emperor by his firmness and 
gentleness ; and Valens, at that 
time, seemed to make amends for 
the wrongs he had formerly done 
the Archbishop. This favorable 
impression, however, was not of 
very long duration. The fires of 
persecution were not long allowed 
to smoulder. 

III. Cenobium. 

The Ccenobium, or Collegium, 
of S. Basil differed from the mo- 

2 9 4 


nasteries of Egypt in several res- 
pects. Instead of solitary and 
indolent anchorites, who spent 
their time in pious meditation, his 
was the life of the industrious re- 
ligious community, which seemed 
to him to be the perfection of 
Christianity. Industry was to be 
the animating principle. Fre- 
quent religious services were held ; 
and these, with the study of the 
Scriptures, and theology in gen- 
eral, manual labor, hard living, 
and frugal fare were the charac- 
teristics of their life. Certain 
hours were set apart for manual 
labor; and upon this time noth- 
ing else was to intrude. The la- 
bors were such as were of real use 
to the community. The inmates 
were to be trained for missionary 
work in the surrounding coun- 
tries ; and everything necessary to 
make a successful missionary was 
to be learned and experienced. 

IV. Writings. 

Among the writings of S. Basil, 
very important are what are call- 
ed his three Canonical Epistles. 
These are interesting as showing 
what was the Canon Law of the 
Eastern Church at that time. 
They contain only what had been 
received by tradition from former 
generations. One of the questions 
was about Heretical Baptism. The 
Epistle declares that Baptism is 
not to be repeated where water 
has been used in the name of the 

Blessed Trinity. In another, rules 
are given concerning marriage. 
While he highly exalts the " an- 
gelic state of celebacy," he by no- 
means prohibits the marriage of 
the Clergy. Rules are given con- 
cerning virginity, widowhood, rash 
vows, and many other things. In 
one Epistle, he discusses the ques- 
tion of frequent Communion, 
Daily Communion, he thought, a 
good thing ; though the church in 
Caesarea communicated only four 
times a week. In times of perse- 
cution, when neither Priest nor 
Deacon could be present, a per- 
son might receive the Eucharist 
which had been already conse- 
crated. One of the causes of his 
succesful teaching was in his know- 
ing how to apply the arguments 
of the best works of Poetry and 
Philosophy to the confirmation 
and attestation of Divine truth. 
Gregory Naziauzin speaks thus of 
one of his writings: "When I 
peruse the books he has written 
on the Holy Spirit, I find out God,. 
and I preach boldly the truth,, 
treading in the steps of his the- 
ology and contemplation. When 
I read his other expositions, I do 
not halt at the mere outward let- 
ter, but I pierce down deep into 
the spirit, and hear as it were 
' one deep calling to another/ 
and I behold light streaming in 
upon light, and thus grasp the 
sublime meanings of Holy Scrip- 



V. Liturgy. 

" One of the wisest acts of S. 
Basil's Episcopate at Caesarea was 
to revise, methodize, enlarge, and 
consolidate the Liturgy of his own 
church, and to reduce it to writ- 
ing." His Liturgy was based upon 
that of St. James, of Jerusalem, 
and was the groundwork of that 
of S. Chrysostom, which is now in 
use in the Eastern Church. The 
Liturgy of S. Basil is used on cer- 
tain occasions, e.g., on all the Sun- 
days of Lent except Palm Sun- 
day; Monday, Thursday, Easter. 
Even the Vigils of Christmas and 
Epiphany and the Festival of S. 
Basil (Jan. 1). From its being 
used only on these occasions, it 
would seem to be especially of a 
Penitential character. Of this Lit 
urgy there are three revisions, the 
Greek, the Armenian and the Cop- 
tic. Its length was twice that of 
the earlier Liturgies, so far as the 
use of Clergy is concerned, but 
not so for the People. The daily 
office for the people began at day- 
break, and consisted of confession 
of sins, antiphonal psalmody, read- 
ing the Scripture; then a pause 
for meditation and confession to 
God in silence. A longer form 
for the clergy and religious orders 
followed. Before his time, S. Basil 
intimates that the substance of 
the Liturgies was the same in all 
churches, but each church had its 
peculiar variations. In the cele. 

bration of the Holy Communion 
the precise form of words to be 
used was to be retained in the 
memory of the celebrant, but was 
not committed to books. It is 
supposed that S. Basil first com- 
mitted the entire Liturgy to writ- 
ing. The following is a con- 
densed statement of its contents, 
taken from Wordsworth's History, 
(vol. II, p. ::82) : 

"The earlier part of it com- 
prised psalms, and the reading of 
scripture, and the sermon ; and 
after it intercessory prayers for 
Catechumens and others, who 
were successively dismissed. 
Then came_ the prayers for 'the 
faithful,' that is, of the communi- 
cants ; and 'the kiss of peace.' 
Then the 'Minor Benediction' 
and the ' Ter Sanctus.' Then a 
commemoration of our Lord's 
acts and words at the Pascal Sup- 
per. Then the oblation of God's 
creatures, the bread and the wine. 
Next the Invocation of the Holy 
Ghost to make them to become 
the blood of Christ. Then inter, 
cessory prayer for all men, and 
for blessings temporal and spir- 
itual ; then the Lord's Prayer ; 
then the Benediction, the break- 
ing of the bread — ' the holy things 
to the holy ' —Communion of Cler- 
gy and Laity ; then Thanksgiv- 
ing and final Benediction." 

It has been stated that the Lit- 
urgies at this time were substan- 
tially the same. Even in heretical 



communities there were not any 
notable deviations in the Order of 
the Liturgy. The Liturgy was 
among the most powerful agents 
for sustaining, strengthening and 
expanding the Christian life ; and, 
therefore, the benefit conferred by 
S. Basil in committing his Liturgy 
to writing cannot be too highly 

VI. Death. 

S. Basil's public or ministerial 
life was almost co-incident with 
the imperial life of Valens, begin- 
ning 364 and lasting until Jan. 1st, 
379. The affectionate reverence 

in which he was held was shown 
by the great multitudes, Jews,. 
Heathen and Christians who 
flocked to his Juneval. Borrow- 
ing again the words of S. Greg- 
ory, we conclude. "' His body 
body was at last laid in the sepul- 
chre of his father; and he who 
had been the chief of Bishops,. 
was united to other Bishops; and 
that voice of power which still 
rings in my ears was joined to 
other Preachers, and another Mar- 
tyr was added to the Martyrs who- 
had gone before him to glory." 
March 24, 1886. 


" Public life " embraces so many 
public servants,— so many different 
characters and occupations that 
it would weary the strength of a 
Hercules and exhaust the " ex- 
pressive force " of a Swift or Ma- 
caulay to treat the subject with a 
prospect of success in a short 
article for a college journal. 

That reform in public life is a 
public, an individual and an im- 
perative necessity, no one will at- 
tempt to deny. The history of 
our own country for the last 
twenty-five years is replete with 
examples from every source of re- 

sponsibility, — from every grade of 

Government officials, ministers 
of the gospel, teachers, physicians, 
bank cashiers and officials of pri- 
vate corporations, according to the 
daily papers, add ten fold force to 
Burns' pessimistic sentiment ex- 
pressed in, 

" Mankind is an unco' set, 

And little to be trusted, 
When self the wav'ring balance shake,. 

'Tis merely right adjusted." 

If we are to learn anything from 
the historic march of those nations 
whose names exist only on parch- 



ment or printed page, we must 
consider the causes of their ob- 
livion and profit by their misfor- 

Had the nations of long: ago 
heeded the warnings of wisdom 
their destinies could not have been 
such a blot upon history's instruc- 
tive page, and many that ex- 
changed their glory for the follies 
of luxurious, idle and licentious 
habits, would now stand out upon 
the maps of the world with boun- 
daries "surveyed" by a frugal, 
patriotic ancestry over two thou- 
sand years ago. 

Then taking history as a guide, 
we must necessarily predict a rev- 
olution or national disgrace of any 
people, however high and appar- 
ently invulnerable their bulwarks, 
unless their public policy is guar- 
ded and guided by sentiment that 
richly enable individual existence. 
Unless public men and women 
stand aloof from the alluring se- 
ductions of avarice, — unless their 
integrity is strong enough to bear 
them safely over the quicksands 
of ordinary temptation, the tide 
ere long sweeps them out into the 
vorex of desperation, and hypoc- 
risy, insincerity, debauchery and 
ruin mark the boundry of vain 
hopes and depraved ambition. 

The time was when brute force, 
physical superiority controlled all 
the social and political relations of 
life ; man's power was abridged 

only by physical impossibilities 
and what he believed to be the 
unalterable decrees of fate. In 
many respects, man has outgrown, 
these barbaric evils, but in his 
maturer day he has supplied their 
places with ethers equally, if not 
more sure in their fatal results. 

Our society and political leaders,, 
in the midst of success and pur- 
suit of pleasure, seem, to ignore 
the great lessons of the past, seem, 
to forget that if a people are not 
moved by some inherent principle 
of right — if they do not form pro- 
per conceptions of justice and 
morality,, they may soon expect 
the avenging angel bearing in his 
hands the scourge of ruin and 

Greece once had the promise of 
perpetual existence, not only for 
her military and intellectual glory, 
but also for the arbitrary lines that 
gave her the proud title of nation. 
But her public servants forgot the 
simplicity of virtue, soothed their 
consciences with the delusive 
whispers of revelry and allowed 
avarice, jealousy, intrigue, licen- 
tiousness and an inordinate ambi- 
tion to dictate and control her 
councils. And as a result, upon 
the ruins of the most celebrated 
nation of antiquity, the mistress 
of the world laid the foundations 
of her own imperial grandeur. 
Yet, she too, in turn, though for a 
season prosperous beyond the ful- 

^9 8 


fillment of the most extravagant 
prophecies, fell a prey to the same 
insidious foe by which she had 
conquered her unfortunate sister 
nations. To-day her priests to- 

which the nations of the world 
might learn a most profitable les- 
son. Her people are now and 
have been for years upon the verge 
of a revolution that will ultimate- 

gether with many of their unful- ly sweep over Europe with ter- 

filled predictions are buried so 
deep in oblivion that dig where 
you will, scarcely a vestige is 
found to tell us of their former 
successes or departed greatness, 
and the descendants of the proud 
boasters of the Seven Hilled city 
are universal vagrants, passing 
their lives in tuning guitars and 
playing the merited funeral dirge 
of a mighty nation whose legions 
fell before the stealthy march of 
luxury, indifference, social and 
political venality. Spain, that a 
few centuries ago covered the 
waters of the world with the white 
wings of commerce and national 
activity, has long since lost her 

rific destruction ; and when it 
comes, it shall send to earth's re- 
motest bounds the reverberating 
crash of useless thrones. and drive 
thousands of royal vagabonds who 
" live and flourish" upon another's 
sweat, by no other right than the 
accident of noble (?) birth, either 
to suicide or to some useful occu- 

Unless the ruling classes hear 
and heed the cry that breaks forth 
from millions of throats morning, 
noon and night, it will, when it 
comes, more effectually change 
the maps of Europe and Asia than 
the campaigns of William the 
conqueror, or the immortal 

place beside the " Great powers of achievements of Charlemagne. 

Europe" and has fallen so low in 
the scale of national respectabili- 
ty that almost any power may in- 
sult her king and shoddy aristoc- 
racy with perfect impunity. By 

But enough of " old and foreign" 
examples. These are the warn- 
ings by which time teaches and 
admonishes us to reform and keep 
reformed, lest we be instrumental 

her utter disregard of the rights in adding another to the long list 

of others, when in the plenitude 
of power, by her inappeasable 
avarice, the inherited incapacity 
of her public servants, the beastly 
superstition of all classes and the 
debauching influence of her "best 
society," there are none now, " so 
poor as to do her reverence." 
Russia is a living example from 

of departed nations. 

Our o w n country, " Time's 
latest and best offspring," is some- 
what afflicted with the malady 
that poisoned the centres of vi- 
tality in the nations gone and 

We can scarcely read a news- 
paper that does not give an ac- 



count of some trusted public ser- 
vant who has forgotten the sacred 
pledges of confidence, forsaken 
the path of rectitude and brought 
an eternal disgrace upon himself 
and family. Scarcely a week 
passes but we are retold of the 
wild, ruthless, and often indecent 
extravagance of " High Life in 
good society." 

Our national capital is and has 
been for years filled with a lobby 
of aristocratic corruptionists ever 
ready to effect legislation so as to 
cover their outrageous villainies 
and to still further enrich them- 
selves " by ways that are dark and 
tricks that are vain." 

It would take a volume to name 
their crimes and anotherto show 
the impotent efforts of justice in 
trying to reach them. The time 
has come when a good campaign 
speech consists wholly in direct- 
ing the envenomed shafts of 
malice, revenge and calumny at 
the opposition, and characters 
hitherto regarded as blameless are 
held uptothepublic gaze, tattooed 
with almost every name of re- 
proach known among men. Scan- 
dal of the grossest character fills 
column after column of our news- 
papers, and imputed shame and 
fraud usurp the place of justice, 
morality and decency, and hold 
high carnival over the boasted 
rights of a free, yet submissive 
people. In following the spirit of 
nearly all our society and political 

leaders, we are drifting fast with, 
the same tide, upon the reefed 
and barren shore of those nations 
whose examples are forgotten in 
the midst of fashion, frivolity,, 
temptation and debauchery. A 
few years ago Civil Service Re- 
form was all the rage. Politicians 
and their partisans of all parties 
vied with each other in their en- 
thusiastic devotion to the little 
crust of bread cast upon the tur- 
bid political waters of American 
civilization. Almost everybody 
seemed to think the millennium 
was at hand — a day which all con- 
fessed would deliver the country 
from Post Traders' stealage, Star 
Route Corruption, Navy frauds, 
Pension perjuries, and all other 
general or private rascalities. But 
how now! The shoe has pinched, 
the old corn hurts and nothing 
except free access to the public 
salve can furnish relief. It has 
been discovered on the one hand 
that it will throw some pet out of 
office and on the other will keep 
some favorite from filling it, — 
hence the universal cry : "Lay on, 
Macduff, and damned be him 
that first cries hold, enough." 
Two years ago both parties want- 
ed the whole country educated. 
The Blair bill or something like it 
was all the talk. Even the "little 
county newspapers" throughout 
the whole country caught the in- 
fectious inspiration and favored 
their readers with an occasional 



arid " original editorial" on the 
prospect of the blessing " so near, 
yet so far." Why, in that day to 
be against the Blair bill, the great 
panacea, for rural ignorance, was 
to be a blind fool, willing to be 
led through all the tortuous paths 
of shame and disgrace by the sin- 
cursed hand of a misanthrope. 
But now this bill or any other-in 
which "Uncle Sam" is concerned 
is an object before which our vir- 
tuous and patriotic law givers 
"hold up their hands in holy hor- 

Sometimes indeed our political 
councils excite our admiration, 
and our politicians seem to have 
forgotten the old lust after power 
and revenge, but while party plat- 
forms are used to deceive a con- 
fiding public and while Canada 
holds so many of our criminals 
out of the ranks of high, social 
an8 political life, our admiration 
is turned into distrust and we fear 
that honor and integrity are yet 
less esteemed than political pre- 

The revolutionary movement, 
now making such seeming honest 
efforts against fraud and oppres- 
sion, is the natural outgrowth of 

broken promises and lost confi- 
dence. We predict however that 
it cannot last very long or revolu- 
tionize very much, because the 
more sturdy and contented classes 
believe that one night of rest is 
worth two ordinary Knights of 
Labor. Congressional and legis- 
lative committees cannot remedy 
the evil. Just laws properly, yet 
rigidly enforced, a healthy public 
sentiment that looks over and be- 
yond the accident of birth, gold or 
greed — a feeling that will reward 
virture or labor and condemn vice 
or idleness, wherever found, is 
what our country needs more than 
all else to perpetuate her progres- 
sive career. 

Then" in view of the appalling 
circumstances that may possibly 
surround us and our country in 
the future, in view of the impres- 
sive lessons history teaches even 
the casual reader, let us as citizens 
strive to guard well the avenues 
of public life, and by our own ac- 
tions help to so direct individual 
and public sentiment that we may 
save ourselves and posterity, the 
reproach so justly due to lost na- 
tions and tottering thrones. 

o. c. o. 




True to Life. 

Scene I.— College Campus. — Two 
Students Meeting. 
M. Hello D.! What mail to- 
day? Oh ! the Magazine out 
again I see. Just let me glance at 
the ''contents" a moment. 

D. I'm rather in a hurry now; 
you'll find yours at the post-office 
I guess. Seems to be quite a nice 
issue this month. 

M. But the fact is I do not take 
the Magazine. 

D. Why, that's strange ! I thought 
all the boys subscribed and helped 
support the organ of their own 

M. Well, it does not cost much, 
that's true ; but I can always bor- 
row B's long enough to read it, 
and this saves me a little extra 
pocket money. 

D. But how can you expect it 
to survive unless some one gives 
it substantial aid ? 

M. I say — let the other fellows 
do it then. We place the business 
in the hands of the editors and 
they must manage somehoAv to 
bear the burden or resign. Thanks 
for the glance. I must be going. 
SCENE II.— B's Room. — Enter 
M. and R. 
M. Can I get your Magazine 
a little while this evening, B? 

B. Sit down, both. I have not 
quite finished it yet. 

R. Guess I'll not get one this 
month. I received a dun for two 
years' subscription some time ago 
and thought I would settle before 
long. Last week an editor asked 
me for the money; I told him to 
strike my name from the books 
and now sha'n't pay it at all. 
B. Hold, boys ! Listen a mo- 
( ment. Here's an article I con- 
sider entirely too personal: 

[Reads] The Magazine is 
struggling hard for existence and 
with the steady assistance of its 
numerous true friends hopes to 
maintain its position, but is 
tempted to publish next month 
the names of those whose duty it 
is to subscribe, yet will not cfo it 
and those who prey upon it by 
never paying it their lawful dues. 
M. and R. [springing up.] We 
take that to ourselves and will see 
who the editors mean it to reflect 

B. Let me accompany you, as 
I am behind in my " dues" I con- 
sider myself interested. [Exeunt 

Scene III.— Editors Sanctum.— 

Enter B., M. and R. 

R. We have just learned that 

you purpose publishing certain 

names in your next issue, and wish 



to say that, should you do it, those 
men will hold each member of the 
staff personally accountable for an 

Ed. May I ask, gentlemen, why 
you come to champion the cause 
of " those men" ? 

B. Because this article (hand- 
ing a Magazine) refers directly 
to us. 

Ed. Then, sirs, it was intended 
for you, and if it strikes a tender 
place we cannot help it. It is im- 
possible to furnish it to all free, 
and we can not discriminate in 
your favor. Subscription means 
a promise to pay if the paper is re- 
ceived, and is as binding as any 
other debt. We have to meet our 
obligations and must force others 
to do so if we can. If other ex- 
planations are hereafter necessary 
you will always find us at home. 
Good-day. [Curtain.] 

To be Married. 

The acts of President Cleveland 
during his whole administration 
have been, more or less, a surprise 
to a great number of his subjects ; 
but if there is any truth in popular 
report, the sturdy batchelor prom- 
ises to give us the genuine sur- 
prise in June by his marriage with 
Miss Frankie Folsom, of Buffalo, 
a young lady of rare beauty and 
accomplishments. Though the 
parties immediately concerned 
have little to say, their relations 

and friends seem not to have re- 
tained the wonderful secret. It is 
the talk of the press and leading 
society circles. Washington has 
decided that the ceremony must 
take place at the White House 
and a wondrous event it must be. 
The lady has been travelling for 
some time with her mother in 
Italy, but goes now to Paris to 
complete her bridal trousseau and 
will return to America during the 
month. She is said to be emi- 
nently qualified to fill the high 
position she will be called upon to 
occupy. There are those who 
think the President is yielding to 
the pressure of public opinion, 
while others are confident that he 
would pursue his usual way, had 
he not been completely captivated 
by the fair " belle of Buffalo." At 
any rate it is good that the head 
of the nation should be what 
every one calls the best citizen, 
" a married man." 

Not Dead Yet. 

Not more than three weeks ago 
the students, and others on the 
Hill, were thrown into great con- 
sternation by the report that St. 
Clair Hester, a student of the 
University last year, had been 
hung to a lamp-post in Colorado. 
So firmly was this report believed 
that an indignation meeting of the 
Phi Society, of which the gentle- 
man had been a member, was 



talked of. He was the subject of 
conversation for more than a week. 
Some were heard to say: "How 
trying it must be for his parents 
to see him brought home a corpse, 
when only. a few months ago he 
left them in the bloom of his 
youth, with a bright future before 
him." The editor, who, like all 
others, was pained to hear of the 
death of his old friend, was in 
Raleigh a few days ago, and at- 
tended Christ Church. Standing 
just in front of him was a familiar 
figure — that of St. Clair Hester, 
or his ghost. Only those who have 
experienced it can imagine the 
feelings of the writer as he stood 
there face to face with the suppos- 
ed dead. After church we wel- 
comed him most heartily, at the 
same time feeling to see if there 
were any broken bones in his neck ; 
being assured that his neck was 
all right, with the exception of 
being a little dislocated by a 
high standing collar, we remained 
quiet, to hear the gentleman say 
that the report about his being 
lynched was untrue ; he supposed 
it originated from the fact that he 
went to Colorado to nurse his 
brother, who was injured in a rail- 
road accident. 

Justice to Erin. 

Mr. Gladstone, the conscientious 
and pious Premier, the firm and 

powerful leader, the central figure 
of the world to-day, has at last 
crowned his brilliant career by 
offering in the House of Com- 
mons a bill for amending previous 
legislation toward Ireland and 
making an eloquent appeal for 
"justice to Erin." 

This effort had been awaited 
with the most intense interest,- 
because it seemed almost the last 
call upon English power to re- 
dress the well-known Irish diffi- 
culties by some method of Home 
Rule. On the day for the great 
speech one enthusiastic member 
gained admittance to the House 
at 5:30 a. m., and secured the 
choicest seat. He was soon fol- 
lowed by others and early in the 
day the large building and adjoin- 
ing streets were filled to over- 
flowing. The vast crowd surged 
and pushed in good-humored ex- 
pectancy until 4:30 p. m., when 
Mr. Gladstone entered the House 
amid loud and prolonged cheers. 
On taking the floor he acknowl- 
edged that the question must be 
fairly faced at once. He thought 
something should be done to 
restore the Irish to confidence in 
and sympathy with the law, 
"apart from which no country 
can be called a civilized country." 

He advocated the severance of 
the Parliaments, Irish members 
and peers no longer sitting in the 
palace of Westminster. The pro- 
ceeds from the levying of customs 



excise were to be set aside for 
Irish obligations. Foreign rela- 
tions, those of trade, coinage and 
of the army to be held by the 
British Parliament. The higher 
portion of the Irish legisbture to 
consist of twenty-eight peers, re- 
maining for life, and seventy-five 
elected members ; the second por- 
tion consisting of 206 elected 

There was to be no taxation 
without representation. The 
Viceroy was to remain and the 
crown to retain control of the 
constabulary. Ireland to pay 
one-fifteenth of the imperial ex- 
penditures. The New Parliament 
should have no power to estab- 
lish a State church. 

The Premier closed his speech 
of three hours and twenty-five 
minutes with a brave defense of 
Irish loyalty and resumed his seat 
amid bursts of enthusiastic cheers. 
The bill in a number of particu- 
lars is objected to by Mr. Parnell 
and his friends, but with some 
changes harmony may be secured 
and the plan become a law. 

Our Views. 

There seems to be no question 
about the fact that a laboring man 
is at liberty to connect himself 
with a union if he so desires. But 
there begins to be a serious ques- 
tion as to whether the members 
of a union have the right to force 

into their organization those who 
are satisfied and prefer to work 
unfettered, or to intimidate cus- 
tomers so that they cease to pur- 
chase goods from a house against 
which the union happens to have 
a grudge. If men become con- 
vinced that the formation of a 
league will better their condition 
in life, then it is to be expected 
that they will act accordingly ; but 
where even one is found who is 
willing to do individual battle 
with the world and take his 
chances for success, it is a simple 
principle which protects .him in 
that right, and there can be but 
'little sympathy with those who 
would force him to lay down his 
tools, and hence go without food, 
just because he will not connect 
himself with their wild schemes 
and desperate struggles for power. 

All such agitations and upris- 
ings of the working classes as con- 
front the safety of our common- 
wealth to-day, are certainly to be 
deplored, and should, if possible, 
be anticipated and prevented. 

When wives and children are 
dependent upon the hour's labor, 
its loss to thousands must be at- 
tended by excitement and pain. 
However, if, choosing between two 
evils, men prefer a cessation of work 
and wages, they have certainly a 
legal right to do so. Yet it does 
not follow that they have the same 
right to inflict injury on others by 
violently forcing them to abandon 



their trades and follow the reck- 
less course of a riotous mob. 

It has recently happened that a 
woman conducting a northern 
bakery properly refused to dis- 
charge her non-union employees 
who were perfectly satisfied with 
their wages and would not join 
the labor organization. For this 
she must be boycotted and her 
place of doing an honorable busi- 
ness surrounded by loafers and 
subjected to insult by men who 
call themselves members of a 
grand movement, yet are engaged 
in crushing a lone woman by 
driving away, with threats, her 
customers. But from the grand 
jury finding a bill against some of 
these men and their immediate 
arrest, the people begin to see 
that there is still protection under 
the law for law-abiding citizens. 

All strikers must learn sooner 
or later that their cause will be 
judged by their actions ; that they 
must not enter into quarrels but 
conduct themselves as sensible 
men if they would rightly solve 
the problem as to whether men 
shall rule or illegitimate wealth 
shall rule. 

Was he Marsha/ Ney. 

There are a great many people 
in North Carolina who do not be- 
lieve, and with reason, that Mar- 
shal Ney, one of the foremost 
spirits of Moscow and Waterloo, 

was shot at the gate of the 
Luxembourg Gardens, but that 
his bones lie in the obscure Third 
Creek church-yard of Rowan 
county. Others are content to 
smile at the idea and think it a 
pleasing illusion of which those 
who believe it ought not to be de- 
prived. However improbable it 
may appear at first, those who 
have noted the discussion going 
on for some time in the State 
papers, notably the Statesville 
Landmark, as to whether or not 
P. S. Ney the obscure school- 
teacher of Davie and Rowan was 
really the great marshal, have 
found strong grounds for believ- 
ing the two characters identical. 
Peter Stuart Ney, as he gave his 
name, landed at Charleston, Jan., 
1816, and came to the section of 
North Carolina above mentioned 
in 1822, where he died in 1846. 
He was reserved in manner but 
his fine military bearing and pol- 
ished education attracted atten- 
tion and made him friends. He 
taught the boys of the neighbor- 
hood for nearly twenty years, 
being a master of the French lan- 
guage, mathematics and penman- 
ship. It also delighted him to 
teach Caesar, comparing the cam- 
paigns of the great general with 
those of the even greater Napo- 
leon with the ability of only an 
experienced officer and sometimes 
describing his own positions in 
the grandest battles of this cen- 



tury. Though often speaking of 
his past life, when intoxicated, he 
generally kept it carefully con- 
cealed during his sober hours. In 
his deep distress, however, at the 
accession of Louis Phillip to the 
French throne in 1830, he con- 
fessed to a friend that he was in- 
deed that eminent personage, 
Marshal Ney. Two years later on 
learning of the death of the Duke 
of Reichstat, Napoleon's son, he 
became almost a maniac. While 
at one of the voting precincts 
when President Harrison was 
elected, he was recognized by an 
old German who had served as a 
soldier in Europe. On one occa- 
sion he marked out on the sand 
for hifi pupils, the whole plan of 
the famous battle of Waterloo. 
Readers of history will remember 
that the French Marshal bore a 
ghastly sabre cut upon his fore- 
head and was once trampeled 
under foot by a troupe of cavalry. 

P. S. Ney always arranged his 
hair so as to conceal a terrible 
forehead scar and is certainly 
known to have been wounded in 
the lower limbs. The signatures 
of the two have been decided by 
experts the work of the same 
hand, and the likeness in face 
singularly striking. 

On the other hand it is claimed 
that there was no necessity for 
.Ney's concealing his identity after 
18 1 5, the time of beginning the 
reaction against the French Bour- 

bons. This is replied to by the 
fact that he always feared an as- 
sassin here and had been senten- 
ced, not as an adherent of Napo- 
leon but as a traitor. Further- 
more, we are told that the con- 
duct of his family directly denies 
the probability of Ney's escapeto 
America; that his body certainly 
lies in the Pere La Chaise beside 
his old companions, Davoust and 
Massena ; that, had it been placed 
in an obscure portion of America, 
it had been removed by his son, 
who rose to prominence under the 
second empire ; and that, closely 
as the history of this period has 
been scanned, it is entirely silent 
on this point. 

There are other facts needed to 
make the chain complete on either 
side. We can not follow them 
further at present. Does North 
Carolina hold all that remains of 
the " bravest of the brave" ? We 
know of no more interesting point 
of unsettled history. 

Did he who was ever a type of 
the grandest courage in victory or 
defeat and the light of whose life 
gleams across the early pages of 
this century's record, sink to rest 
in our very midst almost unknown 
and unloved, an exile from the 
soil for which he fought ? If not, 
then who was the man who could 
write in a girl's album : — 

" One sigh to the hopes that have perished, 
One tear to the wreck of the past ; 

One look upon all I have cherished, 
One lingering look — 'tis the last, 



And now from remembrance I banish 
The glories that shone in my train ; 

•On vanish, fond memories, vanish ; 
Return not to sting me again ;" — 

or whose last words could be : 

"Bassieres has fallen, and the 

Old Guard is defeated. Let me die !" 

The Trials of a Student during Commence- 

A student's first commencement 
at the University is looked for- 
ward to with the most pleasurable 
emotions ; he anticipates hearing 
fine speeches during the day, and 
the pleasure of escorting the 
young ladies to the dance at 
night ; — it takes but one occasion 
of the kind to convince him that 
he will have many trials to endure. 
The chief trial, I am sorry to say, 
is caused by the young ladies, and 
to them I will make the declaration 
that the custom of not being 
ready to go to the exercises and 
the dances at the appointed time 
is attended with many evil results, 
which I feel sure they are not 
aware of or the custom would be 
discarded. For instance, there is 
to be an address by some distin- 
guished man which a student 
wishes to hear, — he has an engage- 
ment to escort a young lady, — he 
goes tor her in good time, — sends 
in his card,— he waits, and waits 
and waits, — he paces the floor, he 
takes out his watch, — the bell 
-ceases to ring and still he waits, 

and still " my lady " does not 
come ; after his patience is well 
nigh exhausted she appears upon 
the scene ; — they proceed to the 
Chapel and get there in time to 
hear the closing of the address. 
Besides the torture to which she 
has subjected the young man, she 
has disturbed the speaker by her 
late arrival, and made herself the 
subject of remarks. I can imag- 
ine the feelings of the student, 
and know of an instance where a 
young man by reason of such ex- 
perience resolved that whenever 
there is to be an address again he 
will ask no young lady for her 
company. This is only one in- 
stance out of many, and the result 
is that some very exemplary 
young lady may be left without 
an escort. 

Next — The habit of going to 
the Ball at n and 12 o'clock 
should be abolished. Just here 
let me suggest to the Ball Mana- 
gers the advisability of having the 
Ball to begin at 9 o'clock and close 
at 3 o'clock, sharp. If they will 
establish this custom, and not de- 
part from it, every young lady will 
willingly yield to it, and be ready 
when her escort calls for her. The 
present custom of dancing till 
dawn is attended with evil results 
to health and morals. Many 
young men resort to the intoxi- 
cating cup to relieve their physi- 
cal weakness, whereas a longer 
communion with nature's " sweet 



restorer" would insure the desired 

Before closing I will cite an in- 
stance where a young gentleman 
had an engagement to escort a 
youg lady to the Ball; she was so 
long in making her toilet that he 
became very impatient and to kill 
time he drank too freely ; this was 
caused by the inconsiderate tardi- 
ness of his lady friend. To use a 
stronger expression, I will say it 
is selfish in any young lady to 
keep her escort waiting unneces- 
sarily long. A woman can be very 

tyrannical when she chooses to be. 
" 'Tis excellent to have a giant's 
strength, but tyrannous to use it 
like a giant." 

I have no doubt but that the 
above suggestions will meet with 
the approval of every father and 
mother whose eye may chance to 
fall upon this article, and hope 
the subject will be referred to by 
some other paper, and that our 
young people may be convinced 
that a reform is necessary. 

A Lady Friend. 

College Record. 

Prof. Holmes has been taking 
his class in Geology on excursions 
around about Chapel Hill. Practi- 
cal and theoretical Geology are 
taught by him. 

* * 

Each of the two literary socie- 
ties here award three medals an- 
nually. The recipients of the 
the medals this year were : In the 
Philanthropic society — G. L. Pat- 
rick, Debater's Medal; H. W. 
Lewis, Essayist's Medal ; F. D 
Thomas, Declaimer's Medal. In 
the Dialectic Society — W. A. Self, 
Debater's Medal ; J. L. Crowell, 
Declaimer's Medal ; O. C. Odell, 
Essayist's Medal. 

The voice of the Senior and 

" Rep " will soon be heard in the 


* * 

April 30th was Class day. A 
large number gathered inGerrard 
Hall on that day to participate in 
the exercises. At the appointed 
hour the senior class entered the 
hall, headed by the president of 
the class, Mr. F. Dixon and the 
marshal, Mr. L. J. Battle. Mr. J. 
J. Jenkins, Jr., introduced the 
historian of the class, Mr. S. B. 
Weeks, who acquitted himself 
well. His history contained a 
number of poetical allusions and 
humorous and happy hits at the 



different members. He alluded 
with touching words to the death 
of a classmate, Mr. George Ar- 

After some music by the Uni- 
verity Band, Mr. W. A. Self, class 
poet, read an interesting poem. 
Mr. Self is an attractive and pleas- 
ant reader. 

Next came the prophecy by Mr. 
J. F. Schenck. If the oracles are 
true, what a future for the class 
of '36! 

Mr. S. S. Jackson, Class Day 
orator, gives his thoughts about 

Freshmen and Seniors. His ora- 
tion was good. 

Mr. Dixon then delivered a fare- 
well address to the class. He re- 
turned thanks to the people of the 
village for their kindness and hos- 
pitality, and spoke of the gratitude 
which the class owed to the Fac- 
ulty for their untiring zeal in pro- 
moting the welfare of the senior 

After more music the class song 
w r as sung, and the crowd dispersed. » 

Lone live the class of '86. 


— Examinations. 

— New Catalogues. 

— Hard work — Midnight oil. 

— Commencement coming. 

— Vacation looming up in the 

— The Seniors have had no va- 
cation this year, owing to the re- 
juvenated state of the University 

— These are the times when the 
woods and vales re-echo the sounds 
of the Senior's voice as he pre- 
pares for that great and grand 
trial on commencement. Each 
tree hears on an average six 
speeches per day. 

— The Phi. Society will repub- 
lish the Register of its members 
the first of next session. The 
work of correction has already 
far advanced, and will soon be 

— Miss Lizzie Kerr, a daughter 
of the late Prof. Kerr, spent a few 
days on the Hill in April. She 
was visiting Mrs. Prof. Love. 

— Brother Long, our business 
manager, has started out in po- 
litical life. He has been elected 
for.a second term Treasurer of 
Chapel Hill. His competitors- 
were numerous and the contest 
was excitine. 



— Winders of Warsaw, fresh 
'83 and '84, has been heard from. 
He dates his letters at a place by 
the classic name of Root Pig. This 
is some where down in Duplin 
county. He says: "I am busier 
now than a fresh just before ex- 
aminations. * * * Am farm- 
ing this year, am a hewer of wood 
and a drawer of water. I think 
my occupation suits me very well. 
* * * I will attend court in 
Sampson ne*xt week. Am not 
practicing at the bar yet, but am 
going up to have a general good 

—Rev. T. E. Skinner, D. D., of 
Raleigh, preached at the Baptist 
church here a few Sundays ago. 
He is a member of the class of 
1847, ^e class of the late Gen. 
J. Johnston Pettigrew and Sen- 
.ator Ransom. 

—Prof. A. W. Mangum, D. D. 
preached the Baccalaureate Ser- 
mon before the Senior class of 
'Greensboro Female College on 
May 23. 

— Scene : Members of law class 
calling on ladies of the village. 
Mr. A., to young lady, No. 1. I 
like to come down here for I can 
throw off all restraint and formal- 
ity and feel at home. Second L. 
S.: HOME you say, I say you home 
here. After awhile the conversa- 
tion turns on matrimony, and the 
second L. S. (whose beard has not 
yet begun to grow), remarks : We 

are the only marriageable class in 
college. Y. L. No. 1 : Are you in it ? 
The subject is changed to Sunday 
schools. Second L. S. (very anx- 
ious to join a class taught by Y. 
L. No. 2): I shall come down and 
join yours. First Y. L: No, no, I 
have the infant class, come and 
join mine. {Aside) guess I have 
finished him now. Second L. S. 

— " Lost, strayed, stolen or caged 
— ' Jodie' " is thereading of a uni- 
que advertisement which appeared 
on a door in the Old East recently. 

— Prof. Henry has introduced 
something new into the Univer- 
sity. In his first class in teaching 
he has impromptu debate on 
such questions as the Blair Bill 
and compulsory education and in- 
vites the ladies up to hear the dis- 
cussion. One evening the ladies 
appeared when the boys were not 
exactly in a calling dress. The 
next day they diked out, and pre 
pared elaborate addresses, but un- 
fortunately no ladies appeared. 
The professor has also been giving 
instructions to a class of young 
ladies in the art of teaching at his 

—Dr. Hume made two visits 
to Raleigh recently. He preached 
in the Second Baptist church 
and afterward in the First. We 
understand that he has re- 
ceived a call to the First Baptist 
church of that city. He declined. 


3 ir 

He was also recently offered the 
presidency of Richmond College, 
Richmond, Va. The salary is 
$2,000 a year and a house, a little 
more than he receives here. This 
he also declined. We should con- 
sider it a very serious misfortune 
for him to leave us now. He is 
doing too much good and is arous- 
ing too much enthusiasm among 
the students to leave us before his 
active, earnest work has had time 
to bear fruit. He also visited the 
Baptist brethren of Hillsboro re- 
cently. These are his first ab- 
sences from the Hill and the first 
opportunities he has had to be- 
come acquainted with the people 
of the State. He is not now act- 
ing as pastor of the Baptist 
Church here. They have no pas- 
tor at present. 

— James Thomas, of the College 
Record department, spent Easter 
week at his home in Newbern. 

— R. W. Winston, class '79, was 
visiting his brother, the Professor, 
not long since. Bob was the Man- 
gum medalist. He studied law 
and settled in Oxford, is married 
and has two promising heirs. Last 
year was a member of the Senate 
from Granville county. He is one 
of the men who stay at home and 
make a success. Give us more of 
his energy and his pluck. 

— Robert Lee Strowd, of Chat- 
ham county, formerly a member of 
the class of '86, is a changed man. 

He has committed matrimony. . 
The bride was the accomplished 
and fascinating Miss Fannie 
Headen of Pittsboro. She is a 
sister of W. E. Headen, '88. The 
ceremony was performed on April 
27, by Rev. W. S. Black, D. D., 
at her father's residence. A fine 
reception was then given by the 
father of the groom. Thanks to 
a lady friend for cake. 

—Kemp P. Battle,^., M. D., class 
'79, has gone to Europe. For 
some time he was in the U. 
S. Marine Hospital at Staten 
Island, N. Y. The place paid him 
$[,600 a year, but he resigned and 
came to Raleigh where he lec- 
tured before the medical depart- 
ment of Shaw University. He 
spent a few days with us before 
starting on his extensive trip. He 
will go to London, and will de- 
vote himself to the diseases of 
the eye and ear. He expects to 
go into partnership with Dr. R. 
H. Lewis, of Raleigh, on his re- 
turn. He is another of those who 
prefer home to abroad. May their 
number multiply and still in- 

— The Visiting Committee. 
spent a few days with us the last ■ 
of April. Only four of the seven 
members came. Their visit was 
short, but pleasant. They went 
around to the recitation rooms, 
and examined the different meth- 
ods of the professors, and seemed 



to be highly pleased by the re- 
sults of their investigations. They 
attended the chapel exercises the 
first day of their arrival. The 
faculty and students were out in 
full force to greet them. Some 
short speeches were made by them, 
some very interesting, witty and 

Henry R. Bryan of Newbern, 
class '56, was prevented from be- 
ing present by sickness. 

Hon. J. C. Scarboro, a graduate 
of Wake Forest College and late 
Superintendent of Puplic Instruc- 
tion for North Carolina, and the 
chairman of the board, was pre- 
vented from attending by reason 
of a contract with the University 
Publishing Co., for which he is 

John M. Galloway, another 
U. N. C, boy was absent. He 
gained considerable reputation in 
the last legislature by his conser- 
vatism and was called Young Shy- 
lock ; but when our bill came up 
he was one of its most ardent 

James M. Mullen, of Halifax 
county, was born in Pasquotank 
county, in 1845, ar >d was reared 
there. In Feb., 1862, at the early 
age of seventeen, he volunteered 
in the Confederate Army, serving 
first as a private, then as a cor- 
poral and thirdly as a gunner. 
The war closed and he was thrown 

upon the world. He taught school 
awhile and studied law in the 
town o f Hertford without a 
teacher. He removed to Scotland 
Neck and opened his office, and 
his practice has been steadily 
growing. His main office is in 
Weldon and he is a member of 
the firm of Mullen & Daniel. 
Was made State Senator for Hal- 
ifax in '85, and served with credit 
to himself and to his constituents 
and was a warm supporter of the 
appropriation. At the same time 
he was elected a trustee in place 
of the late H. L. Grainger, Esq., 
of Wayne. He will soon remove 
to Petersburg, Va. 

Lee S. Overman, Esq., was 
born in Rowan county in 1854., 
and graduated from Trinity Col- 
lege, N. C, in 1875. He taught 
school for two years, and in 1877 
was appointed private Secretary 
to Gov. Vance. When Vance was 
elected to the U. S. Senate, Mr. 
Overman was reappointed by Gov 
Jarvis and served with great ac- 
ceptability until 1880, when here- 
signed. He studied law under 
the late J. M. McCorkle of Salis- 
bury, and under R. H. Battle of 
Raleigh, and settled in Salisbury. . 
Served his first term in the lower 
house of the legislature in 1883, 
and was re-elected for the session 
of 1885. He introduced the 
University Bill, made the first 
speech on it and was only re- 
strained by less ardent friends : 



from making the appropriation 
much larger. Was elected a trustee 
during the last session and visits 
us for the first time in his official 
capacity. He is a brother-in-law 
of Prof. A. W. Mangum. 

— Thomas W. Mason is a mem- 
ber of the class of 1858. and was 
an editor of the Magazine for 
1 85 7— '58, seventh volume, old se- 
ries. He was born in Brunswick 
county, Va., in 1839. Among his 
class mates were John A. Gilmer, 
Judge of the Superior Court, 
Hamilton C. Jones, Esq., of Char- 
lotte, and Brigadier General Robt. 
D. Johnston. After graduating 
he spent a year in the study of 
law at the University of Virginia, 
and afterwards spent some time 
in Louisiana. When the war broke 
out he volunteered as a private, 
and after serving in that capacity 
was made Aid-de-Camp to Gen. 
Matt Ransom. When the war 
ended he began planting in North- 
ampton county, and also in Loui- 
siana, dividing the time between 
the two. Began the regular prac- 
tice of law in 1879, ar) d repre- 
sented Bertie and Northampton 
counties in the Senate in 1885. 
These counties usually return a 
very large republican majority, 
but by a judicious course his elec- 
tion was accomplished. There 
was a contest over it, but the 
House decided in his favor. Was 
elected trustee at last session and 

now re-visits the Hill for the first 
time since his graduation. "The 
boys are changed " he says, " there 
is none of that hubbub and up- 
roar to which I was accustomed 
when in college. No ringing of 
bells at night, no shuffling of presi- 
dential feet in slippers through 
these halls in pursuit of sly sopho- 
mores bent on mischief. But my 
heart wells up with joy as I think 
of those happy days and the 
grand times we used to have at 
the suppers of the old D. K. E." 

The name of Col. Walter L. 
Steele appears last on the visiting 
committee, but is by no means 
the least. He is a member of the 
class of 1844, and graduated along 
with Prof. James H. Horner, of 
Oxford, and Rev. Geo. B. Wet- 
more, D. D., of Wood Leaf, N. C. 
He was born in 1823, studied law 
and represented Richmond in the 
House of Commons in i846-'48- 
'5o-'54, and in the Senate in '52 
and 58. He was Secretary of the 
Convention passing the ordinance 
of secession in 1861. Was elected 
to Congress in 1876 and again in 
1878 from the sixth district. At 
that time declined re-election and 
became a " horny-handed son of 
toil," and is now president of the 
Pee Dee ManufacturingCompany. 
He was first made a trustee in 
1852, and excepting a short inter- 
val has been one ever since. Of 
the 37 Commencements since he 



became connected with the Uni- 
versity for the first time, he has 
attended at least twenty. What 
other Alumnus can show such a 
record as this? The boys always 
expect him, and it is a treat long 
anticipated to hear him speak in 

the chapel after prayers are over ; 
for his wit, with its brilliant scin- 
tillations, both amuses and in- 
structs. We hope he will not 
neglect the class of '86 by not ap- 
pearing this year. 


^ Suits to Measure a Specialty. 

Hats, A T otions, Hosiery, Neck- Wear, Collars, Cuffs, Suspenders, Trunks, Valises, &c. 

Preparatory Glass for Medical Students. 

SUMMER CLASS, JUNE 15th to SEPT. 15th, 1886, 

Full Osteological outfit. Special attention given to the Elementary Studies, but first 
course students prepared to appreciate earlier the advantages of the College courses by outline 
studies of all necessary branches. Good board obtainable at $S and $io per month. 

For terms and particulars apply to 


Davidson College, N. C. 


<J 1 



June, 1886. 

Old Series Vol. XVIII. 
New Series Vol. V.' 


No. 8 



G. B. Patterson, 
Lewis J. Battle. 

Ed. B. Cline. 


James Thomas, 

Vernon W. Long, 

Stephen B. Weeks. 


(May, 1886.) 

In material progress and the pro- 
duction of wealth the present cen- 
tury stands preeminent. The 
utilization of steam and electricity, 
and the introduction of labor sav- 
ing machinery have revolution- 
ized all the industries of the world. 
The ease and rapidity with which 
wealth is produced so far surpasses 
the capacity of any other age, 
that could the men of the last 
century have seen in a vision of 
the future the wonderful indus- 
trial triumphs of this century 
they would not have realized that 
these were the results of man's 
ingenuity, and must have thought 

that the golden age of poesy had 
come. At no other period in the 
history of the human intellect has 
the inventive genius of man been 
so bold in its conceptions, so bril- 
liant in its achievements ; at no 
other period has human industry 
been so refined and so productive ; 
or the triumph of mind over 
things material been so successful 
and so complete. Food and rai- 
ment, all that satisfy the desires 
of men are made in thousand-fold 
abundance as with the touch of 
creative magic. Man sends his 
messages on the wings of light- 
ning, the trackless oceans are his 



known highways, the mountains 
have been riven asunder, and dark 
Cyclopedian fire-monsters harness- 
ed to land-carriages and " sea- 
chariots" dragging the commerce 
of the world to the centers of 
civilization, dash wildly across 
wide continents and foaming seas. 
The proportion of the wealth of 
the civilized world to the inhabit- 
ants of the civilized world is im- 
mensely greater to-day than in 
any other period of human his- 
tory. The material progress of 
this age has made the creative 
power of labor more than one 
hundred times sufficient to satisfy 
all the necessities of man, to ad- 
minister to all the comforts of life, 
and the welfare and happiness of 
all the people of the world. In 
the great centres of civilization 
wealth seems too abundant and 
men build cities superior in mag- 
nificence to the fabled greatness 
of Thebes or those that stood by 
the rivers of Mesopotamia, pala- 
ces of luxury surpassing the an- 
cient glories of Tyre and Car- 
thage, and templesmoregorgeous 
and costly than the seventh won- 
der ot the world where dwelt the 
shrine of Diana of the Ephesians, 
or that overlaid with gold "gar- 
nished with precious stones for 
beauty" where stood the hundred 
basins, the censers and candle- 
sticks of pure gold. 

What should be the social con- 
dition of mankind where wealth 

is so abundant? Surely there 
should be no want in a land over- 
flowing with plenty. "When 
these slaves of the lamp of knowl- 
edge, these muscles of iron and 
sinews of steel have taken on 
themselves the traditional curse," 
labor's burdens should be lifted 
and days of dreary toil should, be 
no more. In primitive ages man, 
ignorant of the arts of progress, 
unequipped with the weapons of 
civilization, must wring from the 
resources of nature his life suste- 
nance by dint of toil. His time 
and his talent are occupied with 
the struggle for existence. He 
must fell primeval forests, and 
around his home do battle with 
wolves and savage men. Let civ- 
ilization advance, man conquers 
nature and tames the elements. 
In our day of advanced progress 
his should no longer be a life of 
endless labor for the forces of na- 
ture are his bondsmen, the iron 
and the steam, the winds and the 
lightning do his bidding. It is 
now that the higher and the nobler 
man can be developed ; that ava- 
rice and ignorance, brutality, deg- 
radation and crime, that spring 
from poverty and the fear of pov- 
erty, should no longer exist, where 
there is enough for all ; that the 
victory over material things being 
won, material desires should no 
longer be an object of anxiety to 
consume man's whole existence, 
that the clouds being lifted, intel- 



lectual and moral progress should 
raise society from its very bottom, 
that all men might strive after 
that which is higher and nobler 
than the satisfaction of physical 
wants ; that now should come the 
kingdom of peace and civilization 
whose splendors have been seen 
in the inspiration of prophesy and 
song ; that, in the light of ever 
increasing knowledge men might 
grow wiser and better, fulfilling 
the divine mission of life, doing 
the will of God on earth and 
growing like Him more and more, 
even unto the perfect day. That 
such is not the tendency of these 
times, and the consummation of 
this civilization is not because it 
is beyond the possibilities of man 
or of the insufficiency of nature's 
bounties. It is true that man has 
solved the problem of the crea- 
tion of wealth in great abundance 
with little exertion, but how to 
distribute that wealth, how to ap- 
ply it as it should be applied to 
the promotion of human happi- 
ness, to the prevention of poverty, 
of crime, and of moral degrada- 
tion, of the development of the 
puTe and beautiful, and to the 
growth of the intellectual and 
spiritual man is a problem the so- 
lution of which the welfare of na- 
tions and the existence of modern 
civilization demand. Notwith- 
standing the excessive amount of 
wealth, it is only a few that are 
rich, nearly all are poor, notwith- 

standing all that can satisfy man's 
appetite can be made with so lit- 
tle exertion and is made in such 
great abundance, those that labor 
are poorest, and to-day, in this 
world of plenty, there are millions 
of honest toiling men and women 
who suffer for the necessities of 
life, who hear their children cry 
for bread, and see them clad in 
rags, reared in ignorance and the 
shame of beggary, while the pro- 
ducts of their labor are enjoyed 
by the rich and the children of 
the rich, who do not work but 
dwell with luxurious ease in king- 
ly palaces, and wear purple and 
fine linen. As discovery follows 
discovery and invention follows 
invention those that toil must toil 
longer and those that are poor be- 
come poorer. The products of 
labor are monopolized by the few, 
and the poor become more nu- 
merous as material progress ad- 

Wherever the material progress 
of this age is most advanced, 
wherever in the great centers this 
civilization of ours has reached its 
highest development, wherever 
wealth exists in the greatest abun- 
dance, there we find the most ab- 
ject poverty and all the depravity 
and crime that are born of the 
despair of poverty, there the li- 
centiousness and corruption be- 
gotten of superfluous wealth. 

The tendency of the progress 
of this age is to the corruption of 



the whole people, either by the 
enervating evils of luxury, or by 
the despair and wretchedness of 
poverty. In our most progressive 
and advanced communities, espe- 
cially in our great cities we see 
the increasing evil of this tenden- 
cy. While the lives of one por- 
tion are spent in endless revelry, 
while the rich from infancy know 
nothing of the wants and toils of 
life, while they are reared and live 
in idleness and have never learned 
that life was given but to be spent 
in voluptuous pleasure, and for 
the wasting of inherited wealth, 
while in this Eastertide, the beau- 
ty and nobility of this world will 
revel in their palaces of marble 
and feast with songs and dancing, 
or glittering in silks and gold, be- 
decked with jewels, they roll in 
beds of asphalt to high-domed 
Cathedrals and listen to deep- 
toned swelling anthems, and bow 
with Pharisaical reverence accord- 
ing to the memory of an ancient 
creed, while society is rife with 
the corruption and vice of exces- 
sive wealth, while the rich are 
cursed with licentiousness and en- 
ervating evils of a degenerate ar- 
istocracy, what, Oh what is the 
lot and condition of the dumb 
toilers, the lowly millions, the 
substance of whose labors ye 
waste in riotous living? Life to 
them is a dreary waste of labor 
without holidays and without 
feast-days, a weary journey 

through a land of darkness with 
no light rays shining on their 
pathway. Like gin-horses they 
toil without ceasing, and live with- 
out hope. The swaddling clothes 
of depravity, the chilling wants of 
penury, the associations and temp- 
tations of crime and degradation 
and a life of endless labor are the 
perennial heritage of the children 
of the poor. 

In this age of professed Christi- 
anity we read in a newspaper of a 
father and mother brutalized by 
poverty " found guilty of murder- 
ing three children," of young 
mothers hiding their babies in 
damp cellars leaving them to die, 
and almshouses where little waifs 
are starved, their bodies sold by 
the dozen to dissecting rooms. 

" In the uttermost doomed ruin 
of old Jerusalem fallen under the 
wrath of God," beleaguered by 
the hosts of war, in the deepening 
anguish of ghastly famine, the pro- 
phet could conceive of no blacker 
gulf of wretchedness, than when 
the hands of starving mothers 
were stained in the blood of their 
first born. In our great cities, 
around which no hostile armies 
stand, in this fruitful peaceful 
earth, in the midst of the waste 
and blaze of luxury there are dens 
of wretchedness and shame where 
crimes like these are not uncom- 
mon. These are not isolated 
cases, but the visible effects of the 
putrefying lake underlying our so- 



ciety, whose borders are widening, 
whose stagnant waters are rotting 
away its pillars, and whose deadly 
vapors ascend forever poisoning 
the lives and souls of men. Is it 
strange that infidelity and Athe- 
ism are destroying the faith and 
hope of man when the church, 
this religion which we call Christi- 
anity, that should be as the Rock 
of Ages to which men might cling 
in the trembling gloom and des- 
pair of universal ruin not only re- 
fuses to hurl forever her anathe- 
mas as burning lightning from 
heaven, burning up this black in- 
iquity, but teaches that such is 
" ordered by the inscrutable de- 
crees of providence." The pain 
of hunger, the dread of starvation 
make men the slaves of crime, to 
live in darkness without aspira- 
tions and yearnings after that 
which is higher. " Beauty lies im- 
prisoned, and iron wheels go over 
the good and true and beautiful 
that might spring from human 
lives." Groaning beneath oppres- 
sion and injustice, unbelief has 
taken away the Godlike and spirit- 
ual. They cannot worship though 
Memnon's music breaks in morning 
songs, though breezes blow upon 
^Eolian harps and in the azure 
dome of the world-cathedral, star- 
lit tapers burn sweet incense ever- 
more for vesper prayers. " O why 
was the earth so beautiful be- 
crimsoned with dawn and twi- 
light if man's dealings with man 

were to make it a vale of scarcity 
of tears, not even soft tears!" To 
make the God of this universe re- 
sponsible for the crimes and suf- 
ferings of poverty is blasphemy, 
a slander of Him who came to 
preach a gospel to the poor. 
Again, will the master come and 
in indignant wrath spurn the 
money-changing priests from this, 
his world-temple, for it is written 
upon the eternal skies that " this 
is the house of prayer and ye have 
made it a den of thieves." Men 
can bear hardships, they < can suf- 
fer hunger, they can labor like 
dumb animals and bid defiance 
to the firey agencies of death ; 
there is one thing they cannot 
and will not bear : injustice : nay, 
though sanctioned by ancient 
creeds, and all the laws and proph- 
ets and customs gray with age. 
From the hearts and souls of all 
men there rises forever God's pro- 
test irrepressible as the swell of 
natures from infinite deeps. Every 
day that suffers it is but adding 
wrath unto the day of wrath and 
sowing the wind to reap the whirl- 
wind. Think you not that the 
earnest work and heroic deeds of 
this world and all the suffering- 


and tears not known on earth yea, 
even the curses and shrieks of 
agony go not up as an everlasting 
prayer and are seen and heard in 
eternal love on Heaven's high 
throne? " The answer, too, will 
come in a horror of great dark- 



ness and shakings of the world 
and a cup of trembling which all 
the nations shall drink." Our 
civilization has arrived at that 
stage where there must be reform 
or there will be national decay 
and national death. Present sys- 
tems and present methods have 
run their course. This wonderful 
material progress that should have 
lightened toil and destroyed pov- 
erty has increased the power of 
wealth and -enslaved the poor un- 
til to-day Jay Gould treats in ar- 
rogance with 50,000 of his subjects 
and calls out the militia of seven 
sovereign states to force submis- 
sion and vindicate his power. In- 
dustrial depression, stagnation in 
trade, idle capital and idle labor 
and the universal prevalence of 
" hard times," especially among 
the laboring classes are deranging 
political parties and business in- 
terests of the country and filling 
the whole nation with a sense of 
unrest and anxiety. Never be- 
fore was the condition of the 
working classes so hopeless and 
intolerable — hopeless because, in 
spite of the invention of labor- 
saving machinery, the accumula- 
tion of wealth and the advance in 
civilization, they must work 
harder, their poverty is more ab- 
ject, the difficulties of improving 
their condition become greater 
and the moral and intellectual 
man become more and more de- 
generate : — intolerable because 

they'realize that they are robbed 
of their earnings by a system of 
injustice, which they cannot un- 
derstand, that they labor to create 
wealth but for the enjoyment of 
the idle and to become the slaves 
of the arrogant. It is vain to at- 
tempt by scraps of statistics to 
prove that the wages of labor are 
increasing and the condition of 
the laborers improving. That 
there exists in our society a class 
of people more wretched in pov- 
erty and more depraved in moral 
condition than preceeding times 
give any example of, is a fact be- 
yond dispute, that the two ex- 
tremes of society are absorbing all 
intermediate classes and that the 
laboring classes tend to an equal- 
ity with the most abject and de- 
graded is a truth becoming more 
and more apparent. The Com- 
mission of labor statistics in the 
State of Illinois, a state yet in the 
prime of youthful vigor, so rich 
in wide prairie lands, where wages 
are comparatively high, state that 
over half of the intelligent work- 
ing-men " are not even able to earn 
enough for their daily bread and 
have to depend on the labor of 
women and children to eke out 
their miserable existence." They 
do not attempt to estimate the 
condition of the helpless, ignorant, 
and destitute multitudes, who live 
in the large cities, and whose only 
statistics, they say are " epidem- 
ics, pauperism and crime." It is 



said that about one half of the 
population of New York and 
Brooklyn just manage to live and 
"to whom the rearing of two 
children means inevitably — a boy 
for the penitentiary and a girl for 
the brothel." Young girls must 
work in factories or bend over 
sewing machines for sixteen hours 
a day, and yet they barely live. 
The beauty and nobleness of wo- 
man-hood is crushed out and then 
they prowl the streets in shame. 
Humane laws forbid the hiring 
out of children under thirteen 
years of age but the law must be 
evaded by the parents, for the 
children must work or they will 
starve. In Canada where a similar 
law existed, it was evaded by 
working the children at night, 
from six in the evening to six in 
the morning, a man on duty with 
a strap to keep them awake. It 
is true that the wages of skilled 
labor may be greater than ever, 
but the demand for skilled labor 
is and must always be limited. 
The millions, the hewers of wood 
and drawers of water are not skill- 
ed, they can never be rewarded 
as skilied labor, for not skill, but 
only human strength is required 
to do their work. When by every 
invention their competition is in- 
creased, and hundreds — perhaps 
thousands are thrown out of em- 
ployment, when they see them- 
selves becoming more abject and 
dependent, it seems but mockery 

to tell them that their condition 
is improving. The savage demon 
of despair has not yet possessed 
the hungry millions. It is only 
the better classes that have the 
spirit to complain, but their com- 
plaints are growing louder and 
now in the city of Chicago they 
are heard in volleys of musketry 
and written upon her pavements 
in blood. Well if it be not the 
restless wakings of volcanic earth- 
quakes, the ominous moan of ris- 
ing tempests and wild tornadoes. 
Of the evils of this age pro- 
duced by the great, unequal and 
unjust distribution of the products 
of our wealth producing civiliza- 
tion, the most alarming and dan- 
gerous is the universal prevalence 
of unbelief, and the cant and 
Pharisaism that has taken the 
place of what was once a church. 
Of all man's attainments, ideals 
or symbols, the most significant, 
the noblest and sublimest is his 
church. " The church — what a 
word was there, richer than Gol- 
conda and the treasures of the 
world ! In the heart of the re- 
motest mountains rises the little 
kirk, the dead all slumbering 
around it under their white me- 
morial stones, in hope of a happy 
resurrection ! Dull wert thou, 
o reader, if never in any hour (say 
of moaning midnight, when such 
kirk-hung spectral in the sky, and 
being was as if swallowed up in 
darkness) it spoke to thee — things 



unspeakable, that went into thy 
soul's soul. Strong was he that 
had a church, what we can call a 
church ; he stood thereby though 
in the center of immensities, in 
the conflux of eternities, yet, man- 
like toward God and man ; the 
vague, shoreless universe had be- 
come for him a firm city and 
dwelling which he knew. Such 
virtue was in belief, iq these 
words, well spoken — / believe. 
Well might men prize their credo, 
and raise stateliest temples for it, 
and reverend hierarchies, and 
give it the title of their substance ; 
it was worth living for and dying 

All great and strong peoples 
have had their creed by which 
they worshiped in deep, earnest 
sincerity, the faith to which they 
clung and by which they were vic- 
torious and did whatsoever was 
grand and noble in their history. 
Man's life has been a grasping for 
the eternal truth ; a worship of 
the Infinite. The inspiration of 
hope has always come as a day- 
spring from on high, and through 
the Korans, Vedas, and Bibles he 
has caught fitful gleams of the 
mysteries beyond. 

It was a deep-souled, earnest 
faith when first the childlike, God- 
inspired men upon the plains of 
Shinah, gazing in radiant Eastern 
heavens, shining their splendors 
from deep immensities, heard the 
morning stars sing together, and 

fell down and worshiped them as 
revealers of the God-like and God, 
Nourished and supported by a 
faith like this, there came the 
pride and beauty of young Baby- 
lon, the glory of the kings of 
Chaldea. Paganism, the hero-wor- 
ship of Greece and Rome, and of 
the wild warriors of the North 
was once no sham or mockery, 
but true religion, born of Heaven 
for the salvation of man, the ada- 
mant foundation for the building 
of great peoples and empires. 
Well did they worship their 
bravest and noblest as the true 
Shekinah and brightest revelation 
of God among men. Well did 
they sing in epic song of their 
heroes who dwelt on storm-begirt 
Olympus, who rode on the bosom 
of the tempest-cloud, and spoke 
in the voice of the whirlwind and 
tumult of the seas. When the 
pale herald had beckoned their 
hero across the dark river,lovingly, 
reverently, with rude hands did 
they build monuments to his 
memory, and then in fine sculp- 
tured marble,' speak the majesty 
of his beauty, and through their 
Idol or thing seen, worship the 
invisible child of Heaven. Hence 
came the art and poesy of Hellis, 
a people ruling far and wide, es- 
tablishing the reign of law and the 
daring Norse valor, the heritage 
of Saxon men. 

Great became that people and 
country, when dashing away the 



meaningless formulas and dead 
idols of antiquity, with the inspi- 
ration of their prophet, they un- 
sheathed the sword against all the 
idolatry of the world, and with 
the shout "Allah achbar!" (God 
is great), swept victorious, with 
wild Arab valor, over the religion 
and Empire of Constantine, from 
the banks of the Ganges to the 
walls of Grenada, not forgetting 
to turn three times- a day in deep 
sincere devotion to the shrine of 
holy Mecca. Thrice great and 
strong have been all men and peo- 
ples in the worship of Him who 
preached the brotherhood of man, 
the everlasting love and brother- 
hood of God. This is the last 
and sublimest chapter in the his- 
tory of universal religion ; thus 
far the Evangel includes all oth- 
ers. Well might the brightness of 
the star of the morning shine on 
Bethlehem to tell the shepherds 
where the young child lay, and 
that song of the seraph host go 
down to the wise men of all times 
eternal as the melodies of the 

As the reality of a people's re- 
ligion, the strength and earnest- 
ness of their faith, is the meas- 
ure and foundation of national 
strength and vigor, so has the de- 
cay of civilization been always co- 
existant with the general preva- 
lence of skepticism, atheism, and 
a formal and meaningless worship. 
The foundation may have been 

strong and sound, capable of en- 
during forever, but if the super- 
structure be imperfect, and allow 
the corrupting elements to enter, 
they will soak to the bottom, the 
whole structure will become un- 
sound, and totter to its ruin. Ju- 
piter and Oden were once divine 
missionaries, heroes, ideals worthy 
the worship of noble and advanc- 
ing peoples ; but when those 
peoples became degenerated,, 
careless, and unable to know the 
spiritual truths that guided their 
fathers, their worship became 
empty forms ar, d ceremonies, and 
the religion of the heroic age the 
idolatry of the degenerate age. 

Christianity, too, was once a 
revelation of divine truths, so 
subtle, so mystic, that the learn- 
ing and religiousness of the Scribes, 
and Pharisees could not com- 
prehend it, and was such as to 
require years of teaching by the 
Master himself to enable the 
chosen disciples, the spiritually 
quick minded, to grasp. Yet,, 
when we have formulated these 
truths into such words as " incar- 
nation," "regeneration," "atone- 
ment," we think we have explored 
the deep and holy mysteries. We 
are but looking at the golden 
candle-sticks and altars, the pic- 
tured vail of the temple, while be- 
hind is the Holy of Holies, where 
dwell the cherubim and flash the 
Shekinahal splendors. We are 
gazing contented on stagnant 



frog-ponds, while beyond the nar- 
row sand-bars there urges in ma- 
jestic beauty the deep and infinite 
ocean of truth. 

The church today at best is 
but a moral society. It has be- 
come amalgamated with the world, 
and in spiritual elevation is but 
little above the plane of the world. 
It has no gospel to preach, and its 
vital spark is well-nigh extinct. 
Men must worship, and the high- 
est manifestation and impersona- 
tion of the prevailing ideas of their 
time is generally what they won- 
der at, and worship their control- 
ing principle and acknowledged 
leader. Who was David, the 
Psalm-singer, called from the fields 
to become the shepherd of Israel, 
the father of princes, and the 
Lion of the tribe of Judah ? Be- 
cause not only was David after 
God's own heart, but the people's 
as well. The struggle for wealth 
is absorbing all thought, and sup- 
planting all noble ideas of this 
age, and its power becomes abso- 
lute, when in its great accumula- 
tion, it is next to impossible that 
the millions rise above the slavery 
of poverty and the dread of star- 
vation. Thus men have forgot- 
ten all the gods but Mammon, and 
fall down and worship him. This 
material progress of ours is sweep- 
ing down in its resistless current 
all institutions of government, 
.and the church itself. By the 
highest object and ultimate result 

of the religion of a people, namely : 
their heaven, for which they strive 
in deep earnestness, and sacrifice 
all things to attain, we can judge 
of the character of a people and 
the worth of their faith. 

In old Rome it was to be the 
greatest and noblest of her patri- 
ots, to be honored as one of her 
heroes, and live in the memory of 
posterity as examples of Roman 
virtue and Roman manhood. 
With our German forefathers it 
was to be true and valiant, and be 
raised by brave warriors with the 
clashingof swordson buckler to the 
throne and be declared their brav- 
est and their king; to be ready and 
able to ride triumphant intoValha- 
la, and dwell forever in the temple 
of all the brave. With our Puritan 
fathers it was to work out this 
life as in the great Task-master's 
eye, and stand with pure hearts and 
spotless garments in the presence 
of the great and holy Judge. But 
what is the heaven of this gener- 
ation ? What is it that the na- 
tion and all men are struggling 
for, and giving their lives for, and 
sacrificing all things for? What 
is it after you pass through the 
cant and hollow church formal- 
ism ? It is to make money, to 
be rich, and to appear great. As 
they cannot serve two masters, 
they have chosen Mammon. Neg- 
lecting that which is high and 
holy, they cultivate the sordid 
and the degrading, heeding not 



the everlasting load-star they are 
rushing down, down to wild Nia- 
garas and to the whirl-pool of the 

Oh ! once again let some in- 
spired Orpheus strike upon celes- 
tial harp-strings sweeter music 
than Syrens' songs, and charm us 
away from the deadly shore, from 
Charybdis and the rocks of Scylla. 
Oh ! once again let some Great 
High Priest from Heaven, though 
in the horrors of darkness, with 
the voice of earthquakes, rend in 
twain this veil of Mammon's tem- 
ple, that men may see again the 
Holy of Holies, where dwell 
Shekinahal glories and symbols of 
God's covenants, that their work 
and worship may be no longer as 
discordant shrieks, but rise forever 
as an " everlasting psalm of tri- 

The suffering and discontent 
among the working classes, the 
vice and skepticism is co-exten- 
sive with the material progress 
and civilization of this age. It 
exists under democratic govern- 
ments as well as monarchial gov- 
ernments. In countries where 
protective tariffs are lowest, as 
well as in countries where they 
•are highest. In countries where 
both gold and silver are money, 
as well as where gold alone is the 
•standard of value. The evil is 
world-wide, remedied by no super- 
ficial reforms, and shaking not 
•only feudal thrones, but the pil- 

lars of all republican governments. 
We complain that the discon- 
tented classes of Europe, with 
their skepticism and revolutionary 
ideas, are threatening our institu- 
tions. But what begot this spirit 
of discontent and atheism among 
them ? They are as good as we 
are by nature, of the same blood 
kindred and family of nations. 
They live under the same civiliza- 
tion, and similar social and politi- 
cal systems, and if there were no 
foreign emigration, the same 
causes must inevitably accomplish 
the same results in Europe and 

The wonderful advance of 
knowledge, the greatness and 
magnificence of our civilization, 
are no indications that we have 
not begun to decline. They may 
be glories of the setting sun 
coloring the heavens with dying 
grandeurs. The virtue and integ- 
rity of a nation's manhood, the 
strength and purity of a nation's 
faith, and not the outward show 
of magnificence, perpetuate a na- 
tion's life. The taste of Vespa- 
sian and Augustus could adorn 
the imperial city with every re- 
finement of art and luxury, but 
could not compensate for the loss 
of that heroic faith and man- 
hood that once supported the 
Roman State. The integrity of 
Marcus Antoninus, the wisdom 
of Diocletian, and the martial 
strength of Aurelian could re- 



store but a momentary splendor 
to the fading glories of the Em- 
pire, and Alaric and Genseric 
could insult with impunity the 
fallen mistress of the world. How 
could France, when hunger-strick- 
en vagabonds infested all French 
existence, and her millions, with 
" dull, stagnant hearts " and 
heavy laden souls, toiled like 
dumb, blind animals, but plunge 
into the abyss of scepticism, de- 
spair and revolution, though 
proud in magnificence and "far- 
glancing chivalry?" 

Neither must we flatter our- 
selves that universal suffrage is a 
bulwark behind which our liber- 
erties and civilization can rest se- 

Government based upon uni- 
versal suffrage cannot be wiser and 
better than the average wisdom 
and integrity of the people. That 
wisdom is incapable of solving 
the vital problem, the sphinx 
riddles that to-day are presented 
to this country for solution. En- 
slaved by the perennial and ty- 
ranical growth of a social system, 
in its conception unjust, they are 
rendered incapable of freedom, 
much more of government. We 
know by fact as well as theory, 
that government by the people 
means the government of corrup- 
tion and ignorance. Their repre- 
sentatives in wisdom and purity 
are their rulers, and so long as 
they are ignorant and corrupt they 

cannot choose those best fitted to 
govern, and universal suffrage can- 
not mean government by the wis- 
est and best. Thus it was natural 
that in an age of degeneracy sim- 
ilar to our own they chose in tri- 
umphant majority Barabbas, the 
robber, when the great and divine 
King stood accused of blasphemy 
and treason against heaven. 

These times are calling as in 
deep agony for a leader, who in 
his divine right and kingship is 
stronger than all men, and able to 
govern, and who will lead us away 
from ruin and everlasting death. 
And now, as the nations in the 
gathering darkness of night and 
tempest have lost their way, and 
wander through wild solitudes 
swept with storms„let him show 
us again the pathway, and point 
us to the beacon that shines above 
the Paradise of God. And when 
he shall come and strike down the 
rotten creeds and institutions that 
are cursing this world, let us not 
call him heretic, traitor, blasphe- 
mer, but to him let us sing the 
paeans of grateful peoples, and 
crown him with immortal vivats. 
The history of great men has. 
been the history of all that is he- 
roic in the lives of nations and 
the birth of creeds. " These are 
the brightnesses out of Heaven 
that have irradiated our terres- 
tial struggles, and spanned our 
wild deluges, and weltering seas 
of trouble as with celestial rain- 



bows and symbols of eternal cov- 
enants." They stoned the proph- 
ets, in bloody rage they killed the 
Gracchi ; they slew Danton, the 
stay and hope of France, plung- 
ing down in the wild terrors of 
<lelirum, and One, purest and no- 
blest of all, that came to save a 
world from wreck, they crucified 
and reviled in the ignomies 
of death. Courage ! Oh brother, 
there is hope ! The principalities 
of earth may seal the sepulcher, 
but angels will roll the stone 
away, and imprisoned truth will 
rise triumphant over death, to 
shine in resurrected splendors. 
The fiery soul of Danton, too, 
speaks in death, for Danton lives in 
the Pantheon of History. His voice 
reverberates through all lands 
and times, preaching death to all 
hypocrasies and shams, and when 
the "coalesced kings"shall threaten 
the rights of man, he will " hurl 
at their feet as the gauge of bat- 
tle the head of a king." 

As the fierce tumult and din of 
a great industrial city, mingled in 
the distance, melts in music like 
the song and majestic swell of 
waters, so do all the sufferings 
and heroic deeds of a man unite 
as in harmony for the working out 

of his deliverance and final tri- 
umph. Was it not promised of 
old that "the seed of the woman 
should bruise the serpent's head ?" 

The ruins of cities, the history 
of dead empires fulfill the prom- 
ise. Never yet there fell a peo- 
ple but whose iniquities and the 
sufferings and the woe tears they 
brought upon man made their fall 
the triumph of truth and right. 

Know you not that in that period 
we call the Reign of Terror which 
made earth tremble and the heav- 
ens lurid as with the fires of To- 
phet, and filled the world with its 
shrieks and wailings, the 25,000,000 
of France suffered less than any 
other portion of her history? 
Thus from the uttermost depths 
of hunger and despair they rose 
as ever they will rise, in a fiery 
seething deluge like the ocean 
heaved with earth-works. All in- 
justice and unrighteousness shall 
be burned in fire unquenchable, 
and in the purifying flames na- 
tions must pass through the tra- 
vail of sorrows, and all manner of 
tribulations before the kingdom 
of Righteousness come and they 
stand " clothed with white robes 
and with palms in their hands." 
Locke Craig. 




I have taken for my subject "A 
Cavalier Poet." I shall endeavor 
to call your attention to a gener- 
ally unknown port of the seven- 
teenth century, and to show that 
in spite of all the trash that has 
hidden his merit from the public, 
there can still be extracted from 
the pile of rubbish gems of the 
truest poetry. 

If you wish to study the history 
of a people you must not go and 
search its stately records, its an- 
nals, its histories alone. In fact, 
you will miss the greater half of 
history if you confine your search 
to these, for that history of the 
people, in contradistinction to the 
history of kings, wars, intrigues, 
and other matters in which the 
main body of the people were not 
very much concerned, has seldom 
been written. Ordinary history- 
does not give the ground-currents 
that brought about events. The 
histories that I would prefer are 
such as " Robinson Crusoe," 
"Tom Jones," "Spectator" and 
"Tattler," if I wished to study 
the people who lived when these 
histories were written. In them I 
could see the people as they really 
were. If you wish to study the 
history of a people you must 
study their literature. 

In England, during the reign of 

Elizabeth, powerful foes were at 
work. It was a day of political,, 
intellectual and religious activity. 
A rival queen had to be destroyed,, 
a great Spanish Armada had to 
be overthrown. The life of the 
very nation was in peril, for Pro- 
testant England was against all 
Catholic Europe. The Revival 
of Learning had just taken place, 
and England was witnessing an 
intellectual activity never experi- 
enced before. Added to this was 
the impulse given to theological 
study and discussion by the Re- 
formation. All Europe was alive 
and throbbing under the influence 
of the previous Renaissance. The 
result in- literature was that a class- 
of writers and poets was produced 
whose equals cannot be found in- 
any period of history. 

Turn from the picture of the 
time of great Elizabeth to that of 
the time of Charles the Second. 
Separated as they are but by little- 
over a half century, what a differ- 
ence. The very opposite in almost 
everything! The great principles 
of political and religious liberty 
had seemingly failed, and in the 
eyes of the Puritan the very Anti- 
Christ was exalted on the throne. 
French thought, French fashion, 
French manners and French cor- 
ruption had been brought over 



with Charles and his French cour- 
tesans. The nation was dead. The 
crown of England had sunk to be 
a vassal of France. The literature 
of the time is its portrait, and has 
all its marks of degradation. 

It is just between the noble lit- 
erature of the Elizabethan Age 
and that of the degenerate times 
of Charles the Second, that the 
" Cavalier Poet," Robert Herrick, 
lived and wrote. In his poetry we 
can trace many of the changes 
that took place as the Elizabethan 
muse was merged into that of the 
Restoration. It forms a sort of 
connection between the two liter- 
atures, and has many of the qual- 
ities of both. But it represents a 
degenerating literature — the liter- 
ature of the older poets degener- 
ating into that of Rochester, 
Wycherly, and men of their stripe. 
He preserves much of the Eliza- 
bethan spirit, but on the other 
hand, has a tendency towards the 
literary fashion which immediately 
followed him. The Elizabethan 
muse had about taken its flight, 
but before going had stopped to 
linger awhile with Herrick — 

" A wandering witch-note of the distant 

The majority of readers slavishly 
read only what is recommended 
to them, and they make a study 
of poetry for example of only one 
great poet, without ever gather- 
ing the gems of the minor poets. 
They are too often ignorant of 

their existence. The "man of 
one book " is a notion that makes 
us overlook such authors as Her- 
rick. But they have a use as well 
as the others. No mind can bear 
the tension of studying continu- 
ally a great author. For example, 
when coming from the oppressive 
thought of Bacon's essays we need 
the relief of Herrick's lyrics. For 
the general class of readers this 
will always be his main use, but 
in many of his poems he rises 
above himself, and gives us some- 
thing besides mere pleasure. 

Herrick was a loyalist, and a 
sufferer in the cause, and his po- 
etry was very popular with the 
Cavalier party. He enjoyed the 
friendship of some of the most 
distinguished men of his time. In 
further evidence of its popularity 
many of his lyricks were set tO' 
music by such distinguished mu- 
sicians of the day as Henry 
Lawes, Laniere, Wilson and Ram- 
say. Throughout his works we 
find that he, himself, had the most 
exalted idea of them. Only the 
mention of a man in his book in 
his opinion was enough to confer 
upon him lasting renown. There- 
fore it is difficult to account for 
the indifference shown his works 
by the generations that immedi- 
ately followed him. He certainly 
does not deserve being forgotten. 
He is barely mentioned by the 
early writers in English literature,, 
and it was not until the beginning 



of the present century that any- 
effective efforts were made to- 
wards his resurrection. 

Herrick is the greatest pastoral 
and lyric poet of the English lan- 
guage. Those who have plodded 
through the languid so called pas- 
toral poems of some of our poets, 
and have become disgusted at the 
sickening whinings of imaginary 
Phyllises and Corydons, need to 
'be pointed to the real pastoral po- 
ems of this poet to show them 
that there is such a thing as pas- 
toral poetry, in this sort of po- 
etry his characteristics, playful 
fancy and sensuous reverie, com- 
bined to make him a master. 
These and his unsurpassed sense 
of beauty in both matter and 
form, enable him to produce lyrics 
that have seldom been equaled 
and never excelled. To the sub- 
lime heights of • Milton's "lofty 
rhyme " he cannot soar, but secure 
in the Arcadian repose of Devon- 
shire he occupied himself in pour- 
ing forth ditties to the perfections 
of his mistresses, in telling how 
roses became red, and in similar 
grave productions. He confined 
himself almost strictly to this sort 
of poetry, and it is one of the 
greatest evidences of his fertility 
and genius that in such a narrow 
department of poetry he could pro- 
duce so much that was really ex- 
cellent. The repose that he en- 
joyed throughout his life was par- 
ticularly needful to a writer of 

such, and of all the cavalier poets 
Herrick alone followed, undisturb- 
ed, the bent of his genius, and 
throughout his poetry we look in 
vain for traces of the frantic times 
in which he lived. 

The poetry of Herrick is ama- 
tory, bachanalian, sentimental, as 
the critics use the term, and to 
these may be added his epigrams, 
epistles, and religious pieces. To 
understand his poetry we must 
understand his character. He was 
of that gay, easy temperament 
which enables its possessor to ride 
out the storms of life without re- 
ceiving very many buffets. His 
character has been very aptly 
given in his own words : 

" Born I was to meet with age, 
And to walk life's pilgrimage : 
Much I know of time -is spent 
Tell I can't what's resident ; 
Howsoever, cares adieu ! 
I'll have naught to say to you 
But I'll spend my coming hours 
Drinking wine and crowned with flowers." 

He associated with all the jovial 
spirits around him and " quaffed 
the mighty bowl" with Ben Jon- 
son himself. In one of his poems 
he gives us a glimpse into the 
revels of himself and literary 
friends, among whom were such 
distinguished men as John Selden, 
Cotton, Denham, Endymison Por- 
ter, Sir John Berkely, and at last 
" rare Ben," the verse of the latter 
of which he tells us 
" Outdid the meat, outdid the frolic wine." 
Such a character the fine cavalier 



gentleman lost in worldly pleas- 
ures would not be apt to look upon 
the sterner side of life, and would 
not understand the significance of 
the great political and religious 
movements that were taking place 
around him. While these were 
taking place he, to use his own 
words, was writing 

It is as an amorist that Herrick 
best succeeds, as his poetical pow- 
ers peculiarly fitted him for this 
kind of composition. In quan- 
tity and quality of amorous po- 
etry there is no poet, with the ex- 
ception of Burns, who surpasses 
him. On account of the great re- 
semblance between him and the 

Of brooks, of blossoms, birds and [ Greek poet he can appropriately 

be called the English Anacreon. 
Indeed we find that in thought 
and form of expression he closely 
resembles the classic poets, and 
throughout his works show that 
he must have had with them a 
most intimate acquaintance. How 

like Horace for example is this 

Ode to Posthumus, XlVth Ode: 

" The pleasing wife, the house, the ground 
Must all be left no one plant found 

To follow thee 
Save only the curst cipresse tree." 

But to understand his poetry, quo- 
tations must be given. 

I will begin by giving a selec- 
tion from one of his most charac- 
teristic veins: 

" Some asked me where the rubies grew 
And nothing did I say, 
But with my finger pointed to 
The lips of Julia. 

" One asked me where the roses grew 
I bad him not go seek : 
But forthwith bade my Julia shew 
A bud in either cheek. 

Some asked how pearls did grow and where, 
Then spake I to my girle, 

To part her lips and shew them there 
The quarrelets of pearl." 

Of April, May, of June, and July flowers. 
I sing of hockcarts, May-poles, wassails, 

wakes ; 
Of bridegrooms, brides, and of their bridal 

I write of youth, of love, and have access 
By these to sing of cleanly wantonness." 
&c &c. &c. 

The "cleanly wantonness" of 
which he sings might not seem to 
us of this age to be very clean, 
and it has doomed many of his 
otherwise beautiful conceits to ob- 
livion. None of these poems are 
long — many not more than four 
lines. They are short because the 
occasion of them were real, just 
like those of Burns, and a real 
poem must always be short. Be- 
sides, Herrick was too lazy and too 
much given up to the pleasures 
around him to have ever written 
a long poem. His carelessness, 
his impurity, and his affectation 
of conceits have marred the great 
majority of them. In all there 
are about fourteen hundred, but 
of these only about three hun- 
dred deserve being read for their 
pure poetic merit. 



This is old Anacreon himself. 
Here is another in a similar style : 

" Cherry ripe, ripe, ripe, I cry. 

Full and fair ones — come and buy ! 
If so be you ask me where 
They do grow ? — I answer there 
Where my Julia's lips do smile — 
There's the land or cherry isle 
Where plantations fully show 
All the year where cherries grow." 

Here is one on " The Kiss — A 
Dialogue" — 

i. Among thy fancies tell me this : 
W T hat is the thing we call a kiss ? 
2. I shall resolve ye what it is : 

It is a creature born and bred 
Between the lips, all cherry red ; 
By love and warm desires fed ; 
Chorus : 

And makes more soft the bridal bed. 

It is an active flame that flies 
First to the babies of the eyes. 
And charms them there with lullabies ; 
Chorus : 

And stills the bride too when she cries. 

Then to the chin, the cheek, the ear, 
It frisks and flies ; now here, now there ; 
'Tis now far off, and then 'tis near 
Chorus : 

And here and there, and everywhere. 

I. Has it a speaking virtue ? — 2. Yes. 

I. How speaks it, say?— 2. Do you but this 

Part your joined lips, then speaks your 
kiss : 
Chorus : 

And this love's sweetest language is. 

I. Has it a body? — 2. Ay, and wings, 
With thousand rare encolourings ; 
And as it flies it gently sings, 

Chorus : 

Love honey yields but never stings. 

The piece " To Corinna to go 
A-Maying " has been justly consid- 

ered as one of Herrick's finest 
pieces. It is too long to be quoted, 
but deserves to be read, as it rep- 
resents Herrick's high water mark 
in this kind of his poetry. It be- 
gins : 

" Get up, get up for shame, the blooming 
Upon her wings presents the god unshorn. 
See how Aurora throws her fair 
Fresh-quilted colors through the air : 
Get up sxveet shig-a-bed, and see 
The dew bespangled herb and tree." 

" Sweet slug-a-bed " — a sweet 
expression, and one which only 
Herrick could have coined. Even 
in his poorest and coarsest poems 
such expressions occur like jewels 
set in dirt. The poem has many 
allusions to popular customs. In 
fact, Herrick's poetry is full of 
such, and this is one of its great- 
est values. 

The following upon the " Nip- 
ples of Julia's Breasts," illustrates 
the fact that much of his poetry is 
a little too indelicate, and yet de- 
serves reading on account of its 
beauty : 

" Have you beheld with much delight 
A red rose peeping through a white ? 
Or else a cherrie double grac't 
Within a hllie's center placid? 
Or ever marked the pretty beam 
A strawberry shows half-drowned in creame 
So like to this, nay all the rest, 
Is each neat nipplet of her breast." 

The following famous poem 
most of us have probably seen, 
but few knew that its author was 
this unknown 17th century poet. 
It very well shows with its beau- 



tiful conception, and expression 
how the spirit of song seemed to 
dance through all Herrick's veins : 

" Gather the rose-buds while ye may 
Old time is still a-flying 
And this same flower that smiles to-day 
To-morrow may be dying. 

" The glorious lamp of heaven the sun 
The higher he's a-getting 
The sooner will his course be run 
And nearer he's to setting. 

That age is best which is the first, 
When youth and blood are warmer ; 

But being spent the worse, and worst 
Time shall succeed the former. 

" Then be not coy, but use your time, 
And while ye may, go marry, 
For, having lost but once your prime, 
You may forever tarry." 

In it we see much of his philoso- 
phy of life. Enjoy, enjoy! To- 
morrow you will die ! 

Along with this, and growing 
out of life's shortness, we find 
pieces of the greatest tender- 
ness — a tender melancholy which 
strikes at once the heart of the 
philosopher and the clown. Here 
is one " To Blossoms " — 

" Fair pledges of a faithful tree, 

Why do you fall so fast ? 

Your date is not so past 
But you may stay here awhile 
To blush and gently smile 

And go at last. 

" What were ye born to be 

An hour or half's delight 

And so bid us good night ? 
'Twas pity nature brought ye forth 
Merely to show your worth 

And lose you quite. 

" But ye are pretty leaves, where we 
May read how things soon have 
Their end, though ne!er so brave. 

And after they have shown their pride 

Like you awhile, they glide 
Into the grave." 

With this may be noted the 
poem "To Daffodils" and the 
one " Upon a Child that Died." 

We now come to Herrick's 
poetry of sentiment. In this he 
is rich, as his mind was well suited 
for its production. Although he 
was a classic scholar he is never- 
theless so unpedantic that he 
brings the gods of Olynepus to 
rude, rough Devonshire. He was 
a pagan, but instead of going to 
more classic fields it was there he 
worshipped his gods. It was there 
he crowned Bacchus with flowers 
and sung hymns to Venus. In 
this world he lived and died. Of 
his friend's works, Ben Jonson, he 
only admired such as "The Forest" 
and "Oberon, the Fair Prince." 
The broad humour and studied 
machinery of " The Silent Wo- 
man," " The Fox," or of " Every 
Man in his Humour " he could not 
appreciate. The former were in, 
his own style. 

One of Herrick's prettiest pieces 
in this kind of poetry is his 
"Oberon's Feast." It abounds 
with beauties, some of which I 
will quote. Among the dainties 
of the feast upon 

" A little mushroome table spread " 

Are — A moon-parcht grain of purest 
wheat ;" — 



" A pure seed-pearl of infant dew 

Brought and besweetened in a blew 

And pregnant violet ;" — 
" A well bestrutted bee's sweet bag ;" — 
" The broke-heart of a nightingale 

Ore-come with musicke ;" — and a wine 
" Gently pressed from the soft side 

Of the most sweet and dainty bride, 

Brought in a dainty daizie." 

It is worthy of Shakespeare and 
indeed makes us think of those 
sweet passages in the "Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream." 

At last we come to Herrick's 
devotional pieces. After meeting 
with so much coarseness it is 
strange that we find such poems 
and it is still more strange that 
they should reflect the very high- 
est kind of religious spirit. Yet 
some do have a fervent piety that 
is not surpassed even by those of 
holy George Herbert. This makes 
us believe that his coarseness was 
put in solely in compliment to the 
age. He is conscious of the evil 
and tries to get out of it in a very 
sorry manner — 

" For these my unbaptised rhymes 
Writ in my wild unhallowed times 
For every sentence, clause, and word 
That's not inlaid with thee, O Lord ! 
Forgive me, God, and blot each line 
Out of my book that is not thine ; 
But if 'mongst all thou findest one 
Worthy thy benediction 
That one of all the rest shall be 
The glory of my book and me." 

It would have been better for him 
and for his book if he had blotted 
them out himself. Impurities not 
only damage the memory of the 
author, but they also put a ban 

over the works themselves, as is 
seen to day in the case of Byron's 

The first of these religious poems 
that may be mentioned is " A 
Thanksgiving to God for His 
House," commencing — 

" Lord, thou hast given me a cell 

Wherein to dwell ; 
A little house whose humble roof 

Is weather proof ; 
Under the spars of which I lie 

Both soft and dry ; 
Where thou my chamber foe to ward, 

Hast set a guard 
Of harmless thoughts to watch and keep 

Me while I sleep," &c, &c. 

Probably we have nothing in all 
our literature where more content- 
ment and gratefulness to God is 
shown. Herrick's " Litany to The 
Holy Spirit" is as fine as he ever 
wrote. It was remembered and 
repeated as a prayer by. one of his 
old domestics, who never dreamed 
that it had been printed — 

" In the hour of my distress, 
When temptations me oppress, 
And when I my sins confess, 
Sweet Spirit, comfort me ! 

" When I lie within my bed 
Sick in heart and sick in head 
And with doubts discomforted, 
Sweet Spirit comfort me ! 

" When the house doth sigh and weep 
And the world is drowned in sleep, 
Yet mine eyes the watch do keep, 
Sweet Spirit, comfort me ! 

" When the passing bell doth toll 
And the furies in a shoal 
Come, to fright a parting soul, 
Sweet Spirit, comfort me ! 



" When the tapers now burn blue 
And the comforters are few 
And that number more than true, 
Sweet Spirit, comfort me ! 

" When the priest his last hath prayed 
And I nod to what is said 
'Cause my speech is now decayed, 
Sweet Spirit, comfort me ! 

" When God knows I'm tost about 
Either with despair or doubt ; 
Yet before the glass be out 

Sweet Spirit, comfort me ! 

" When the tempter me persu'th 
With the sins of all my youth 
And half damns me with untruth 
Sweet Spirit, comfort me ! 

" When the judgment is revealed, 
And that opened which was sealed, 
When to thee I have appealed, 
Sweet Spirit, comfort me !" 

In conclusion, I appeal to you 
to give Robert Herrick and the 
class of poets of which he is a rep- 
resentative a more careful atten- 
tion. They are representatives of 

one of the greatest crises in our 
literature — a period when one 
great form of poetry was passing 
away and another being substitu- 
ted in its place — and demand at- 
tention on that account. And 
though they are classed among 
our smaller poets, yet today their 
influence is being felt and the 
"verse de societe" of Praed, Gosse, 
and others is the direct outgrowth 
of the study of Herrick, Suck- 
ling, and Lovelace by these dis- 
tinguished scholars. Besides no 
where can be found a class of 
poets who could be called more 
readable. I ask you again to 
study them, and those who wish 
to do so may rest assured that 
they will be abundantly repaid for 
their pains. R. L. UZZELL. 

June 2, 1 886. 


Language is the repository as 
well as the vehicle of thought. In 
it is stored up the experience and 
sentiment of those who have lived 
before us. Modern languages con- 
tain much that is valuable, but 
their scope is too narrow. We 
must turn to the classics for ex- 
amples which can guide us in gov- 
erning a nation and for sentiments 
which are not mixed with the now 

almost universal idea, that noth- 
ing is worth learning except that 
which leads directly to the gettin g 
of gold. 

Besides this fund of experience 
to which a knowledge of the clas- 
sics gives us access, the training 
to the mind and the assistance in 
the study of our own language 
rise as powerful incentives to their 
study. The opponents of classical 



studies cry that the use of good 
translations will furnish the infor- 
mation, while, by the same labor, 
we can acquire equal training and 
additional information. No Eng- 
lish translation can give those 
shades of meaning which lend 
such point and beauty to the com- 
position of ancient writers. Not 
even the best scholar would be 
able to render in English distinc- 
tions, which the poorest can well 
understand when reading the orig- 

Again, would we wish to read 
translations which are the mere 
shadows? Or can we expect just 
translations ? We would certainly 
not desire the first. Nor could 
we expect the second. For, what 
poet can we find to translate Ho- 
mer? Into the hands of what 
orator shall we consign that 
" matchless piece of Grecian ora- 
tory," Demosthenes on the Crown? 
Or who is worthy to render the 
orations of Cicero or the beautiful 
odes of Horace ? 

The mind is taught to look be- 
neath the words for the idea. In 
finding out and stating the mean- 
ing of complex sentences, the 
mind is taught to study closely 
and the tongue to state accurately. 
The memory and, indeed, the 
whole mind is strengthened and 
better prepared for further study. 
In reply to those who urge that 
this training can be effected equ- 
ally well by other studies, I will 

quote the verdict of the most 
highly educated body of teachers 
in the world, the faculty of the 
University of Berlin. They say: 
" It has not been possible to find 
an equivalent for the classical 
languages as a center of instruc- 

Modern languages are built up- 
on the classics as a basis. There- 
fore, the thorough knowledge of 
the grammar of ourov/n language 
can be acquired only by the means 
of these. Moreover, Latin is the 
mother of a large part of our words, 
while Greek is the source of all 
our scientific terms. We owe to 
these now " dead languages " both 
our grammar and much of our vo- 
cabulary, and as we go to the 
source of the stream to find pure 
water, so we must go back to the 
classics to learn language in its 

In studying the classics, we 
read the grandest productions of 
reason and imagination, — produc- 
tions which are at the same time 
the nearest approach to perfect 
rhetoric. This were in itself suffici- 
ent reward for the labor expended, 
but we also gain training for our 
intellects and find the key that 
unlocks the doors of our own lan- 

Still these questions must be 
answered : shall we exchange the 
perfection of the classics for the 
worse than imperfection of trans- 
lations? And, shall we give up 



this time-honored and time-tested 
mode of training for the study of 
modern science, which is ever 
changing; to-day teaching one 
thing and to-morrow, the oppo- 
site? Or shall we allow French 
and German to take the places of 
those pure languages of which 
they are but the most degenerate 

offspring? To each and all of 
these questions, I answer " no." 
Other studies are well enough in 
their places ; but let every man 
who desires to be educated get a 
knowledge of the classics ; for 
without it he has fallen far short 
of his aim. N. W. 


History furnishes many exam- 
ples illustrative of what can be ac- 
complished by prowess and per- 
sistency. These exploits which 
have gone "rolling down the ages, 
penned by poets and by sages," 
have contributed in no small de- 
gree to the patriotism of posterity. 

Did not the heart of the Greek 
beat with patriotic fervor, when 
mention was made of Marathon, 
Thermopylae or Platea? The de- 
fense of the bridge by Horatius 
enkindled in the breast of the Ro- 
man a feeling which caused his 
seven hilled capital to rule from 
her throne of beauty the then 
known world. The American's 
mind is flushed with poetic imagi- 
nation incentive to patriotism, 
when he reflects upon the 

" Manner, who first unfurled 
An Eastern banner o'er this Western world, 
And taught mankind where future empires lay 
In these confines of descending day." 

The Southerner is thrilled with a 
peculiar emotion when he can say 
to himself, " I was a soldier of the 
army of Northern Virginia; I was 
a follower of Robert E. Lee. 

So on could we take the list of 
countries and find some great 
deed in their respective histories, 
which serves as a sacred shrine 
upon which blood is freely sacri- 
ficed for love of country. 

Yet, of all such historical gems, 
there is one, though not so fre- 
quently mentioned, which stands 
out in bold relief illustrative of 
the grandest achievement through 
the perseverance of a single man 
— the crossing of the Alps by 

Greece had already acted her 
part in the drama of nations, and 
her mighty achievements were 
numbered among the things that 



Rome and Carthage were now 
the rival nations, and each was 
putting on its buckler for the 
second time to strive for universal 

Now Hannibal, the hero of our 
sketch, appears on the scene to 
wreak his foresworn vengeance on 
the imperial city. 

Before the declaration of war, 
Hannibal wisely proceeds to Spain 
to weaken Roman influence and 
recruit Carthagenian resources. 

This indeed seemed pendent to 
an inquisitive world, but how was 
he to proceed against Italy his 
goal, unless he retraced his steps. 
This seemed plausible to all, 
hence the Romans were preparing 
to resist such an attack. No, he 
was determined to proceed di- 
rectly against Italy, and strike 
Rome a blow where she least ex- 
pected it. But was this possible ? 
Nature herself was arrayed against 
him to prevent this strategy. 
Immediately before him stood the 
needle-like peaks of the Pyrenees, 
pointing heavenward, as so many 
sentinels of the still more majestic 
Alps in the distance. Even here 
the courage of many failed, yet 
he, by his personal magnetism, 
succeeded in enthusing their 
drooping spirits, and one of Na- 
tures obstacles was removed. 

Yet, his desired goal was only 
to be reached with the greatest of 
difficulties. Before him lay the 
marshes of the Rhine, the swift 

current of the river added to by 
the immense array of natives as- 
sembled to prevent his passage. 

By unparalleled strategy this 
great barrier was surmounted. 

Behold ! In the distance, the 
Alps loom up in all of their ma- 
jestic grandeur, whose snowy 
peaks reflect, like sparkling jewels, 
the mellowy beams of the setting 

What a grand, what an awful 
sight ! 

He is reminded that the thun- 
dering Jove, surrounded by his 
Olympic court, is seated thereon 
to oppose. 

Now he approaches the foot of 
the mountain ; his army, seeing the 
almost superhuman task before 
it, refused to advance. Hannibal 
proceeds to the front of his muti- 
nous army, and in his most elo- 
quent strains thus addresses them: 

" Soldiers, 'tis useless to falter 
now. Behind you lay the Rhine, 
the Pyrenees, and even the great 
sea, which we are unable to cross. 
Before you lay the Alps. Beyond 
these, the teeming fields of Italy, 
and even the spoils of haughty 
Rome herself. I have now only 
to remind you of your duty to 
Carthage. So choose ye now your 
course. I will abide by your de- 

They being electrified, shout — 
applause and begin the ascent. 

Truly must have Hannibal's in- 
fluence over his army been so 



strong as even to baffle death ; 
their fidelity to him was equal to 
that attributed to Dido, 

"No, he who has their vows, shall forever 

For whom they loved on earth they worship 

in the grave." 

The Greek, dying in defense of 
his fatherland, thought that his 
shade would be speedily wafted 
into the Elysian fields, and there, 
according to Virgil, he numbered 

" Those happy spirits, which ordained by 

For future beings and new bodies wait." 

The dying Teutonic soldier 
thought that his exit from this 
life was to enter boldly into Wal- 
halla, the happy home of the dead. 

The dying knight of the red 
cross dreamed of the holy Jerusa- 
lem above, of its Jasper walls, 
pearly gates and streets of shining 

No such incentives had the 
Carthagenian soldier. That word 
'duty' of all others the most 
sublime, administered by his great 
chieftain was the only balm of his 
dying moments. 

During this perilous ascent, 
Hannibal leads the way in person 
to inspire hope, by his example, 
to his languishing army. 

Again there is a halt on account 
of famine. Many weak and star- 
ving fall an easy prey to the vora- 
cious wolves, and the mournful caw 
of the mountain raven served as 

their only requiem. As they lay 
down at night half starved and 
half covered, save by clear wintry 
sky, even the stars twinkling in 
the far off zenith seemed to shed 
dewy tears of a folorn hope. 

Yet, Hannibal from the front 
shouts onward, onward, my brave 
comrades! Their courage is re- 
vived, and the summit is gained. 

Now Hannibal, like Moses on 
the sacred hights of Nebo, points 
out to his assembled army, the 
teeming plains of Northern Italy. 
They fill the air with applause 
and begin the perilous descent. 
After many hardships, they stand 
upon those fertile plains — their 
long desired goal. 

What now is the reward for 
their labor and sufferings? 

The ever memorable victories 
of Ticinus, Tubia, Lake Thrasi- 
menas and Cannae will answer in 
clarion tones from the crumbling 
sepulchre of antiquity. Indeed, 
do not these victories surround 
Hannibal and his army with a halo 
of glory, that will survive the 
wrecks of ages and of empires? 

Thus indeed, we find that well 
known maxim, "the end crowns 
labor," is true in this case as in all 

A Greek philosopher once main- 
tained that " events moved cir- 
cles." Truly has this great event 
had its influence felt in succeed- 
ing ages. It was virtually re-en- 
acted at the beginning of the pre- 



sent century by the great Napo- 
leon, who acknowledged Hanni- 
bal as his example, and Marengo 
crowned the end. 

To accomplish anything of im- 
portance, one must have an exam- 
ple, which he may imitate, and 
from which he may seek-encourage- 

Then truly can we profit by 
this example, as did Napoleon, 
even in the humbler paths of life, 
and according to the maxim the 
end will crown our labor. 

Shakespere has told us that, 
■"there is a tide in the affairs of 
men, which, if taken at the flood 
leads on to fame and fortune." 
Many seem to rely on this, and 
await the entrance of fortune upon 
their threshold, forgetful of the 
fact that to stem this tide re- 
quires their utmost vigilance and 

labor. Hence so many failures 
in life. 

Often in life some great barriers 
present themselves in our paths 
of progress. Before these many 
succumb, while others of stouter 
hearts and inspired by nobler ex- 
amples, succeed in making their 
lives a success. 

So like Hannibal, let our motto 
be Onward! Onward!! and re- 
member that, 

" We should never stand in doubt 
For nothing is so hard, but that search will 
find it out." 

As a reward, our lives will be such 
as make it life to live. 

Then indeed will we realize the 
value of those examples, 

" Which resists the empire of decay 

When time is o'er, and worlds have passed 

Cold in the dust the perished heart may lie, 
But that which warmed it once can never die. 


The beginning of the nineteenth 
century was characterized by a 
regime of pure individualism of 
unalloyed free competition. But 
a higher civilization has been ren- 
dered possible. The times are 
ripe for an economic revolution. 
Along with a change in the en- 
vironment of a nation must fol- 
low methods adapted to the ex- 
igences of the times. The bar- 

ren dogmas of political economy 
are being rejected. A problem 
confronts us, and no rule can be 
found in the arithmetic of the 
past to solve it. Unless some 
Oedipus arise to answer the riddle 
of the Sphinx of labor, our Re- 
public may fall a victim. Even 
in our own State its deadly enigma 
has been propounded. 

That there is somewhere in our 



social organization a radical defect 
is a glaring, indubitable fact. The 
existence of a world of woe and 
suffering within our world of joy 
and pleasure is the most inexpli- 
cable paradox of the age. The 
truth is patent and incontroverti- 
ble that under our present eco- 
nomic system the doom of the 
working man is sealed. Wages 
are at the starvation point. Cap- 
ital is concentrating in the hands 
of a few, and it seems that the 
chasm between capital and labor 
can only be filled with blood and 
ruins. Great monopolies are gain- 
ing control of all our institutions. 
Ever and anon the terrors of a 
financial crisis are precipitated 
upon us. Small manufactories 
are engulfed in large enterprises. 
Men, unable to maintain their 
wives and children by their wages, 
must suffer their family to be sun- 
dered, and over half a million 
women and two hundred thousand 
children are forced to earn their 
bread. This addition to the 
throng of laborers lowers wages 
and renders their condition more 
helpless. The introduction of new 
machinery throws numbers out of 
employment, till society can ad- 
just itself to the altered state of 
affairs. No one who has any ac- 
quaintance with the modern fac- 
tory system will deny that it is no 
longer possible for a common la- 
borer ever to become an independ- 
ent employer. He is surrounded 

with the adamantine wall of capi- 
tal and fettered by the chains of 
an inexorable competition. Un- 
sustained by the stoicism of an- 
tiquity and hating Christianity (re- 
ligion) because he believes it to be 
the religion of the rich, his strug- 
gle for existence has been bitter, 
fierce and unproductive. But the 
liberation of the toilers is now 
inevitable. The scattered hosts 
of labor have been aroused from 
their amazement as the legions of 
fallen angels that lay covering the 
flood thick as autumnal leaves 
that strow the brooks in Valam- 
brosa were startled by the voice 
of their commander who called so 
loud that all the hollow deep of 
hell resounded ; but unlike those 
they are marshalled under the flag 
of eternal justice. Purblind econo- 
mists who can see no conflict be- 
tween labor and capital will read 
their doom upon the lurid heavens. 
The battle must terminate in the 
triumph of labor, yet this does not 
necessitate the ruin of capital nor 
the annihilation of the rich. Capi- 
tal has rights that are clearly de- 
fined and supported by human 
and divine law. It needs no de- 
fence, it is folly to attack it, it 
cannot be coerced. Its just claims 
have been recognized since the 
earliest dawn of civilization, and 
will remain intact so long as hu- 
manity progresses. The cry that 
" all property is theft and proper- 
ty holders are thieves " is an utter- 



ance of the French Socialist, 
Prandhon, which has the ring of 
madness in it, and finds no echo in 
America from Americans. When 
Jay Gould uses the vast wealth at 
his command to the detriment of 
individual or State, society ad- 
judges him guilty of a heinous 
crime. But when retaliation on 
the part of the oppressed leads to 
the destruction of property and 
the infliction of incalculable inju- 
ry upon an innocent public, jay 
Gould's appeal for protection as 
an American citizen meets a uni- 
versal response of sympathy. 

The crusade that is being waged 
is not against capital itself, but 
against the oppressive use of it. 

Labor demands recognition as 
a human agency and the chance to 
develop the agent. Slavery was 
not exterminated from our land 
by the rage of civil war. Thou- 
sands of human victims of a no- 
bler race than the African are 
writhing in abject bondage. They 
are not shackled by the chains of 
a legal serfdom, but are imprison- 
ed in the clasp of a relentless fate. 
The working man is still consid- 
ered a mere machine, and his con- 
dition is based upon the assump- 
tion that man lives by bread alone. ' 
A system based upon such a nar- 
row foundation cannot bear the 
shock of social hostility. Our 
high order of civilization has cre- 
ated new desires without furnish- 
ing- additional means for their sat- 

isfaction. The compensation of 
labor has failed to increase pro- 
portionally with its productive- 
ness. Such injustice man con- 
temns and heaven avenges. The 
omnipotent forces of the uni- 
verse have decreed a change. Las- 
salle said, " I am convinced that a 
revolution will take place. It will 
take place legally and with all the 
blessings of peace, if, before it is 
too late our rulers become wise, de- 
termined and courageous enough 
to lead it ; otherwise, after the 
lapse of a certain time the god- 
dess of revolution will force an 
entrance into our social structure, 
amid all the convulsions of vio- 
lence, with wild streaming locks 
and brazen sandals on her feet. 
In the one way or the other she 
will come, and, when, forgetting 
the tumult of the day, I sink my- 
self in history, I am able to hear 
from afar her heavy tread." Her 
heavy footfall has already been 
heard in St. Louis and Chicago, 
but the revolution will not be ac- 
complished by violence in America. 
The ultimafe adjustment of the 
labor difficulty will be a compro- 
mise. The rational and legitimate 
claims of both parties will be con- 
ceded. It may be but a sentiment 
that calls for justice to the labor- 
ing class, but history is a record of 
the victories of such sentiments. 
The piteous cry of toiling millions- 
has been heard, and good men 
throughout our land have res- 



ponded magnanimously. Wages 
are being raised wherever possible 
without any demand from em- 
ployees. It may be that our great- 
est hope lies in arbitration, but it 
is more probable that peace will 
be restored by the rendering of 
justice unto the poor by the rich, 
prompted by a christian love for 
the right. Already oil is being 
poured on the troubled waters. 
The darkness that hovers over the 

face of our land will soon pass 
away, and " rosy morn from out 
the eastern clime advancing shine 
over this earth with orient pearl." 
The cold, selfish individualism of 
the nineteenth century will yield 
to the cosmopolitan spirit that 
will usher in the twentieth cen- 
tury and out of the old a new 
civilization will be born. 

Frank Dixon. 

Speech of William of Orange to the Burghers of the Hague 

in 1672. 

Louis XIV. came to the throne 
of France in 1643. He was a vain- 
glorious, haughty and bigoted 
monarch. His great desire was 
military glory, and his wishes were 
to a great extent realized. His 
finances under the careful manage- 
ment of Colbert became greater 
than those of any of his prede- 
cessors. Luvois, skilled in all con- 
nected with war was his minister 
and Turenne, the greatest military 
commander of the age, was his 
general. With these resources at 
his disposal Louis invaded Flan- 
ders and seemed to be marching 
to certain conquest. The rest of 
Europe became alarmed. England 
and Holland quit their quarrel 
and united with Sweden against 
their common enemy. Louis stop- 

ped short in his career and haugh- 
tily proposed peace. The terms 
were dictated by a Dutchman and 
signed at Aix-la-Chapelle, 2nd 
May, 1668. 

The pride of the " Grand Mon- 
arch " had been insulted by such 
bold proceedings on the part of a 
few insignificant tradesmen. Louis 
burned for revenge. Holland was 
most accessible to him. In 1672 
this Republic struck a medal in 
commemoration of some of its ex- 
ploits. Louis chose to consider 
this an insult to crowned heads 
and after winning over her allies 
by intrigue burst upon the de- 
fenseless province with all the 
fury of a madman. To his finely 
disciplined army the Dutch could 
oppose nothing except a few mer- 



cenary soldiers. The march of 
Louis was like a triumphal proces- 
sion. He was approaching their 
capital. They are in a state of 
desperation. Some propose to 
emigrate to Batavia and found a 
new Republic there. Some wish 
to open the dikes and submerge 
the country. The principal 
burghers meet in the Stadthouse 
to discuss the state of affairs and 
take some measures for their re- 
lief when William of Orange af- 
terward king of England with 
that animation which he always 
wore in battle thus addressed 
them : 

My Fellow Countrymen: 
This is a time when we must take 
some measures for our relief. The 
enemy's banners are now almost 
in sight of our capital. He is lay- 
ing waste all before him. Our 
lands reclaimed from the sea are 
the prey of the savage invader; 
and our fruitful fields are becom- 
ing a desert under his ruthless 
hand. All seems lost. We have no 
forces to march against his in- 
numerable hosts. What can we 
do in this crisis? Is there no 
refuge for us ex'cept in submis- 
sion? Will all our efforts and all 
our hopes of freedom be crushed 
by the French despot? Shall we 
surrender and humbly beg for 
mercy at the feet of the haughty 
tyrant ? Shall we give up to France 
the liberty which we prize so high- 
ly and which we bought at such 

a cost from Spain? Will the blood 
of our heroic ancestors who fell at 
Mechlin, Zutphen and Naardin 
have been spilt in vain ? Will the 
barbarities of Duke Alva accom- 
plish their purpose at last and will 
Republican Holland be swallowed 
up in Imperial France? No, for- 
ever no ! 

Some have indeed proposed for 
us to leave our own land, the best 
on which the sun shines, sail to 
Batavia and there rear a new and 
a grander republic. But shall we, 
my countrymen, leave the land of 
our nativity to become the prey 
of a foe whose war-cry is "re- 
venge"? No, forever no! Look 
down ye spirits who fought so 
nobly for Holland. Look down 
on your apostate sons who now 
wish to flee and leave her naked 
and bleeding at every pore. Surely, 
these cannot be the sons of Hol- 
land ! Oh degenerate sons of 
noble sires, well might they blush 
to own you now ! 

My countrymen, let us not leave 
our own dear country opened and 
exposed to its foes. Let us gird 
on our good swords and die in the 
last trench if need be. Let • us 
even open the dikes, flood our 
country and thus drive the enemy 
from her borders. This is our 
last resort. There can be no pas- 
sing until winter and a little delay 
will be as all the world to noth- 
ing. We can do this; we must do 
this, there is no other alternative. 



Open the dikes. Fight with strong 
arms and brave hearts. Trust in 
God and He who paints the lily 
of the field and caters for the spar- 

row will defend and protect our 
infant republic. S. B. W. 

Jan. 18, 1886. 


It was several years ago, when 
nature was just breaking the icy 
links of winter's chain, that a 
friend and I took a walk in the 
western part of Orange county. 
As we ascended a hill we caught 
sight of a grave, nestled upon its 
very summit. Approaching with 
reverent deference we found the 
grave built up of brick, now fast 
crumbling into dust, surmounted 
by a marble slab bearing the in- 
scription, " Sacred to the memory 

of ," some old Revolutionary 

hero who died in 1793, and who 
was remembered only in the tra- 
ditions of the neighborhood ; one 
of which my companion now re- 
lated. Upon the surrounding 
farm this old time worthy lived in 
his princely mansion and counted 
his slaves by scores. He was a 
hard master and wrung labor from 
his servants' hands with unpitying 
severity. His broad acres were 
well tilled, his barn well filled, but 
in the heart of the slave love for 
the master found no place. 

Gray slowly whitened the locks 
of the planter and the shadows 

were lengthy, until one day when' 
the sunlight came shimmering 
down in golden waves across his 
threshold, and the glad bird war- 
bled his spring-time song, the 
Angel of Death touched him with 
his sable wand. As he lay dying, 
he heard a conversation just out- 
side his door between two of his 

" Well, John, they say old mars- 
ter's gwinter die ; he been a hard 
marster, and worked us hard, and 
now we'll enjoy ourselves and 
won't have to work much." 

"Well, that's so," said John,. 
" and as soon as old marster dies 
I'll be a happy man." 

Slowly the receding life current 
paused and for one moment the 
master seemed to regain his vigor. 
Calling in his slaves he rose in his 
bed and said : 

" I heard your conversation. 
Yes, you'll be glad when I am 
dead. Look, do you see yonder 
hill overlooking this whole farm ? 
Well, when I die I am going to 
be buried standing up, so that L 
can see every field,, and if you. 



once shirk work my spirit will 
haunt you forever." 

He ceased speaking and the 
next moment was a corpse. The 
funeral procession bore him to his 
cold and narrow dwelling, and 
placed the coffin in a vertical posi- 
tion — according to his last wish. 
The slaves toiled from morning 

till night, believing that the mas- 
ter's spirit hovered above ready 
to avenge any delinquencies in 
labor, and to-day, when the 
shadows of night have fallen, the 
negroes of the neighborhood will 
go a long distance out of their 
way to avoid "Old Marster's 
Grave." MlGMA. 


A tablet has been placed in Me- 
morial Hall to the memory of the 
men whose liberality caused the 
location of the University at the 
place called in old times, New 
Hope Chapel Hill. The follow- 
ing sketches by President Battle 
and Captain John R. Hutchins 
give information about these early 
benefactors of the University 
not heretofore published. Their 
names were : Christopher Barbee, 
James Craig, John Daniel, Col. 
John Hogan, Edmund Jones, Mat- 
thew McCauley, Wra. McCauley, 
Hardy Morgan, Mark Morgan, 
M Alexander Piper, Benj. Yeargin. 
" Christopher Barbee and 
William Barbee, his son, were 
large land owners and lived three 
miles east of the village, were 
wealthy and influential. William 
Barbee at one time represented 
Orange county in the lower House 
of Legislature ; he died twenty- 

five or thirty years ago in the 
house where his father, Christo- 
pher, lived and died." 

Of their numerous posterity 
nine were students of the Univer- 
sity. The family have been rep- 
resented here lately by a great- 
great-grandson of Christopher Bar- 
bee in the person of William 
B. Stewart, of Sampson, son of 
Rev. J. L. Stewart, a Trustee of 
the University. Mr. William R. 
Kenan, of Wilmington, also mar- 
ried a descendant. Mrs. Jane 
Guthrie is the only descendant 
residing in Chapel Hill. A grand- 
daughter of Christopher Barbee, 
Mrs. James Patterson, an excel- 
lent lady, afflicted with blindness, 
resides on her plantation on New 
Hope. The Barbees of Chapel 
Hill are collateral relations. The 
homestead called " the mountain," 
on a high hill above the valley of 
Boiling's creek, a conspicuous ob- 
ject in the landscape east of the 
village, has recently passed out of 
the family. 



"James Craig was a pious 
Scotchman who lived and died 
within the present limits of the 
village. He is said to have been 
'absent minded.' On one occa- 
sion he rode horseback to preach- 
ing at New Hope church seven 
miles distant, and returned on 
foot. His wife inquired the cause. 
He replied that he had forgotten 
the horse and walked home. A 
negro was sent for the horse and 
found it tied within twenty steps 
of the church door. 

" Two of his children lived to the 
advanced age of 84 or 85 years on 
the homestead. His son, James 
Craig, graduated at the Univer- 
sity in the class of 18 16 with John 
Y. Mason, Wm. Julius Alexander 
and others. Three of his grand- 
sons have attended the Univer- 
sity. James F. Craig is a grand- 
son, 9nd lives in the same house 
in which his grand-father lived 
nearly one hundred years ago." 

President Johnson stated in a 
speech at Chapel Hill, that he re- 
membered well when he ran away 
from Raleigh, walking foot-sore 
and hungry along the main street 
of the village, on his way to Ten- 
nessee — that he asked a night's 
lodging and some supper at Mr. 
Craig's, and that he was most 
kindly treated. Not only did the 
good Old man give him supper, 
lodging and breakfast, but sup- 
plied him with enough to last the 
whole of the next day. 

In " old times" "Craig's" was 
separated from the inhabited part 
of the village by a large forest. 
It was, a favorite trip for the stu- 
dents to go there for better meals 
than were furnished at " Steward's 
Hall," of which much complaint 
was often made. 

A brother of James F. Craig, 
the present owner of the home- 
stead, Wm. Harrison Craig, is a 
successful lawyer in Arkansas. 

"John Daniel lived and died 
on his farm two miles south of the 
village recently known as 'Cane's 
mill' tract; his descendants moved 
to Tennessee, Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi many years ago. One of 
his sons, Robert, was a Divine of 
some note." 

John Daniel was probably the 
" Mr. Daniel " who surveyed the 
lands for the Commissioners, and 
was paid, as the accounts show, 
$16 for his services. 

" Col. John Hogan was an 
officer of the Revolution. His 
descendants lived in Randolph 
and Davidson counties. One of 
them was married to the late Dr. 
Wm. R. Holt, President of the 
N. C. Agricultural Society." She 
is still living, a most estimable 
lady, in Lexington — Mrs. Louisa 
M. Holt. She is the nearest rela- 
tive to the late benefactress of 
the University, Miss Mary R. 

The late Wm. J. Hogan, of 



Chapel Hill, was descended from 
a brother of Col. John Hogan. 

Of Edmund Jones nothing is 
known by " the oldest inhabitant." 
He probably moved off to Ten- 
nessee or Kentucky according to 
the fashion of his day. 

" MATHEW McCauley was a 
Scotch Irishman whose departure 
from Ireland was romantic. Be- 
ing prosecuted for a political of- 
fence, to escape the vigilance of 
the authorities he was headed up 
in a hogshead until the vessel was 
well out at sea." 

He is represented as a man of 
great energy, indomitable will, 
kind and generous. Soon after 
his arrival in this country he found 
a Rattle Snake, and not knowing 
what it was took it by the neck, 
and, carrying it to. the nearest 
house threw it on the floor, and 
asked the housewife what it was. 
As an instance of the rustic sim- 
plicity of the times, he was on 
one occasion presented with a pair 
of Candle Snuffers. Ignorant of 
their use, he pinched off the burn- 
ing wick with his fingers and put 
the charred snuff in the snuffers. 

He settled on a farm two miles 
west of the village, where he lived 
to old age and died respected by 
all. His son, Matthew, now an 
old man, still lives in the home- 
stead. His son, William, was edu- 
cated at the University, and was 
a practicing lawyer in Chapel Hill 
until his death. His two sons 

removed to Union county. One of 
them, Charles Maurice Taleyrand 
McCauley, a good lawyer, has 
been a faithful Senator in the 
General Assembly. His brother, 
Samuel, married a daughter of 
Esquire McDade, for many years 
Post-master of Chapel Hill, and 
has been Mayor of Monroe, the 
county seat of Union. They were 
both educated at the University. 
Mr. Matthew J. W. McCauley, 
who owns the excellent mill three 
miles west of Chapel Hill, is a 
grand-son, and David McCauley,. 
the prosperous merchant of Chapel 
Hill, is a great-grandson of the 
old " land-giver." 

The " McCauley's mill " of old 
times was on the land of Matthew 
McCauley, senior, lower down on 
Morgan creek than the mill of M. 
J. W. McCauley, and nearer the 
village. It was such a notable place 
that the roads of this section had 
mile-posts showing the distance 
from it, and not, as is usual, from 
the Court-house: Purefoy's mill, 
anciently Merritt's, is lower down 
on the same creek. 

" Mark- Morgan, one of the 
earliest settlers, lived three miles 
south-east of the village, although 
his lands reached to the site of 
the University. He had two sons, 
John who moved west in 1823, 
and Solomon who lived and died 
on the* homestead. Solomon's 
daughter (wife of Rev. J. P. Ma- 
son), and grand-son, John Morgan, 



now own the land, which has re- 
mained in the family continuously 
since its purchase trom Earl Gran- 

roomed part of his time while at 
College, and boarded with Mr. 
Yeargin ; and although over a mile 

ville." The two lovely daughters : from College at the foot of a hill, 
of Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Mason, their j he was perfectly punctual in his 

only children, Misses Martha and 
Varina, who recently died just 
after budding into womanhood, 
were great-grand-children of one 
of the founders of the Univer- 

Hardy Morgan was brother 
of Mark and father of Lemuel 
and Allen Morgan. Lemuel, a 
bachelor, was once owner of the 
Boiling Creek farm of William F. 
Strowd. The descendants of Allen 
live in Wake and Chatham. 

Alexander Piper was a plain 
farmer, who moved to Fayette 
county, Tennessee, many years 

" Benjamin Yeargin was the 
school-master of the neighbor- 
hood. He lived for a long time 
on his farm near the village, the 
land being now owned by Mr. 
Oregon Tenny. The dwelling was 
near the creek." " 

In this house James K. Polk 

College duties. Mr. Yeargin is 
represented : as a man of great 
business capacity, was a useful and 
influential citizen. He was buried 
about three miles east of the vil- 
lage. A few of his descendants 
live in Chatham county. Year- 
gin's mill, at a place on Bowlin's 
creek, called Glenburnie, was the 
first house built in this section. 
A part of the mud-sill still remains. 
The farm of Benjamin Yeargin 
descended to his daughter, the 
wife of Thomas Taylo$, a son of 
Buck Taylo£, the first Steward of 
the University. It was afterwards 
owned by Bishop Green, of Mis- 
sissipi, when Professor in the Uni- 
versity. The dwelling was at the 
foot of the hill, near the creek, 
and was the boarding house not 
only of President Polk, as above 
stated, but of Judge Battle and 
many other students of the old 




All motion is rhythmic. All 
force is communicated by vibra- 
tions between extremes. Sound, 
light and heat are explained upon 
the hypothesis of the "wave 
theory." The oscillations of the 
leaves in the breezes and the trem- 
bling of a body drawn laterally 
through still water, show that the 
resistance of air and water is un- 
steady. The blood of our bodies 
does not run in an unbroken cur- 
rent, but is dashed in waves to the 
ends of our fingers by the rhyth- 
mic beating of the heart. 

We observe this law also in 
more complex phenomena. In 
the fluctuation of prices, and the 
ever varying relation between sup- 
ply and demand in the business 
world; in the changes and returns 
of fashions, and the rise and fall 
of classes in society ; and in the 
undulatory progress of civilization 
in history. Poetical ages and prac- 
tical ages have alternated — dark 
ages have been followed by ages 
of light. Ever since the races 
separated on the great Bactrian 
Plateau in Asia, and each began 
its own individual struggle for su- 
premacy, each government, like 
every individual life and every ge- 
ological species has had its rise, its 
culmination and its decline. 

There are two forces acting in 
the world. 

1st. There is a tendency in all 
nature which gives it an upward 
impulse. Aspiring man is envious 
of the gods; and the lowest and 
fiercest beasts would take the 
place of man. Indeed; in this 
vigorous, blooming summer sea- 
son this spirit is in all growing na- 
ture. "Now is the high tide of 
the year." " Every thing is up- 
ward striving." 

" Now even the clod feels a stir of might 
An instinct within it which reaches and 
And groping blindly above it for light, 
Climbs to a soul in grass and flowers." 

But there is a counteracting 
force, which brings all the world 
back upon a level. Though a man 
tower above his brother's to-day, 
he will be with them or below 
them to-morrow. Though the 
leaves now be green and the air 
sweet with the perfume of sum- 
mer, the fall is coming. These 
two opposing forces produce waves 
in the moving world. All things 
move in waves. 

Let us apply this law to thought. 
That immortal part of man, vastly 
superior to matter. The world of 
thought in which we live is like a 
fluid. Every man is either a ci- 
pher — a mere agitator or a con- 
tributor;, and whatever be the 
cause of motion, thought will, by 
this law, move in waves ; and 



each wave, according to the law 
of persistence of force, will go on 

One of Three Great Waves each 
of us must produce. Will it be 
the ivave of reaction, or the wave 
of progress, and whether the one 
or the other will it be harmonious, 
will it be a musical wave ? 

There are some who are only 
ciphers and will never make so 
much as a small ripple on this 
ocean's surface. Let us have no 
patience with these neutralities — 
they do not deserve discussion. 
Let us in silence pity them. 

There is a class of men in the 
world, whose lives are not so sor- 
did, but whose conduct is as use- 
less and shameful as laziness is 
base. These agitate the world by 
mere disturbance, and produce the 
destructive waves of reaction. 

You wish to be renowned. You 
fall upon the plan of creating a 
great sensation. But that cannot 
render you happy. You want to 
be honored and loved as well as 
known ; and if this be your aim, 
never agitate the public mind 
about nothing. Sensation must 
either be very short lived or soon 
become offensive. Never try to 
crush truth by green-eyed, hot 
headed prejudice. Live all the 
days of your life in painful ob- 
scurity rather than belong to that 
disgusting class of sensationalists 
known as demagogues. Why? 
For the sake of your own individ- 

ual happiness, if not for the sake 
of others. The bread you cast 
upon the waters is not more cer- 
tain to return to you than the 
slander you invent and circulate. 
Show me a man who has by false 
arts deluded the people, and 
every lie which he has heaped 
upon the head of innocence, will 
return to sicken his own heart, 
and cling to him as an index of 
the blackness of his own charac- 
ter ; his death will be unwept, his 
grave will remain unadorned ; his 
deeds unsung. 

The wave of injustice and op- 
pression must react upon the 
transgressor. Every nation has 
felt it, every tyrant has been over- 
whelmed in it. Every man whose 
ambition has been his master has 
bowed beneath his own heavy 
burden, has tendered his neck to- 
his own bloody guillotine, and, like 
Haman, dangled from his own. 
high gallows. 

Injustice will react upon nations 
as surely as upon individuals. For 
a wave of sympathy spreads over 
the world for the martyr's cause, 
no matter to what sect he belongs, 
or what religion he professes ; and 
whatever there is of truth and 
reality in the principles which he 
advocates will accompany this tide 
of sympathy into every heart, and 
there become a sacred and sanc- 
tioned principle of life. 

The piercing of the side, and 
the loud scoffing' of the mob of 



Jews and Romans may have in- 
timidated the followers of Christ 
in Rome and Judea. Yet long 
after the mob's blasphemous out- 
burst had died away; long after 
the cruel sword of Nero had crum- 
bled into rust and his wicked hand 
had issued its last bloody man- 
date, the still small voice of appeal 
from hearts anguished and op- 
pressed that have long lain ashes 
in the martyr's sacred tomb to- 
day inspires the souls of men .to 
noble deeds of christian justice 
and humanity. 

But where are the oppressors 
themselves? That grand old He- 
brew race has felt the wave of re- 
action and is scattered and bro- 
ken ; and among the ruins of the 
World Empire the owl of desola- 
tion makes his home. Oh how 
long will it be until nations can 
use common sense ? 

Shall people never learn the 
power of truth and the demands 
of justice? Is not the falling 
of one Babel sufficient to teach 
men that they cannot build away 
to heaven upon the heads of their 
brothers and kinsmen ? In other 
words, know you not that if you 
rise with the waves you must fall 
with them ? 

There is a way to set this ocean 
of thought in violent motion, and 
with glorious results to name and 
person. Add to it. Produce the 
second great wave. The wave of 
progress. Pour out wisdom into 

this great basin and it will spread 
in every direction in irresistible 
motion ; and this ocean of thought, 
which a poetic infidel is pleased to 
call ''the narrow vale between the 
cold and barren peaks of two eter- 
nities," will rise higher and higher, 
and spread further and further, 
until those seemingly barren peaks 
will be submerged and our ocean 
will join its waters with those of 
vast eternity. 

If you would merely excite the 
world disturb it. If you wish to 
be a cipher, commit suicide and 
take care to conceal the fact ; but 
if you value a nation's praise and 
love and reverence, and wish to 
live in the great heart of humanity 
leave something good and real to 
speak in eloquent remembrance of 
you to coming generations. Speak 
truths to the nations at the risk 
of revolution. Though corrupt sen- 
timent overwhelm you, your name 
shall rise out of the dust and ashes 
of your desolation and shall be 
honored and worshiped by your 

Those who have contributed to 
thought are the world's grandest 
heroes. That great leader of Is- 
rael's hosts, who from amid the 
smoke and thunders of Solemn 
Sinai, received in triumph, and 
bore to a groveling world below 
the Decalogue, upon which 
rests the laws of every prosperous 
reign, is easily the first among a 
tremendous host whose lives have 



made additions to the world of 

In opposition to the Sophists, 
who were mere agitators, are 
names like Socrates and Plato ; 
and it would be an injustice to 
the subject not to mention those 
twelve satellites which revolve so 
harmoniously around that bright 
and glorious star which rose out 
of Nazareth. They have never 
ceased to give us light, but have 
grown brighter and brighter as 
the years glide by; for our eyes 
have become clearer and the clouds 
have flown. 

The truth has survived and to- 
day glorifies its givers. Athens 
slew Socrates but failed to sup- 
press his teachings. Paul's was 
the martyr's death ; but his doc- 
trines are immortal. The Roman 
church once chained the Bible and 
hovered over the world with her 
bat-like wings, and shut out the 
light ; but John Wycliffe of Eng- 
land, and Martin Luther in Ger- 
many, inspired with the energy of 
love for humanity, arose in their 
might and burst the bands of 
church tyranny and let the truth 
flow free. And it will ever flow 
free. Let nations build their 
Chinese walls if they wish, the 
mighty billows of truth will break 
through their fortifications and 
flood the heathen kingdom. , 

A few years ago a great ques- 
tion was put before the people of 
North Carolina, whether or not we 

should longer allow men to traffic 
in alcohol. This was a new step, 
and a thousand politicans, who 
knew that here conservatism is 
popular arose and with a feigned 
voice of warning cried to the peo- 
ple, " Look to your liberties : 
This is an encroachment upon 
them!" Under this impression the 
bill was crushed by 180,000 ma- 
jority. Ah! but these politicians 
did not smother the sparks of 
truth that fell from the earnest 
fervent lips of men who care not 
for the rabble's foolish whims and 
sentiments ; and horrid crimes, 
and loathsome sins, and the wild- 
eyed howling burden of our asy- 
lums still do open their mouths, 
like Caesar's wounds, and plead 
for humanity. And they are being 
heard. The waves of truth are 
spreading, and the signs of the 
times and the women of the State 
predict that the Prohibition Law, 
in spite of prejudice and dema- 
goguery, is coming, fast coming 
in North Carolina. 

In whatever way we agitate this 
ocean of thought let us at least 
produce the third great wave ; the 
wave of harmony, or the musical 
wave. Have you never seen hu- 
man conduct which you could call 
musical? Musical characters, 
whose ways are so smooth and 
charming that you have often 
wished they were your own ? Mu- 
sical families, whose members so 
conduct themselves that their in- 



terests never clash and not a dis- 
cordant note ever breaks the sweet- 
ness of their domestic song? I 
have seen a thousand heads erect, 
and faces flushed with feeling, and 
watched them move in complete 
harmony under the strains of 
some melodious air, as if each in- 
dividual was a part of one great 
body, and that body was inspired 
with one great soul ; and I have 
felt myself moved with the throng 
by that same strange and irresisti- 
ble feeling. Sweet chords are 
productive of a feeling of univer- 
sal brotherhood. They drive away 
the ordinary cares of the mind 
and under their enchantment all 
nature has a tendency to join in 
one harmonious movement. 

The young and gay that shall 
to-night assemble in our ball-room 
will beautifully and gracefully il- 
lustrate that power in music to 
produce harmonious action. It 
is born in man to keep time to 
music ; and when you oppose the 
dance you object to one of the 
strongest tendencies implanted in 
human nature. Nor does cultiva- 
tion or refinement affect it, except 
in as much as it adds gracefulness 
and elegance to the display ; and 
I tell you, whether you are a min- 
ister or not, and however great 
your prejudice against the dance, 
when a beautiful waltz is well 
played by Kessnich's band, if you 
are young and vigorous, and do 
not belong to that class who are 

fit for treason, stratagems and 
spoils, your soul will dance within 
you, and your heart will beat time 
to the music. Isn't it so? Then 
why shackle your feet ? 

If music is productive of har- 
monious conduct and feeling, we 
have reason to believe that beau- 
tiful action and concordant lives 
amongst men will at least suggest 

Ruskin calls beautiful architec- 
ture " frozen music." Pythago- 
ras, seeing the well balanced and 
symmetrical movement of the 
planets heard that harmony which 
he called the "music of the 
spheres," and 

" Such music is in immortal souls 
But whilst this muddy vesture of decay 
Doth grossly close it in we can-not hear it. " 

The past history of the world is 
full of discord. The waves of 
thought have clashed and broken. 
The path of civilization has been 
through bloodshed and carnage, 
fire and smoke. The great edifi- 
ces of this enlightened age stand 
upon the bones of human sacri- 
fices. But the times are getting 
better. In my mind's eye I see a 
day approaching when all the 
world's vast waves will harmonize. 
We are approaching a grand mu- 
sical era. I have a right to pre- 
dict it. Nations are beginning to 
recognize that peace is far more 
glorious than conquest — a spirit 
of brotherly love is abroad. The 
church of the living God is pre- 



vailing,and heralds the glad news of 
redemption throughout the world. 
Music itself prophesies it. It sug- 
gest ideas, divinely beautiful, 
which we cannot fully compre- 
hend, but we can interpret its 
meaning better to-day than we 
could yesterday. Showing that 
we are approaching nearer and 
nearer to that high state of en- 
lightenment and appreciation 
when harmony will no longer be 
ideal, but a practical thing with 
us in action as well as in song. 

In that musical era, all human- 
ity will have one star of hope ; 
will acknowledge one common 
origin, worship one common God 
and have one common movement. 
Then our spiritual ears will be 
opened. Then we shall hear the 
harping and the singing which are 
but the blending- of harmonious 

waves of action, every life shall 
sing a part in the great choir of 
eternity, and universal love and 
human sympathy will be the key 
upon which the millennium will 
be played ; and all that shall seem 
discordant will be those waves r 
which when heard alone are harsh, 
but when blended with the past 
which precedes and the part which 
follows are but the minor chords 
which are mingled with the ma- 
jors to form the grand diapason 
and make the harmony sweeter. 
It will be, 

" Such music as 'tis said 

Before was never made ; 
But when of old, the sons of morning 


And the Creator great, 

His constellations set 
And the well balanced world on hinges 







The Ball given in honor of the 
graduating class was a great suc- 
css. Gymnasium Hall was filled 
with couples on Wednesday as well 
as Thursday night, and all seemed 
to enjoy themselves very much. 
* * 

A new feature in the Commence- 
ment was the sociable given at the 
residence of Mrs. Long's, by the 

trustees, for the benefit of those 
who did not dance. Ice cream, 
cake, confectioneries and pretty 
girls were in abundance, and every- 
thing passed away pleasantly. 
The thanks of all are due to Mr.. 
L. B. Edwards for the excellent 
manner in which he attended to 
the preparations. 



Commencement Exercises. — 
The Commencement of 1886 is 
now a thing of the past, and the 
Class of '86 has begun its great 
battle with the world for fame and 
fortune. Tuesday morning was 
bright and clear. We assembled 
in the old Chapel, and as we re- 
membered it was for the last time 
a feeling of sadness came over us 
which was akin to pain. 

The devotional exercises were 
conducted by Prof. Henry. After 
they were over, Pres. Battle gave 
us a brief account of the advance 
of the University . since its first 
opening eleven years ago next Sep- 
tember. Then the North-east 
building was roofless and the others 
were much in need of repairs. 
An appeal was made to the old 
Alumni and $18,000 was raised. 
This enabled them to repair the 
buildings and make them habita- 
ble. Then there was no museum, 
now there are two — the Univer- 
sity and Prof. Venable's industrial 
musem. Then there was only one 
laboratory, now there are five, 
fully equipped and in good work- 
ing order. One building, the old 
Person Hall, was destroyed by 
fire in 1879. It was immediately 
rebuilt, and during the present 
summer a large, commodious, and 
well lighted laboratory will be 
added to it. Prof. Wm. B. Phil- 
lips, who has been in Europe for a 
year fitting himself for his depart- 
ment of Agricultural Chemistry 

and Mining, will return soon and 
take it under his special charge. 
Ten years ago the State had never 
given the University more than 
$15,000 in all. $10,000 loaned 
when it was first founded and af- 
terward converted into a gift; 
$5,000 soon after the end of the 
civil war when everything was go- 
ing to rack and the faculty were 
starving. In 188 1 the Legislature 
made an annual appropriation of 
$5,000 to the University and in 
1885 increased this to $20,000, 
making the amount received year- 
ly from the State treasury, when 
the amount of interest on the land 
script due the United States Gov- 
ernment is included, $27,500. With 
this amount the number of stu- 
dents has increased from 69 in 
1876 to 204 in 1886, while the fac- 
ulty have increased from 7 to 16. 
The number of students in 18S6 
is somewhat smaller than in 1885, 
but this is due to the successive 
failures of the crops in many 
counties of the State. Besides, 
the preparatory department has 
been abolished. This has kept 
off some ten or fifteen. This de- 
partment was not intended origi- 
nally as preparatory to the regu- 
lar classes, but was intended to 
give those intending to become 
teachers some little knowledge of 
Latin and Greek. It was found 
to injure the high schools and 
academies and was abolished, 
thanks to a wise and thoughtful 
Board of Trustees. 



The Commencement meetings of 
the Literary Societies was held. 
Honorary members were admit- 
ted, short addresses by old alumni 
were made, diplomas and medals 
presented. The halls and libra- 
ries were then thrown open to vis- 
itors and were among the greatest 
attractions of the Hill. 
Is the beginning of Commence- 
ment. Owing to the change of 
gauge on one of the Western N. 
C. Railroads, the attendance was 
small. Ivessnich's Band of Rich- 
mond, Va., was unavoidably de- 
layed until the evening. 

Wednesday morning, in Memorial 
Hall, at 11:15 Dr. Battle, after an- 
nouncing that it had been a custom 
since 1826 to have an oration at 
each Commencement, and that the 
orator this year from the Dialectic 
Society requested Mr. Samuel S. 
Jackson to introduce him. Grace- 
fully and in a very few words Mr. 
Jackson introduced Judge Augus- 
tus Van Wyck, of New York, who 
looking at President Battle began 
his address "Respected Sir," and 
then turning to the audience, " La- 
dies and Gentlemen : 

He came to this commence- 
ment, he said, not because he 
thought he could add to its pleas. 
ures, but in obedience to a manly 
affection for the society to which 
he belonged, to the high regard 

he entertained for the other socie- 
ty, and to his gratitude to the 
University, his beloved Alma Ma- 
ter. He came not as a stranger 
nor an alien. He was a brother 
and a friend. The sight of these 
hallowed scenes was one of mixed 
sadness and pleasure. He spoke 
of Memorial Hall — its beauty, its 
magnificence, its fine proportions, 
and of the noble men whose lives 
and work the marble slabs erected 
therein perpetuated. This led 
him to advert to the glorious his- 
tory of North Carolina in which 
he was particularly felicitous. His 
tribute to the North Caiolina sol- 
diers—memorials of many of whom 
are to be seen in Memorial Hall — 
was received with rounds of ap- 
plause. The eulogy pronounced 
on Hon. David L. Swain was that 
of a loyal son to a Father in edu- 
cation. Gov. Swain, said he, sur- 
veyed all the various necessities 
of the State and leaped to the 
head and front of educational af- 
fairs in North Carolina. He (Mr. 
Van Wyck) left the class room 
amid the alarm and intense ex- 
citement that pervaded the coun- 
try. The tocsin of war was sound- 
ing. The young men of to-day 
were congratulated that no angry 
war disturbed their studies; that 
the issues submitted to the high- 
est tribunal — to the wage of battle 
were settled forever ; and that the 
moral integrity and unity of the 
Nation has been preserved. There 



is now a flag in each State and a 
pole for each flag. The States 
are supreme. 

All this, pursued the speaker, — 
the ability of this country to with- 
stand the shock of civil war — is 
due to the permanent character of 
our form of government. It is due 
to the wise scheme of government 
devised by the framers of the Con- 
stitution. It is due to the enlight- 
enment and morality of an edu- 
cated people. To-day the valor of 
the South and North are joint as- 
sets of the country. Following 
this line Judge Van Wyck dis- 
cussed the reasons which gave 
stability to the United States and 
insured to it a long life. 

The high degree of learning in 
the days of Moses and David ; 
the altitude reached by Grecian 
literature ; the Egyptian wisdom ; 
the knowledge of the Romans — 
all these were attributed to free 
agency, which, said the speaker, 
developed and understood, was 
the rock foundation upon which 
free institutions and popular edu- 
cation was based. 

The Judge gave many of " The 
Chief Landmarks of Progress," 
all of which rested on free agency 
and popular education. The re- 
sults of the discovery of America, 
the migration from Europe to 
America, was not less than that of 
Moses from Egypt. In America — 
peopled by all the races of the old 
hemisphere — all national lines van- 

ished in amalgamation producing 
the American people — a people 
who combine all the good quali- 
ties of the English, Celt, Scotch 
and others. Here in America, with, 
these Americans, the people are 
sovereigns ; the people make, in- 
terpret and execute, as well as. 
obey the law. 

There was no uncertainty about 
Judge Van Wyck's advocacy of 
popular education — he told plain- 
ly and truthfully how it had been 
the bulwark of American inde- 
pendence. This writer wished 
that every man who prates about 
"education ruining the country 
and spoiling good workmen" could 
have heard him as, tracing the 
growth of the people from the 
earliest stages till the nineteenth 
century, he showed what great 
things popular education had ac- 
complished — how it was and had 
been the very mud-sill of all pro- 
gress. And he defined what edu- 
cation was — the developing of the 
moral nature of the student, train- 
ing his mind to think and reason,, 
and taking care to be a physical 
strong man. This is what lead- 
ing thinkers throughout the coun- 
try are now advocating. 

The speaker deplored the ten- 
dency of the people to look to the 
General Government for aid, es- 
pecially in the matter of educa- 
tion. If it is granted it will be 
followed by the appointment of 
teachers and will endanger the 



most sacred rights of the States. 
Federal aid to education — -or to 
other similar things which lie pe- 
culiarly in the province of the 
State — is a constant menace to 
our freedom. Upon this expres- 
sion of hostility to the Blair bill 
Memorial Hall rang with applause. 
Does this indicate that our people 
oppose the Blair bill ? It looks so. 

Graphically did the speaker then 
picture the progress of the world, 
from the music of the human 
voice to vocal sounds preservable 
forever in the phonograph ; from 
muscle to gunpowder ; from many 
gods to the supreme deity ; from 
intellect buried in ignorance to 
education ; from rude force to 
persuasion, and with other like 
comparisons did he illustrate the 
progress which he said, if we 
counted by the ages of the world 
had been most rapid, but if count- 
ed by the age of an individual 
had been most slow. 

The progress made makes edu- 
cation a necessity. To preserve 
all the advances of the centuries 
men must be educated. Everything 
is more complex and therefore 
there is more need of wisdom. 
The foundation of the University, 
early established, had done much 
to promote the cause of education 
in North Carolina. The speaker 
dwelt on his love for the Univer- 
sity, the great work it had wrought 
for good, and the bright future 
that spread out before it. 

Concluding he urged the young 
men neither to underestimate nor 
overestimate themselves. They 
were counselled to stand upon the 
prime facts collected from the ex- 
perience of the ages. " Cross the 
bridges," said he, " that have stood 
the test unless you have a better 
one." Select a definite pursuit. 
Supine content buries hope. Be 
conservative but not supinely slav- 
ish to tradition. Use discrimi- 
nation. Let your motto be : " In- 
tellectual culture and liberty." 
Ever scrutinize the mysteries of 
the seen and the unseen. Enjoy 
the sweets of friendship. Study 
the history of races. Is it not 
true that there are many dangers 
in civilization? Some of them the 
speaker pointed out and said " the 
trite truths will never be lost sight 
of in the progress of civilization. 
Hang the old trophies on the 
golden nails in the house of time 
and keep them free from oblivion," 
&c, &c. 


At I o'clock this Association met 
and elected Mr. Paul C. Cameron 
president, Col. W. L. Saunders 
treasurer, and Ed. Englehard sec- 
retary. It was resolved to hold a 
meeting in Raleigh in January or 
February of next year, when an 
orator, chosen by the Executive 
Committee, will speak. 

At 5:20 p. m., Wednesday 



Rev. Dr. Skinner, opened services 
by reading the twenty-third Psalm 
and offering prayer. A hymn was 
then sung. The sermon by Rev. 
Chas. H. Hall,D. D., of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., followed. His text was 
Matt. 20th chapter, 6th verse: 
"Why stand ye here all the day 

When one usually hears a ser- 
mon that pleases, the common ex- 
pression is, " That was a fine ser- 
mon." These words will not de- 
scribe Dr. Hall's sermon. It was 
a great sermon — great in its sub- 
ject matter, great in its directness 
and simplicity, great in its prac- 
tical application, great in its unaf- 
fected delivery, great in the ele- 
gance of its diction, great in every- 
thing that goes to make a great 
sermon. It was a very unusual 
sermon. It was an original ser- 
mon — full of deep learning, and 
full of deep piety. 

Wednesday evening at 8:30 
o'clock, the Representatives of 
the two societies delivered their 
orations. This is always one of 
the most interesting commence- 
ment occasions. The first speaker 
was Mr. Claudius Dockery, of 
Mangum, who spoke on "The 
South." He urged love of home 
and love of the beautiful South- 

Mr. J. C. Johnson, of Pitt 
county, chose as his subject "The 
Fourth Estate." He criticised 

the press for pandering to a de- 
praved public sentiment, but 
payed a high tribute to its power 
for good, when controlled by a 
conscientious editor. 

Mr. W. E. Edmundson, of Mor- 
ganton, discussed "National Ed- 
ucation," and deplored the ten- 
dency to rely upon the Federal 
Government for aid. He thought 
it insidious legislation. 

Mr. A. M. Simmons, of Hyde 
county, on " The Truths of Fic- 
tion," told us how great truths 
are conveyed by fiction, God him- 
self employing parables to impress 
great truths. Of a truth, fiction 
is a great agency in imparting 
knowledge and truth. 

Mr. W. T. Wilkinson, of Tar- 
boro, talked about " Utopia." He 
didn't believe in utopian ideas. 
This is a practical age and he 
thought men ought to be practi- 
cal. He gave good reasons for 
his faith. 

Mr. Samuel E.Gidney, of Shelby r 
gave his attention to a most im- 
portant subject, " Industrial Edu- 
cation in the South." He be- 
lieved that every college in the 
State ought to impart manual as 
well as mental training. He con- 
gratulated the people that the 
State would soon have an Indus- 
trial School. 

Is the great day. The back part 
of the Campus was filled with wag- 
ons, buggies and every other kind 



of conveyance imaginable and the 
great Memorial Hall was filled 
with people. They surged in and 
out of the great doors as " thick 
as autumnal leaves that strew the 
brooks in Vallambrosa." The 
Speakers for the day were divided 
into two parts. Eleven spoke du- 
ring the morning. They were : 

Joseph John Jenkins, jr. Chat- 
ham Co. N. C, National Songs. 

Charles Taylor Grandy, Camden 
Co., N. C, Home Rule and Na- 
tional Unity in America. 

Pierre B. Manning, Gates Co., 
N. C, Prohibition or Public Senti- 

Franklin Dixon, Shelby, N. C, 
The Labor Problem. 

Malcolm McG. Shields, Car- 
thage, N. C, Misplaced Garlands. 

L. B. Grandy, Oxford, N. C, 
American Humor. 

Walter Seaton Dunston, Cres- 
well, N. C, Literature and Public 

Frank Milton Little, Wades- 
boro, N. C, Destiny and Duty. 

John F. Schenck, Cleveland 
Mills, Three Great Waves. 

W. A. Self, Newton, N. C, 

William H. Carroll, Magnolia, 
N. C, American Influence on 
Foreign Nations. 

The first speaker was Stephen B. 
Weeks, of Elizabeth City, N. C, 
his subject was : " Cedant Arma 
Togal." This was the classical ora- 

tion, the second honor awarded 
to that member of the class who 
makes the highest average after 
the Valedictorian. The speech 
was not in Latin as many expec- 
ted. The day for Latin, Greek 
and French speeches has passed 
away forever. 

James Thomas, Newbern, N. 
C, The Citizen's True Ideal. 

Samuel Spencer Jackson, Pitts- 
boro, N.. C, Circumstance. 

Oliver Clegg Bynum, Chatham 
Co., N. C, The Heroic Instinct. 

Edward B. Cline, Hickory, N. 
C, The Drama and National Life. 

N. H. D. Wilson, jr., Greens- 
boro, N. C, The Cost of Culture.. 
Mr. Wilson was the Valedictorian, 
his being the highest average of 
any member of the class during 
the whole course. He waived a 
special speech and spoke a few 
words of exhortation to his class- 
mates, thanked the faculty for 
their kindness to the class and 
bade farewell to his fellow stu- 

The speakers in the afternoon 
were at a great disadvantage. A 
storm was raging, carriages and 
wagons were rattling by, the peo- 
ple were constantly going in and 
out and babies were continually 
squalling. This last nuisance 
should be stopped by all means. 

The following members of the 
graduating class did not deliver 
orations, but presented theses, ox 
essays : 



Lewis J. Battle, Raleigh, N. C, 
Landlordism in America. 

Pierre Bayard Cox, Raleigh, N. 
C, The Critic's Relation to Liter- 
ary Progress. 

Herbert Worth Jackson, Ashe- 
boro, N.C., The Crisis at Hastings. 

John M. Morehead, Charlotte, 
N. C, Political Education. 

George L. Patrick, Kinston, N. 
C, Man and Nature. 

Henry W. Rice, Raleigh, N. C, 
A Needless War. 

Kirby Smith Uzzell, Seven 
Springs, N. C, The New South. 

Robert Lee Uzzell, Seven 
Springs, N. C, A Cavalier Poet. 

After the speaking was ended, 
the degrees, certificates and med- 
als were awarded. 


The degree of A. B., was con- 
ferred upon the following mem- 
bers of the class of 1886: O. C. 
Bynum, Bynum's; Wm. H.Car- 
roll, Magnolia ; Ed. B. Cline, 
Hickory; P. B. Cox, Raleigh; 
Frank Dixon, Shelby; S. S.Jack- 
son, Pittsboro ; J. J. Jenkins, jr., 
Rigsbee's Store ; P. B. Manning. 
Sunbury ; J. M. Morehead, Char- 
lotte ; H. W. Rice, Raleigh; W. 
Aug. Self, Newton; M. McG. 
Shields, Carthage ; James Thomas, 
Newbern ; S. B. Weeks, Elizabeth 
City ; N. H. D. Wilson, jr., Greens- 
boro — 15. 

Ph. B.— L. J. Battle, Raleigh ; 
W. S. Dunston, Creswell ; C. T. 
Grandy, Camden C. H. ; L. B. 

Crandy, Oxford ; H. W. Jackson, 
Ashboro; F. M. Little, Wades- 
boro ; J. F. Schenck, Cleveland 

Mills ;— 7. 

B. S. — G. L. Patrick, Kinston ; 
K. S. Uzzell, Goldsboro ; R. L. 
Uzzell, Goldsboro ; — 3. Total 25. 

The degree of A. M., was con- 
ferred upon Ernest P. Mangum, 
C. A. B., '85, Chapel Hill. The 
subject of his theses was the 
" Feudal System." 

The degree of Bachelor of Law 
(B. L..,) was conferred upon Sol. 
C. Weill, A. B., '85, Wilmington. 


The degree of Doctor of Laws 
(LL. D.,) was conferred upon 
Marcus V. Lanier, of Oxford ; A. 
W. Chapman and H. W. Ravenell, 
both of South Carolina. 

The degree of Doctor of Divin- 
ity was conferred upon Rev. John 
R. Brooks, of Wilson ; Rev. 
Luther McKinnon, President of 
Davidson College ; Rev. John L. 
Carroll, of Asheville ; Rev. D. A. 
Long, President of Antioch Col- 
lege, Ohio. 


Chemistry — D. S. Carraway. 

Mathematics — -R. T. Burwell, 
W. S. Wilkerson. 

Greek— H. H. Ransom, M. McG. 

Natural PJiilosophy — E. B. Cline, 
F. M. Little. 

Pharmacy — J. W. Beason. 



MEDALS. — , 

The Representative Medal was 
awarded to Mr. J. Claudius Dock- 
ery. The Mangum Medal to Mr. 
John F. Schenck. 


Messrs. Gulick. Simmons and 
Weeks have been present at every 
roll call in the Chapel and every 
recitation during the entire year. 

Messrs. L. Battle, P. B. Cox 
and Reid never absent from roll 
call in chapel. 

Messrs. W. Battle, Batchelor, 
Lynch, Herring, McNeill, Morris, 
Smith and R. Uzzell never absent 
except with good excuse. 

Absent only once : — W. Atkin- 
son, H. Jackson and Woodley. 

Absent only four times: — J. W. 
Alexander, Graham, and Headen. 

Those who received 90 and up- 
wards in their respective studies : 

Political Economy— ^k . Wilson 99, 
Manning and Weeks 97, C. Grandy 
96, R. Grissom 95, J. Thomas 92, 
Jenkins 91, Bynum and S. Jack- 
son 90. 

Business Law — Edwards 96, 
Schenck 92, Eskridge and Wills 90. 

Psychology — Manning and N. 
Wilson 99, Weeks 98J, Dixon 98, 
J. Thomas 97^, Shields 97, P. Cox 
96, Cline and Self 94, Bynum, C. 
Grandy and Schenck 93, H. Jack- 
son 91, L. Battle, Carroll, Gilmer, 
L. Grandy and S. Jackson 90. 

Logic — McGehee 99^, Dockery 

99, Bourne98J, McDonald, H. Par- 
ker. Ransom and Smith 98, Bur- 
well and Wilkinson 97J, V. Long 
and Simmons 97, Starbuck 96, R. 
Grissom and Shaffner 95, Palmer 
93, Mclver and K. Uzzell 92, M; 
sey 90. _ — < — -""" 

Greek, Junior Class — Shields 90. 

Greek, Sophomore Class — H. Da- 
vis and W. Little 96A, F. Thomas 
92J, S. Gidney 91. 

Greek, Freshman Class-H. John- 
ston 99, W. Battle 97, Currie 95, 
Clement 94, Gulick 92. 

Latin, Junior Class — McGehee 
95, Rice 94, Weeks 91. 

Latin, Sophomore Class — H. Da- 
vis 96, W. Battle and W. Little 
95, Ezzell, H. Johnston and With- 
ers 92, F. Thomas 90. 

Latin, Freshman Class — Clem- 
ent and Currie 95, C. G. Faust 92, 
Stronach 91, Egerton, L. Little 
and Perry 90. 

Mathematics, Junior Class — Mc- 
Gehee 97, Burwell 95. 

Mathematics, Sophomore Class — 
W. Little 99, Harper 95, Ezzell 92, 
H. Davis 90. 

Mathematics, Freshman Class — 
Gulick 100, Currie 99J, Wills 99, 
H. Johnston 98, Hill 97, J. Par- 
ker 92. 

Chemistry, Industrial Class — H. 
Jackson 96, V. Long 93, Green- 
lee 90. 

Chemistry, General Class— Dock- 
ery 99, Person and Ransom 96, 
McGehee 95, W. Battle and W. 



Little 93, Batchelor and Wood- 
son 92, Burwell and D.Wilson 91, 
L. Edwards and Perry 90. 

Chemistry, Laboratory Class — 
Morris 98., Costner, Thorp and 
Shaffner 97, Eskridge 96, Corne- 
lius 94, Reid 93, Greenlee 92. 

Chemistry, Quant. Class — Gris- 
som 95. 

Mineralogy — P. B. Cox 95, R. 
Uzzell 93, L. Battle and L. Gran- 
dy 91, H. Jackson 90. 

Horticulture — Patrick 95, By- 
num 91.' 

Surveying — H. Greenlee and 
Schaffner 94, H. Jackson 93. 

Astronomy — Manning and N. 
Wilson 97, Greenlee 91, Schenck 

Physics — R. Grissom and Mc 
Gehee 98, Dockery 97, Burwell 
and Shaffner 90. 

English, Anglo Saxon — R. Uz- 
zell and Weeks 94. 

English, Senior Class--?. B. Cox, 
J. Thomas, Weeks and N. Wilson 
97, Cline and Shields 96, C. Gran- 
dy and Schenck 95, Bynum, S- 
Jackson, Manning, Person. Rice 
and Self 90. 

English, Junior Class — McGe 
hee 95, Bourne and V. Long 90. 

English, Sophomore Class — H. 
Davis and F. Thomas 97, W. Batl 
tie 94, Batchelor and W. Little 93, 
Odell 92, Howell and Robeson 90. 

English, Freshman Class — Wills 
99, J. Parker 97, W. Borden, Eger- 
ton,,Hill and Howell 96, C. Faust 

95, Currie, Graham, Murphy and 
Stronach 92, Deans, Majette and 
F. Parker 90. 

Essays and Orations — P. B. Cox 
95, N. Wilson 93, Shields and 
Weeks 92, Bynum, Cline, C. Gran- 
dy, L. Grandy, S. Jackson, Man- 
ning, Schenck, Self, and J. Thom- 
as 90. 

School Management— Carroll and 
Shields 95, P. B. Cox and Self 93, 
L. Battle and Schenck 92, K. Uz- 
zell 91, Cline and McDonald 90. 

Methods of Teaching -J. Davis 90. 

Modern Languages, i° French — 
Rice 99, Dixon, Schenck, F. 
Thomas and N. Wilson 98, Dock- 
ery, Egerton, Hill, McDonald and 
Stronach 96, Jenkins, Manning, 
Simmons and Wills 95, Palmer 94, 
Wilkinson 93, Braswell, Bynum, 
L. Edwards and Hackett, 92, 
Bourne, Perry and Roberson 91, 
Burwell, Mclver and Toms 90. 

Modem Languages, i° German — 
Morris 97, D. Wilson 95, Simmons 
94, McGuire and Starbuck 92, J. 
Foust, C. Foust and H. Parker, 90. 

Physiology — Morris 100, Wood- 
ley 98, J. Alexander and Braswell 

97, Lynch 96, Lewis and Reid 95, 
Crowell 91. 

Entomology — W. Atkinson, Ty- 
son and Maney 90. 

May Examinations. 
Const, and Int. Law — N. Wilson 

98, Curtis 97, C. Grandy and Man- 
ning 94, Rice 91, Baker and J. 
Thomas 90. 



Btisiness Lazu-Dixong 1 /, Schenck 
96, Perry 92, Braswell, C. Grandy 
and Woodley 90. 

Ethics — Manning and N. Wil- 
son 97, Weeks 96J, Carroll, P. B. 
Cox, Dickson, S. Jackson, Self 
and Thomas 96, Rice and Shields 
95, L. Grandy and Schenck 94, 
Cline, C. Grandy and H. Jackson 
93, F. Little 92, L. Battle 90. 

Psychology— McGehee98, Bourne 
and Dockery 97, Ransom 96, 
Green and McDonald 95J, H. Par- 
ker, Simmons and Wilkinson 95, 
Burwell 92, V. Long, Palmer and 
Starbuck 90. 

History of Philosophy — P. B. 
Cox 98J, Bourne and C. Grandy 
98, L. Grandy 96. 

Christian Evidences — P. B. Cox 
and L. Grandy 95. 

Greek, Junior Class — Shields 96, 
Ransom 95. 

Greek, Sophomore Class — F. 
Thomas 96, H. Davis 95, W. Lit- 
tle 94J, S. Gidney 94, Morris 91. 

Greek, Freshmaji Class— H. John- 
ston 96, Currie 95, W. Battle 94, 
Clement 93. 

Latin, Junior Class — McGehee 

95, Rice 92, Weeks 91. 

Latin, Sophomore Class— W. Bat- 
tle, H. Davis and W. Little 95, 
Withers 94, Ezzell and S. Gidney 

91, Batchelor, H. Johnston and 
F. Thomas 90. 

Latin, Freshman Class— Egerton 

96, Currie 95, Clement 94, C. Faust 

92, Graham, Perry, and Stronach 
91, Curtis, Gulick, L. Little, F. 

Parker, J. Parker and Roberson 

Mathematics, Junior Class — Mc- 
Gehee 94. 

Mathematics, Sophomore Class — 
W. Little 97, Ezzell 94, Harper 90. 

Mathematics, Freshman Class ■-- 
Gulick 100, Currie and Curtis 99J, 
H. Johnston 99, Perry 98J, Hill 
and J. Parker 98, Palmer and H. 
Harris 96, Wills 95, Howell and 
Graham 94, L. Little and Murphy 
93, J. Faust and Wood 91, Ricks 90. 

Chemistry, Industrial — 

Chemistry, General — ■ Dockery 
and W. Little 95. 

Chemistry, Quant. — G.rissom 95. 

Chemistry, Laboratory — Wood- 
son 99, Eskridge and Morris 97, 
Benson 91J. 

Geology — Shaffner and R. Uz- 
zell 94, Dockery and Mclver 92, 
Grissom 91, L. Battle 90. 

Advanced Geology — L. Battle 95. 

Domestic Animals — R. Uzzell 
93, K. Uzzell 90. 

Horticulture — Schenck 92, Pat- 
rick 90. 

Zoology — J. Faust 96, Morris 95, 
H. Harris 94. 

Botany — H. Harris 97, Wood- 
ley and Woodson 95, J. Faust and 
Lynch 91, W. Atkinson 90. 

Mechanics— Manning 98, N.Wil- 
son 97, S. Jackson 96, Dixon 92, 
Little and Schenck 92. 

Physics — Dockery and R. Gris- 
som 99, McGehee 97. 

English, Anglo Saxon — Weeks 
97, R. Uzzell 95. 

3 66 


English, Senior Class — Weeks 

98, J. Thomas and N. Wilson 97, 
Cline, P. B. Cox and Shields 96, 
Manning 95, Bynum and Person 
94, Dunston, C. Grandy and Self 

92, L. Battle, Carroll and Jenkins 
91, S. Jackson and Rice 90. 

English, Junior Class— McGehee 

99, Bourne and V. Long 95, H. 
Parker 90. 

English, Sophomore Class— YL. 
Davis 98, Withers 97, Ezzell, How- 
ell, W. Little and Roberson 95, 
Batchelor, W. Battle, C. Faust 
and Palmer 94, Shaw 90. 

English, Freshman Class — Cur- 
rie, Curtis, Egerton, Hill, H. Har- 
ris, Howell and Wills 98, J. Par- 
ker 97 H. Johnston 96J, Murphy 
96, C. Faust and Stronach 95, Gra- 
ham, J. Long and Ricks 94, Ma- 
jette 92, F. Parker 90. 

Essays and Orations — Schenck 
and Weeks 97, Shields 96, B. P. 
Cox 95, J. Thomas and N. Wilson 

93, Bynum, C. Grandy, Manning 
and Self 92, Cline and Dunston 91, 
L. Battle and Person 90. 

School Management — J. Davis 
91, Tripp 90. 

History of Education — Carroll 
and Shields 93. 

Modern Languages, i° French — 
Dixon 99, Bourne, Rice, Rober- 
son and Wills 97, Stronach 96, 
Dockery and N. Wilson 95, J. 
Parker 94, Perry and J. Thomas 
93, Manning 92, Egerton, Hill, 
McDonald and Palmer 90. 

Modern Languages, 2° French — 
C. Grandy, Harper, R. Uzzell and 
Withers 90. 

Modern Languages, 1° German — 
Simmons 94, C. Faust and Mor- 
ris 92. 

Modern Languages 2° German — 
Dixon 94. 

Biology — Woodley 96. 

Entomology — W. Atkinson and • 
Tyson 96. 

Law, Blackstone— Ward 98, Scull 
96, Riddle 95, Cooper 93, Alex- 
ander 91^, Johnson 90J. 

Law, Pleading— W ard 98 T 6 ¥ , Alex- 
ander 96, Scull 90. 


Among our many visitors we 
have noticed the following : Rev. 
Charles H. Hall, D. D., Rev. 
Thos. E. Skinner, D. D., Hon. 
Augustus Van Wyck, Col. R. R. 
Bridges, Col. H. B. Short, Hon. 
Paul C. Cameron, R. H. Battle, 
Esq., Col. W. L. Saunders, Hon. 
Wm. D. Barnes, Rev. Willie Cun- 
ninggim, Rev. John L. Carroll, D. 
D., Rev. Thos. H. Pritchard, D. 
D., Hon. Walter L. Steele, Col. 
Wm. H. S. Burgwyn, His Excel- 
lency Gov. A. M. Scales, Col. Paul 
B. Means, Hon. Aug. S. Seymour, 

Rev. Lacy, Hon. C. R. 

Thomas, A. H. Merritt, Esq., Dr. 
Eugene Grissom, L L. D., Hon. 
Geo. V. Strong, Rev. N. H. D. Wil- 
son, D. D., Mr. Josephus Daniels 
of the Chronicle, to whom we are 
indebted for a part of our account 



<of the Commencement, Mr. C. C. 
Daniels of the Wilson Advance, 
Hon. Thos. S. Kenan, J. S. Carr, 
Esq., W, A. Guthrie, Esq., Ed. 
Engelhard, B. H. Bunn. 

Helps to Literature Stu- 
dy.— 1. GutlineStudies in Holmes, 
Bryant, Whittier, their Poems, 32 
pages, 10 cents ; 2. Outline Stu- 
dies in the Poetry and Prose of 
James Russell Lowell, 31 pages, 
10 cents; 3. Ten Great Novels, 

Suggestions for Clubs and Private 
Reading, 23 pages, 10 cents ; 4. 
Selections from Robert Browning 
and others, for Children, Teachers 
and Parents, 62 pages, 20 cents ; 5, 
Unity Clubs. Suggestions for the 
formation of Study Classes in 
Literature, 21 pages, 5 cents. 

T/te Jive pamphlets, post-paid, 5 o 
■cents. Address 

Charles H. Kerr, & Co., 175 
Dearborn st., Chicago. 

Mention this Magazine. 


— The most of our space this 
month has been devoted to an ac- 
count of the commencement, 
which will be found on another 

— Pres. Battle was recently ap- 
pointed by President Cleveland 
one of the three visitors to the 
U. S. Military Academy at West 
Point. He left here June 3. The 
committee had been in session a 
week, but he could not afford to 
miss all of our commencement. 
This is a very high honor and we 
have no doubt but that Pres. Bat- 
tle will perform the duties per- 
taining to it with acceptability. 

— Prof. Venable will lecture on 
chemistry at Martha's Vineyard 
this summer. 

— The village a few weeks ago 
was favored with a number of excel- 
lent sermons from strangers. Rev, 
R. T. Vann preached at the Bap- 
tist church, Rev. W. S. Creasy at 
the Methodist and Rev. Robert 
Strange at the Episcopal. Mr. 
Strange is a member of the class 
of '79 and is now rector of the 
Church of the Good Shepherd in 

— We were mistaken last month 
in saying that Dr. Hume had 
been offered the presidency of 
Richmond College. They have no 
president ; but a Chairman of the 
Faculty. He was offered the 
chair of English. We wrote as 
we heard the report, and so were 



— Rev. C. C. Newton who has 
been taking some work in college 
and preaching at the same time 
went to. the Southern Baptist 
Convention at Montgomery, Ala., 
in May. He offered his services 
to the convention as a missionary 
to China, but on account of his 
age and the large number of ap- 
plicants ahead of him was not ac- 

— Mr. Edward Alexander of the 
law class delivered a lecture in the 
chapel not long since on the In- 
temperate use of Alcohol. Mr. 
Alexander spoke about half an 
hour and in a very rapid way 
showed its great evils and urged 
all to refrain from its use. Prof. 
Hume made some remarks and 
Prof. Winston then followed on 
the same subject. The president 
of the Temperance Association 
in college reports that it is in a 
prosperous condition, and that its 
promises for usefulness are very 

— Prof. Toy sailed for Paris 
June 12. He will devote the 
most of his time to study. 

— Prof. Henry will spend some 
time at the teachers' Chautauqua 
at Black Mountain. ■ 

—J. Dan Miller, '84, and J. R. 
Monroe, '85, and Bart Shipp, '83, 
were some of the attractions dur- 
ing the eventful days of June 2 
and 3. 

— Dr. Mangum preached a ser- 
mon before the Senior class, May 
30, in Girard Hall. His text was 
taken from Solomon's vision of 
the Lord : " Ask what I shall give 
thee," &c. It was eloquent and 

— Rev. R. B. John, pastor of the 
Methodist church here, spent a 
few days at the General Confer- 
ence in Richmond in May. Pres. 
Battle also attended the Episcopal 
Convention at Tarboro about the 
same time. 

— Dr. Hume delivered the Lit- 
erary address at the close of Sam 
Turrentine's school in Chatham 
Co., and June 1 preached the 
Baccalaureate sermon before the 
graduating class of Thomasville 
Female College. 

— Hon. Wm. D. Barnes, Ex- 
Pres. of the Senate of Fla., was 
with us at commencement. He 
left Judge E. J. Vann, another old 
U. N. C. boy, holding court in his 
place. Mr. Barnes is a member of 
the class of 1852, and revisits us 
for the first time since his gradu- 

— News comes to us from Bra- 
zos county, Texas, that Mr.' An-- 
drew Mickle, for seven years Bur- 
sar of this University, is dead. He 
served from 1875 to 1882, when he 
resigned and went to the Lone 
Star State. He was very old. 



— Prof. Atkinson has left the 
Hill. He will stop in Washington 
and visit. Then he will go 
to Yale, perhaps to Harvard and 
then to Cornell. He will remain 
there a week or two, and will then 
seek the sea coast. He is also 
thinking of spending some time 
in the mountains of N. C. 

— The editors of the Magazine 
for i886-'87 have been elected 
and are as follows : Di. Claudius 
Dockery, Senior; R. N. Hackett, 
Senior; E. P. Withers, Junior. 
From the Phi. they are : J. C. 
Johnson, Senior; V. W. Long, 

Senior; Stephen B. Weeks, Post 
Graduate. They hope to make 
the Magazine better in every 
respect than it has been during 
the past year. 

— Josh to servant ; Bill, what 
do you think of me ? Bill : Dunno, 
Boss. Josh : Don't you often 
hear the Professors speak of me? 
Bill, Dunno, Boss. Josh : Don't 
they say I am a fine student? Bill: 
Dunno, Boss. Josh, much dis- 
turbed : Well, Bill, I want you to 
know one thing, that I don't ask 
the Professors any difference. Now 
understand that. Reported by Bill. 



XD"CT32I3:^^2^:, 1ST. CU 

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Suits to Measure a Specialty. 


Hats A T ations r Hesiery, Neck- Wear, Collars, Cuffs, Suspenders, Trunks r Valises, &e. 

Preparatory Class for Medical Students. 

SUMMER CLASS JURE 15th to SEPT. 15th 1836. 

Full Osteological outfit. Special attention given to the Elementary Studies, but first 
course students prepared to appreciate earlier the advantages of the'College courses by outline 
studies of all necessary branches. Good board obtainable at $8 and $10 per month. 

For terms and particulars apply to 


Davidson College, N. C.